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Laura Bortoli, Maurizio Bertollo, Edson Filho, Selenia di Fronso, Claudio Robazza
Grounded in achievement goal and self-determination theories, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mastery and performance climate interventions on students' psychobiosocial (PBS) states and self-determined motivation. A first study was conducted to determine the validity of the measures. In a second study, two groups of female students (N = 65, 14-15 years of age) took part in the investigation. A mastery-performance group participated in eight task-involving lessons and then in another set of eight ego-involving lessons...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Andrés E Pérez-Rojas, Beatriz Palma, Avantika Bhatia, John Jackson, Earta Norwood, Jeffrey A Hayes, Charles J Gelso
Countertransference is an important aspect of the therapeutic relationship that exists in therapies of all theoretical orientations, and depending on how it is managed, it can either help or hinder treatment. Management of countertransference has been measured almost exclusively with the Countertransference Factors Inventory (Van Wagoner, Gelso, Hayes, & Diemer, 1991) and its variations, all of which focus on 5 therapist qualities theorized to facilitate management: self-insight, conceptualizing ability, empathy, self-integration, and anxiety management...
September 2017: Psychotherapy
Arto Gråstén, Anthony Watt
The present paper examined the full sequence of the Hierarchical Model of Motivation in physical education (PE) including motivational climate, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, and related links to contextual enjoyment, knowledge, performance, and total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Gender differences and correlations with body mass index (BMI) were also analyzed. Cross-sectional data was represented by self-reports and objective assessments of 770 middle school students (52% of girls) in North-East Finland...
September 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Bernardo Kastrup
Depth psychology finds empirical validation today in a variety of observations that suggest the presence of causally effective mental processes outside conscious experience. I submit that this is due to misinterpretation of the observations: the subset of consciousness called "meta-consciousness" in the literature is often mistaken for consciousness proper, thereby artificially creating space for an "unconscious." The implied hypothesis is that all mental processes may in fact be conscious, the appearance of unconsciousness arising from our dependence on self-reflective introspection for gauging awareness...
August 2017: Europe's journal of psychology
John S Auerbach, Diana Diamond
Mental representation was a central construct in Sidney Blatt's contributions to psychology and psychoanalysis. This brief review demonstrates that Blatt's understanding of representation was always informed by basic psychoanalytic concepts like the centrality of early caregiver-infant relationships and of unconscious mental processes. Although Blatt's earlier writings were informed by psychoanalytic ego psychology and Piagetian cognitive developmental psychology, they focused nonetheless on how an individual uses bodily and relational experiences to construct an object world; they also consistently presented object representations as having significant unconscious dimensions...
June 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Jón Gregersen, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Evangelos Galanis, Nikos Comoutos, Athanasios Papaioannou
This study examined the effects of a self-talk intervention on selective attention in a state of ego depletion. Participants were 62 undergraduate students with a mean age of 20.02 years (SD = 1.17). The experiment was conducted in four consecutive sessions. Following baseline assessment, participants were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. A two-session training was conducted for the two groups, with the experimental group using self-talk. In the final assessment, participants performed a selective attention test, including visual and auditory components, following a task inducing a state of ego depletion...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Ali I Rae
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Chest
Haixia Li, Qianqian Guo
OBJECTIVE: To explore potential biomarkers in stroke based on ego-networks and pathways. RESULTS: EgoNet method was applied to search for the underlying biomarkers in stroke using transcription profiling of E-GEOD-58294 and protein-protein interaction (PPI) data. Eight ego-genes were identified from PPI network according to the degree characteristics at the criteria of top 5% ranked z-sore and degree >1. Eight candidate ego-networks with classification accuracy ≥0...
September 5, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
T Debillon, C de Launay, A Ego
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Joana L Lopes, Ana C Estrada, Sara Fateixa, Marta Ferro, Tito Trindade
Graphene-based materials are elective materials for a number of technologies due to their unique properties. Also, semiconductor nanocrystals have been extensively explored due to their size-dependent properties that make them useful for several applications. By coupling both types of materials, new applications are envisaged that explore the synergistic properties in such hybrid nanostructures. This research reports a general wet chemistry method to prepare graphene oxide (GO) sheets decorated with nanophases of semiconductor metal sulfides...
August 31, 2017: Nanomaterials
Yan Wang, Yihan She, Stephen M Colarelli, Yuan Fang, Hui Meng, Qiuju Chen, Xin Zhang, Hongwei Zhu
Acts of self-control are more likely to fail after previous exertion of self-control, known as the ego depletion effect. Research has shown that depleted participants behave more aggressively than non-depleted participants, especially after being provoked. Although exposure to nature (e.g., a walk in the park) has been predicted to replenish resources common to executive functioning and self-control, the extent to which exposure to nature may counteract the depletion effect on aggression has yet to be determined...
