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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724937/bootstrap-quantification-of-estimation-uncertainties-in-network-degree-distributions
#1
Yulia R Gel, Vyacheslav Lyubchich, L Leticia Ramirez Ramirez
We propose a new method of nonparametric bootstrap to quantify estimation uncertainties in functions of network degree distribution in large ultra sparse networks. Both network degree distribution and network order are assumed to be unknown. The key idea is based on adaptation of the "blocking" argument, developed for bootstrapping of time series and re-tiling of spatial data, to random networks. We first sample a set of multiple ego networks of varying orders that form a patch, or a network block analogue, and then resample the data within patches...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716395/-it-ruined-my-life-the-effects-of-the-war-on-drugs-on-people-who-inject-drugs-pwid-in-rural-puerto-rico
#2
R Abadie, C Gelpi-Acosta, C Davila, A Rivera, M Welch-Lazoritz, K Dombrowski
BACKGROUND: The War on Drugs has raised the incarceration rates of racial minorities for non-violent drug-related crimes, profoundly stigmatized drug users, and redirected resources from drug prevention and treatment to militarizing federal and local law enforcement. Yet, while some states consider shifting their punitive approach to drug use, to one based on drug treatment and rehabilitation, nothing suggests that these policy shifts are being replicated in Puerto Rico. METHODS: This paper utilizes data from 360 PWID residing in four rural towns in the mountainous area of central Puerto Rico...
July 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715663/a-laboratory-model-of-impulsivity-and-alcohol-use-in-late-adolescence
#3
Matthew J Gullo, Natalie J Loxton, Therese Price, Joanne Voisey, Ross McD Young, Jason P Connor
Impulsivity is a core characteristic of externalizing problems and a robust predictor of alcohol use in adolescence. There is little evidence on the causal mechanisms through which impulsivity influences drinking or how they are affected by key social factors (peer influence). This study reports the development of the first comprehensive laboratory model of adolescent impulsivity and alcohol use. One-hundred and twenty adolescents (50% female) of legal drinking age (M = 19.47 years, SD = 1.12) in Australia (18+ years) were subjected to 1 of 3 experimental manipulations to increase impulsive behavior (reward cue exposure, negative mood induction, ego depletion)...
July 8, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713457/personal-and-social-responsibility-among-athletes-the-role-of-self-determination-achievement-goals-and-engagement
#4
Paulo Martins, António Rosado, Vítor Ferreira, Rui Biscaia
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between motivation, engagement and personal and social responsibility among athletes. Based on the literature, a survey was conducted including measures of motivation, considering task orientation and ego orientation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation. We also measured the components of engagement (dedication, confidence, vigor and enthusiasm) and the components of personal and social responsibility. A total of 517 athletes from different types of sports participated in the study...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703260/-publish-amp-perish-research-on-research-and-researchers
#5
J K Tijdink
In the last years many people have questioned the reliability of research results and the societal relevance of much of today's clinical research; they are critical too about the current publication culture in which scientists are judged according to the number of articles they have published, impact factors and citations.<br/> AIM: To make a close study of the publication culture that now prevails in the Dutch biomedical sciences. <br/> METHOD: Discussion of results described in the thesis entitled 'Publish and Perish; research on research and researchers'...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703108/niepe%C3%A5-ny-wrodzony-zwrot-jelita-i-niezwykle-rzadki-przypadek-niepe%C3%A5-nego-zwrotu-jelita-doros%C3%A5-ego-chorego-z-objawami-wysokiej-niedro%C3%A5-no%C3%A5-ci-przewodu-pokarmowego
#6
Franciszek Rachel, Andrzej Łapiński, Dariusz Szczerba, Krystian Gutterch
Autorzy przedstawiają 21 -letniego chorego z niepełnym zwrotem jelit z objawami przewlekłej niedrożności górnego odcinka przewodu pokarmowego i trudności diagnostyczne. Rozstrzygającym badaniem była TK jamy brzusznej z kontrastem. Po operacji sposobem Ladda chory został wyleczony.
June 30, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693461/social-network-correlates-of-hiv-risk-related-behaviors-among-male-migrants-in-china
#7
Wenqing Wang, Kathryn E Muessig
BACKGROUND: Significant domestic and global research has focused on HIV risk among China's large internal migrant population. Much of this work takes an individual behavior approach while ignoring the critical role social networks play in shaping HIV risk. METHODS: Based on past studies among migrant men in China of yingchou activities (activities that build and reinforce social networks such as eating, drinking alcohol and patronizing commercial sex), we constructed ego-centric networks for a sample of 385 male migrants recruited from multiple worksites in Beijing...
