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Yoko Ota, Natalia Korshunova, Masashi Demura, Midori Katsuyama, Hironobu Katsuyama, Sri Ratna Rahayu, Kiyofumi Saijoh
BACKGROUND: A man-made chemical disaster occurred in the Amur River, leading to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the Nanai people indigenous to the river's surrounding area. PTSD severity measured by the total scores of Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) (Total-I) and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) (Total-C) were not always identical in terms of demographic and ethnocultural characters. It is possible that the results derived using the Total-I and Total-C may differ for persons with different backgrounds and/or individual characteristics...
July 10, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Lee-Jen Suen Wu, Chuan-Chiang Chou, Yen-Chun Lin
Loss is an inevitable experience for humans for which grief is a natural response. Nurses must have an adequate understanding of grief and bereavement in order to be more sensitive to these painful emotions and to provide appropriate care to families who have lost someone they love deeply. This article introduces four important grief theories: Freud's grief theory, Bowlby's attachment theory, Stroebe and Schuts' dual process model, and Neiyemer's meaning reconstruction model. Freud's grief theory holds that the process of grief adaptation involves a bereaved family adopting alternative ways to connect with the death of a loved one and to restore their self-ego...
December 2017: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Dante Cicchetti, Elizabeth D Handley
The present study examined the effect of various dimensions of child maltreatment (i.e., developmental timing of maltreatment, number of maltreatment subtypes, and chronicity of maltreatment) on methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene, nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (NR3C1), and investigated the associations between NR3C1 methylation and child outcomes. Participants included 534 children who attended a research summer camp program for school-aged maltreated (53.4%) and nonmaltreated (46...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
Sara Kim, Ann L McGill
We show that self-affirmation increases helping behavior toward others in need. We argue that as awareness of others' pain causes discomfort, individuals are often motivated to ignore information about such pain. However, ignoring others' suffering implies that one is not a good and caring person, which presents a threat to self-integrity. To resolve this conflict, people might downplay others' pain. Studies show that self-affirmation intervenes in this process, thereby increasing willingness to help (Studies 1-4)...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Luca Rinaldi, Tomaso Vecchi, Micaela Fantino, Lotfi B Merabet, Zaira Cattaneo
In many cultures, humans conceptualize the past as behind the body and the future as in front. Whether this spatial mapping of time depends on visual experience is still not known. Here, we addressed this issue by testing early-blind participants in a space-time motor congruity task requiring them to classify a series of words as referring to the past or the future by moving their hand backward or forward. Sighted participants showed a preferential mapping between forward movements and future-words and backward movements and past-words...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Tomasz Jastrzębski, Wojciech Zegarski
Częstość przerzutów do otrzewnej w raku jelita grubego wynosi 5%-15% w przypadku przerzutów synchronicznych i aż 40% w przypadku wystąpienia wznowy miejscowej. Najlepsze wyniki leczenia uzyskuje się poprzez skojarzone wykonanie zabiegu cytoredukcyjnego w połączeniu z dootrzewnową chemioterapią perfuzyjną w hipertermii (HIPEC). Wyniki takiego leczenia są zdecydowanie lepsze i pozwalają na osiągnięcie przeżyć 5-letnich na poziomie 30%-50%. Zabiegi te wymagają dużego doświadczenia w chirurgii jamy brzusznej, są czasochłonne (średni czas procedury chirurgicznej wynosi 6-8 godzin) i obarczone powikłaniami związanymi nie tylko z zabiegiem operacyjnym, ale także podaniem cytostatyku do jamy otrzewnej w podwyższonej temperaturze (41,5 st...
October 31, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
Imran H Chowdhury, Hema P Narra, Abha Sahni, Kamil Khanipov, Casey L C Schroeder, Jignesh Patel, Yuriy Fofanov, Sanjeev K Sahni
Endothelial cell interactions with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) involve both activating and repressing signals resulting in pronounced alterations in their transcriptome and proteome. Noncoding RNAs are now appreciated as posttranscriptional and translational regulators of cellular signaling and responses, but their expression status and roles during endothelial interactions with LPS are not well understood. We report on the expression profile of long noncoding (lnc) RNAs of human microvascular endothelial cells in response to LPS...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Isabel Balaguer, Joan L Duda, Isabel Castillo
Grounded in the Achievement Goal Theory framework of motivation and optimal functioning, there were two objectives of this study: (a) to test a model hypothesizing links between personal theories of school achievement, indices of the quality of academic engagement, wellbeing, and health-related behaviors, and (b) to explore whether the hypothesized model was invariant across gender groups. A multisection questionnaire pack tapping the targeted variables was administered to 967 teenagers (475 boys and 492 girls) aged between 11 to 16 years old...
October 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
Damir Sekulic, Natasa Zenic, Sime Versic, Dora Maric, Goran Gabrilo, Mario Jelicic
The official reports on doping behavior in kickboxing are alarming, but there have been no empirical studies that examined this problem directly. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, gender differences and covariates of potential-doping-behavior, in kickboxing athletes. A total of 130 high-level kickboxing athletes (92 males, 21.37 ± 4.83 years of age, 8.39 ± 5.73 years of training experience; 38 women, 20.31 ± 2.94 years of age; 9.84 ± 4.74 years of training experience) completed questionnaires to study covariates and potential-doping behavior...