August 31, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
Jianmin Liu, Qiwei Liang, Michael J Oldham, Ali A Rostami, Karl A Wagner, I Gene Gillman, Piyush Patel, Rebecca Savioz, Mohamadi Sarkar
There is an ongoing debate regarding the potential of secondhand exposure of non-users to various chemicals from use of e-vapor products (EVPs). Room air levels of 34 chemicals (nicotine, propylene glycol (PG), glycerol, 15 carbonyl chemicals, 12 volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), and four selected trace elements) were measured where EVPs and cigarettes were used by n = 37 healthy adult tobacco users in an exposure chamber. The products used were MarkTen(®) 2.5% Classic (Group I), a Prototype GreenSmoke(®) 2...
August 28, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Thane M Erickson, Stefanie E Mayer, Nestor L Lopez-Duran, Gina M Scarsella, Adam P McGuire, Jennifer Crocker, James L Abelson
OBJECTIVES: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to mediate the effects of stress on illness. Research has identified a limited number of psychological variables that modulate human HPA responses to stressors (e.g. perceived control and social support). Prosocial goals can reduce subjective stress, but have not been carefully examined in experimental settings where pathways of impact on biological stress markers may be traced. Recent work demonstrated that coaching individuals to strive to help others reduced HPA responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) relative to other cognitive interventions...
August 28, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Holly B Shakya, Nicholas A Christakis, James H Fowler
Since the 1970s sociologists have explored the best means for measuring social networks, although few name generator analyses have used sociocentric data or data from developing countries, partly because sociocentric studies in developing countries have been scant. Here, we analyze 12 different name generators used in a sociocentric network study conducted in 75 villages in rural Karnataka, India. Having unusual sociocentric data from a non-Western context allowed us to extend previous name generator research through the unique analyses of network structural measures, an extensive consideration of homophily, and investigation of status difference between egos and alters...
January 2017: Social Networks
Luc Estebanez, Isabelle Férézou, Valérie Ego-Stengel, Daniel E Shulz
After half a century of research, the sensory features coded by neurons of the rodent barrel cortex remain poorly understood. Still, views of the sensory representation of whisker information are increasingly shifting from a labeled line representation of single-whisker deflections to a selectivity for specific elements of the complex statistics of the multi-whisker deflection patterns that take place during spontaneous rodent behavior - so called natural tactile scenes. Here we review the current knowledge regarding the coding of patterns of whisker stimuli by barrel cortex neurons, from responses to single-whisker deflections to the representation of complex tactile scenes...
August 23, 2017: Neuroscience
A Morris, T Herrmann, C Liles, C Roskell
BACKGROUND: Dietitians provide individuals with tailored, practical nutritional advice. For this reason, skills in effective interpersonal communication are essential. In the case of chronic kidney disease, the specifics of dietary advice may change according to renal function. The conveyance of accurate dietary advice and compliance is critical and requires full engagement with the service. The effect of communication styles on patients ' engagement experiences with renal dietetics is unknown...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Angelo Panno, Giuseppe Carrus, Raffaele Lafortezza, Luigi Mariani, Giovanni Sanesi
Air temperatures are increasing because of global climate change. A warming phenomenon strongly related to global climate change is the urban heat island. It has been shown that the hotter temperatures occurring in cities during the summer negatively affect human wellbeing, but little is known about the potential mechanisms underlying the relationships between hotter temperatures, cognitive psychological resources and wellbeing. The aim of the present research is to understand whether, and how, spending time in urban green spaces, which can be considered as a specific kind of Nature-Based Solution (NBS), helps the recovery of cognitive resources and wellbeing...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Research
Zhangtao Li, Jing Liu, Kai Wu
Most of the existing community detection algorithms are based on vertex connectivity. While in many real networks, each vertex usually has one or more attributes describing its properties which are often homogeneous in a cluster. Such networks can be modeled as attributed graphs, whose attributes sometimes are equally important to topological structure in graph clustering. One important challenge is to detect communities considering both topological structure and vertex properties simultaneously. To this propose, a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on structural and attribute similarities (MOEA-SA) is first proposed to solve the attributed graph clustering problems in this paper...
August 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Maria Kavussanu, Nicholas Stanger
In this review paper, we provide an overview of recent research on prosocial and antisocial behaviors, in the context of sport, focusing mainly on antecedents and consequences of these behaviors. Motivational variables such as task orientation, mastery climate, autonomous motivation, and autonomy supportive climate are likely to promote prosocial behavior, whereas ego orientation, performance climate, controlled motivation, and controlling climate may lead to antisocial behavior. The effects of some motivational variables (i...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
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