May 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686560/-hoarding-disorder-in-dsm-5-clinical-description-and-cognitive-approach
#8
L Kalogeraki, I Michopoulos
Hoarding disorder is characterized by difficulty discarding or parting with possessions regardless their actual value as well as, in most cases, persistent acquisition of objects. Possessions are accumulated in large numbers that fill up and clutter active living space to the extent that its intended use is no longer possible resulting to significant functional impairment and/or distress. Saving and difficulty discarding appear to be associated to subjective beliefs about the instrumental, sentimental or intrinsic value of objects...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682982/development-of-adaptive-coping-from-mid-to-late-life-a-70-year-longitudinal-study-of-defense-maturity-and-its-psychosocial-correlates
#9
John S Martin-Joy, Johanna C Malone, Xing-Jia Cui, Pål-Ørjan Johansen, Kevin P Hill, M Omar Rahman, Robert J Waldinger, George E Vaillant
The present study examines changes in defense maturity from mid to late life using data from an over 70-year longitudinal study. A sample of 72 men was followed beginning in late adolescence. Participants' childhoods were coded for emotional warmth. Defense mechanisms were coded by independent raters using the Q-Sort of Defenses (Roston et al., 1992, Ego mechanisms of defense: A guide for clinicians and researchers 217-233) based on interview data gathered at approximately ages 52 and 75. We examined psychosocial correlates of defenses at midlife, late life, and changes in defense from mid to late life...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673637/premenopausal-women-with-early-breast-cancer-treated-with-estradiol-suppression-have-severely-deteriorated-bone-microstructure
#10
Sabashini K Ramchand, Ego Seeman, Xiao-Fang Wang, Ali Ghasem-Zadeh, Prudence A Francis, Evangeline J Ponnusamy, Michele S Bardin, Minh Bui, Roger Zebaze, Jeffrey D Zajac, Mathis Grossmann
BACKGROUND: In premenopausal women with early estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer, combined ovarian suppression and aromatase inhibition reduce estradiol production precipitously. The resulting unbalanced and rapid bone remodelling replaces older bone with less bone that is less fully mineralized. We hypothesized that these changes result in severe microstructural deterioration and reduced matrix mineralization density. METHODS: Images of the distal radius and distal tibia were acquired using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography in a cross-sectional study of 27 premenopausal women, mean age 43...
July 1, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673624/the-nonoperative-management-of-hand-fractures-in-united-kingdom
#11
REVIEW
Grey Giddins
Hand fractures (excluding small avulsion fractures and scaphoid fractures) almost always unite with bone. The role of the hand surgeon is not to achieve bone union but to achieve stability in an adequate position, often with some displacement, and maintenance of good soft tissue gliding. This article establishes that many fractures treated operatively do no better and often could not realistically do better than with good nonoperative treatment. Yet many are treated surgically to satisfy surgical egos, the desire to produce excellent radiographs, or just the mistaken belief that current surgical techniques can improve on nonoperative treatment...
August 2017: Hand Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663200/%C3%A2-bilateral-discrimination-of-tactile-patterns-without-whisking-in-freely-running-rats-%C3%A2
#12
Pauline Kerekes, Aurélie Daret, Daniel E Shulz, Valérie Ego-Stengel
A majority of whisker discrimination tasks in rodents are carried out on head-fixed animals, to facilitate tracking or control of the sensory inputs. However, head fixation critically restrains the behavior and thus the incoming stimuli compared to those occurring in natural conditions. In this study, we asked whether freely-behaving rats can discriminate fine tactile patterns while running, in particular when stimuli are presented simultaneously on both sides of the snout.We developed a two-alternative forced-choice task in an automated modified T-maze...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662176/a-new-perspective-on-the-interplay-between-self-control-and-cognitive-performance-modeling-progressive-depletion-patterns
#13
Christoph Lindner, Gabriel Nagy, Wolfgang Andreas Ramos Arhuis, Jan Retelsdorf
Exerting self-control in a first task weakens self-control performance in a subsequent unrelated task (ego depletion). In self-control research new strategies are required to investigate the ego-depletion effect, which has recently been shown to be more fragile than previously assumed. Moreover, the relation between ego depletion and trait self-control is still unclear, as various studies have reported heterogeneous findings concerning the interplay of both variables. We addressed these lacunas by drawing on a sample of N = 120 students, who participated in two test sessions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637344/nicotine-delivery-to-the-aerosol-of-a-heat-not-burn-tobacco-product-comparison-with-a-tobacco-cigarette-and-e-cigarettes
#14
Konstantinos E Farsalinos, Nikoletta Yannovits, Theoni Sarri, Vassilis Voudris, Konstantinos Poulas
Introduction: The purpose was to measure nicotine levels to the tobacco and levels emitted to the aerosol of a heat-not-burn product (HnB, IQOS) compared to e-cigarettes (ECs) and a tobacco cigarette. Methods: The HnB device and regular and menthol sticks were purchased from Italy. Three types of ECs (ciga-like, eGo-style and variable wattage) and a commercially-available tobacco cigarette were also tested. A custom-made liquid containing 2% nicotine was used with ECs...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632357/self-control-depletion-impairs-goal-maintenance-a-meta-analysis
#15
Junhua Dang, Fredrik Björklund, Martin Bäckström
Initial exertion of self-control has been suggested to impair subsequent self-regulatory performance. The specific cognitive processes that underlie this ego depletion effect have rarely been examined. Drawing on the dual-process theory of executive control (Engle & Kane, ; Kane & Engle, ), the current meta-analysis revealed that initial self-control exertion impairs participants' capacities of maintaining the task goal but its effect on capacities of resolving response competition is in need of further investigation...