October 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
Joshua D Miller, Chelsea E Sleep, Joanna Lamkin, Colin Vize, W Keith Campbell, Donald R Lynam
Historical conceptualizations have framed personality disorders (PDs) as unchanging and ego-syntonic. However, recent evidence suggests that individuals with PD traits may have some insight into their personality and consider those traits to be somewhat ego-dystonic. To replicate and extend previous findings, participants (N = 328) self-reported their PD trait levels, likability of those traits, impairment, capability for change, and desired trait levels. The results demonstrated that individuals with PD traits tolerate but still dislike those traits, believe that they cause them problems, and are interested in reducing them...
November 9, 2017: Personality Disorders
Elke Derdaele, Loren Toussaint, Evalyne Thauvoye, Jessie Dezutter
OBJECTIVES: This study seeks (1) to replicate previous findings on the mediating effect of integrity/despair in the relation between forgiveness and depression in an elderly population and (2) to extend these findings to other aspects of functioning, namely life satisfaction and subjective health. Both aims were studied in a sample of residential elderly. METHODS: Residential elderly (n = 329, M = 87 years) filled out questionnaires on forgivingness, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, subjective health and the developmental task of integrity/despair...
November 8, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
Susan Thompson Hingle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
Luella Fu, Megan A Jacobs, Jody Brookover, Thomas W Valente, Nathan K Cobb, Amanda L Graham
BACKGROUND: Social networks influence health behavior, including tobacco use and cessation. To date, little is known about whether and how the networks of online smokers and non-smokers may differ, or the potential implications of such differences with regards to intervention efforts. Understanding how social networks vary by smoking status could inform public health efforts to accelerate cessation or slow the adoption of tobacco use. OBJECTIVES: These secondary analyses explore the structure of ego networks of both smokers and non-smokers collected as part of a randomized control trial conducted within Facebook...
2017: PloS One
Jeffrey Lam, Bo Lu, Nate Doogan, Tiffany Thomson, Amy Ferketich, Electra D Paskett, Mary Ellen Wewers
Depression is a serious, costly, and debilitating disorder that is understudied in rural women. Studies show that depression is associated with low social integration and support, but few studies investigate the relationship between depression and social network characteristics. This study examined the associations among women from three Ohio Appalachian counties enrolled in a health study, which aimed to collect information for a future social network smoking cessation intervention. An address-based sampling method was used to randomly select and recruit 404 women...
January 2017: Rural Mental Health
Stelios Orfanos, Timur Toygar, Mark Berthold-Losleben, Natalya Chechko, Annette Durst, Zacharias G Laoutidis, Sebastian Vocke, Caren Weidenfeld, Frank Schneider, Wolfram Karges, Christian F Beckmann, Ute Habel, Nils Kohn
The human brain depends mainly on glucose supply from circulating blood as an energy substrate for its metabolism. Most of the energy produced by glucose catabolism in the brain is used to support intrinsic communication purposes in the absence of goal-directed activity. This intrinsic brain function can be detected with fMRI as synchronized fluctuations of the BOLD signal forming functional networks. Here, we report results from a double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over study addressing changes in intrinsic brain activity in the context of very low, yet physiological, blood glucose levels after overnight fasting...
October 25, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
J A Schneider, N Lancki, P Schumm
Mass incarceration of young Black men has a significant impact on their network composition and stability that, in turn, may have major implications for health and well-being. A sub-group of young Black men with criminal justice involvement (CJI) identify as gay, bisexual or are non-identified men who have sex with men (hereafter MSM). This paper focuses on the potential effects of CJI on the composition of Black MSM social and sexual networks, their stability over time, and concomitant health and social outcomes...
October 2017: Social Networks
Caroline Schlinkert, Sander L Koole
OBJECTIVES: People can use inhibitory control to temporarily inhibit their personal preferences to achieve their long-term goals. According to the ego fixation model (Koole et al., 2014), ruminators have difficulties relaxing inhibitory control, leading them to continue inhibiting their personal needs, even when this is no longer required by the situation. Inhibitory control may thus disrupt healthy appetite regulation among ruminators. METHODS: Among 324 Dutch undergraduate students (218 women; Mage = 21...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Personality
Patrick Connolly, Vasi van Deventer
The present paper argues that a systems theory epistemology (and particularly the notion of hierarchical recursive organization) provides the critical theoretical context within which the significance of Friston's (2010a) Free Energy Principle (FEP) for both evolution and psychoanalysis is best understood. Within this perspective, the FEP occupies a particular level of the hierarchical organization of the organism, which is the level of biological self-organization. This form of biological self-organization is in turn understood as foundational and pervasive to the higher levels of organization of the human organism that are of interest to both neuroscience as well as psychoanalysis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Rui Zhang, Ann-Kathrin Stock, Anneka Rzepus, Christian Beste
Performing an act of self-regulation such as making decisions has been suggested to deplete a common limited resource, which impairs all subsequent self-regulatory actions (ego depletion theory). It has however remained unclear whether self-referred decisions truly impair behavioral control even in seemingly unrelated cognitive domains, and which neurophysiological mechanisms are affected by these potential depletion effects. In the current study, we therefore used an inter-individual design to compare two kinds of depletion, namely a self-referred choice-based depletion and a categorization-based switching depletion, to a non-depleted control group...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Elise Stickles, Tasha N Lewis
Experimental work has shown that spatial experiences influence spatiotemporal metaphor use. In these studies, participants are asked a question that yields different responses depending on the metaphor participants use. It has been claimed that English speakers are equally likely to respond with either variant in the absence of priming. Related studies testing non-spatial experiences demonstrate varied results with a wide range of primes. Here, the effects of eye movement and stimuli presentation modality on comprehension of this question are investigated in different formats...
October 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
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