June 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629141/graph-based-cooperative-localization-using-symmetric-measurement-equations
#16
Dhiraj Gulati, Feihu Zhang, Daniel Clarke, Alois Knoll
Precise localization is a key requirement for the success of highly assisted or autonomous vehicles. The diminishing cost of hardware has resulted in a proliferation of the number of sensors in the environment. Cooperative localization (CL) presents itself as a feasible and effective solution for localizing the ego-vehicle and its neighboring vehicles. However, one of the major challenges to fully realize the effective use of infrastructure sensors for jointly estimating the state of a vehicle in cooperative vehicle-infrastructure localization is an effective data association...
June 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613132/the-wheel-and-the-ladder-freudian-and-loewaldian-accounts-of-individuation
#17
Linus Recht
In this paper, I use comparisons of Freud, Loewald, and Plato to explore what it means to individuate and to desire in a world of frustration, pain, and loss. The metaphors of the "wheel" versus the "ladder" present basic images for Freud's tragic conception of a person's emerging into a world of pain, transience and loss, in contrast to Loewald's sense of individuation as an increasing attainment of individual ego and world enrichment, constructed from metabolized grieved objects. I then argue that Plato's Symposium offers comparable visions of the possibilities of love, and that the juxtaposition of Freud and Loewald can be connected to ancient philosophical considerations...
June 2017: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613131/ego-boundary-deficits-and-the-negative-therapeutic-inter-action-a-tale-of-a-whale-a-whale-of-a-tale
#18
Charles A Peterson
Defined variously and unsatisfactorily as a worsening of the patient's condition following a correct interpretation, the negative therapeutic reaction is typically blamed on the patient: "the operation was a success but the patient died." For most neurotic patients unconscious guilt objects to progress and activates the need to suffer. For most character-disturbed patients envy cannot bear the analyst's cleverness. However, patients with ego boundary problems-even sectors of psychosis-may require a different explanatory mechanism, where a correct interpretation may be experienced as a penetration and an engulfment, threatening the intactness of the self...
June 2017: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610578/sub-national-assessment-of-aid-effectiveness-a-case-study-of-post-conflict-districts-in-uganda
#19
Freddie Ssengooba, Justine Namakula, Vincent Kawooya, Suzanne Fustukian
BACKGROUND: In post-conflict settings, many state and non-state actors interact at the sub-national levels in rebuilding health systems by providing funds, delivering vital interventions and building capacity of local governments to shoulder their roles. Aid relationships among actors at sub-national level represent a vital lever for health system development. This study was undertaken to assess the aid-effectiveness in post-conflict districts of northern Uganda. METHOD: This was a three district cross sectional study conducted from January to April 2013...
June 13, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601404/meeting-physical-activity-guidelines-the-role-of-personal-networks-among-residents-of-low-income-communities
#20
Stephanie Child, Andrew T Kaczynski, Spencer Moore
INTRODUCTION: Despite known benefits of regular physical activity (PA), residents of low-income communities have disproportionately high rates of physical inactivity. Mounting evidence suggests that social network characteristics may be associated with health behaviors, including PA. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations between egocentric network characteristics and meeting PA guidelines among residents of low-income and predominantly African-American communities...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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