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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089516/environmental-geometry-aligns-the-hippocampal-map-during-spatial-reorientation
#1
Alex T Keinath, Joshua B Julian, Russell A Epstein, Isabel A Muzzio
When a navigator's internal sense of direction is disrupted, she must rely on external cues to regain her bearings, a process termed spatial reorientation. Extensive research has demonstrated that the geometric shape of the environment exerts powerful control over reorientation behavior, but the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. Whereas some theories claim that geometry controls behavior through an allocentric mechanism potentially tied to the hippocampus, others postulate that disoriented navigators reach their goals by using an egocentric view-matching strategy...
January 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057536/transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-to-the-inferior-parietal-lobe-decreases-mu-suppression-to-egocentric-but-not-allocentric-hand-movements
#2
Monica B Berntsen, Nicholas R Cooper, Vincenzo Romei
Egocentric vs. allocentric perspective during observation of hand movements has been related to self-other differentiation such that movements observed from an egocentric viewpoint have been considered as self-related while movements observed from an allocentric viewpoint have been considered as belonging to someone else. Correlational studies have generally found that egocentric perspective induces greater neurophysiological responses and larger behavioral effects compared to an allocentric perspective. However, recent studies question previous findings by reporting greater (μ) suppression and greater transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) during observation of allocentric compared to egocentric movements...
January 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054740/common-and-specific-neural-correlates-underlying-the-spatial-congruency-effect-induced-by-the-egocentric-and-allocentric-reference-frame
#3
Nan Liu, Hui Li, Wen Su, Qi Chen
The spatial location of an object can be represented in two frames of reference: egocentric (relative to the observer's body or body parts) and allocentric (relative to another object independent of the observer). The object positions relative to the two frames can be either congruent (e.g., both left or both right) or incongruent (e.g., one left and one right). Most of the previous studies, however, did not discriminate between the two types of spatial conflicts. To investigate the common and specific neural mechanisms underlying the spatial congruency effect induced by the two reference frames, we adopted a 3 (type of task: allocentric, egocentric, and color) × 2 (spatial congruency: congruent vs...
January 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039765/exploring-the-contribution-of-spatial-navigation-to-cognitive-functioning-in-older-adults
#4
Jan Laczó, Ross Andel, Zuzana Nedelska, Martin Vyhnalek, Kamil Vlcek, Sebastian Crutch, John Harrison, Jakub Hort
Spatial navigation (SN) impairment is present early in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We tested whether SN performance, self-centered (egocentric) and world-centered (allocentric), was distinguishable from performance on established cognitive functions-verbal and nonverbal memory, executive and visuospatial function, attention/working memory, and language function. 108 older adults (53 cognitively normal [CN] and 55 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment [aMCI]) underwent neuropsychological examination and real-space navigation testing...
December 14, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032476/conflict-processing-among-multiple-frames-of-reference
#5
Weizhi Nan, Qi Li, Yanlong Sun, Hongbin Wang, Xun Liu
People rely on multiple frames of reference (FORs) to represent and update spatial relationships of different objects in a complex environment. According to the "Frame of Reference-based Map of Salience" theory (FORMS), FORs with high salience are processed in priority, and human performance is determined by the interaction of all relevant FOR-based representations. We conducted a modified two-cannon task manipulating conflicts among FORs (e.g., egocentric [FOR-EFOR], intrinsic [FOR-IFOR]) in order to explore how FORs interact with each other...
December 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018273/fast-and-forceful-modulation-of-response-activation-induced-by-shifts-of-perceived-depth-in-virtual-3d-space
#6
Thorsten Plewan, Gerhard Rinkenauer
Reaction time (RT) can strongly be influenced by a number of stimulus properties. For instance, there was converging evidence that perceived size rather than physical (i.e., retinal) size constitutes a major determinant of RT. However, this view has recently been challenged since within a virtual three-dimensional (3D) environment retinal size modulation failed to influence RT. In order to further investigate this issue in the present experiments response force (RF) was recorded as a supplemental measure of response activation in simple reaction tasks...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998404/-selection-of-peer-educators-for-sex-education-program-based-on-data-from-social-network-analysis-among-college-freshmen-students
#7
Y Yang, H Deng, F Yang, Y L Li
Objective: Through combining the results from social network analysis and willingness of the key actors, peer educators for sex education among freshmen to select peer educators for sex education. Methods: Self-developed questionnaires were used to collect information on related demographics, egocentric social networks and whole class-based unit-network. Descriptive analysis was applied. UCINET 6 was used to conduct social network analysis and to draw the whole networking graphs. Results: Classmates appeared as the most important behavior intimate social network (95...
December 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989780/shifting-visual-perspective-during-retrieval-shapes-autobiographical-memories
#8
Peggy L St Jacques, Karl K Szpunar, Daniel L Schacter
The dynamic and flexible nature of memories is evident in our ability to adopt multiple visual perspectives. Although autobiographical memories are typically encoded from the visual perspective of our own eyes they can be retrieved from the perspective of an observer looking at our self. Here, we examined the neural mechanisms of shifting visual perspective during long-term memory retrieval and its influence on online and subsequent memories using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants generated specific autobiographical memories from the last five years and rated their visual perspective...
December 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988312/search-strategy-selection-in-the-morris-water-maze-indicates-allocentric-map-formation-during-learning-that-underpins-spatial-memory-formation
#9
Jake Rogers, Leonid Churilov, Anthony J Hannan, Thibault Renoir
Using a Matlab classification algorithm, we demonstrate that a highly salient distal cue array is required for significantly increased likelihoods of spatial search strategy selection during Morris water maze spatial learning. We hypothesized that increased spatial search strategy selection during spatial learning would be the key measure demonstrating the formation of an allocentric map to the escape location. Spatial memory, as indicated by quadrant preference for the area of the pool formally containing the hidden platform, was assessed as the main measure that this allocentric map had formed during spatial learning...
December 15, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986538/women-s-social-eating-environment-and-its-associations-with-dietary-behavior-and-weight-management
#10
Sonja Mötteli, Michael Siegrist, Carmen Keller
As an unhealthy social eating environment is considered a risk factor for obesity, this study aimed to examine women's regular eating networks and the extent to which diet-related variables were associated with those of their regular eating companions. In Study Part I (N = 579), an egocentric network approach was used to investigate women's perceptions of their eating networks. In Study Part II (N = 262), the participants' most important eating companions responded to a similar survey, and the corresponding answers were matched...
March 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959827/interaction-detection-in-egocentric-video-towards-a-novel-outcome-measure-for-upper-extremity-function
#11
Jirapat Likitlersuang, Jose Zariffa
In order to develop effective interventions for restoring upper extremity function after cervical spinal cord injury, tools are needed to accurately measure hand function throughout the rehabilitation process. However, there is currently no suitable method to collect information about hand function in the community, when patients are not under direct observation of a clinician. We propose a wearable system that can monitor functional hand use using computer vision techniques applied to egocentric camera videos...
December 7, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939340/deletion-of-the-serotonin-receptor-type-7-disrupts-the-acquisition-of-allocentric-but-not-egocentric-navigation-strategies-in-mice
#12
Gregory Beaudet, Christelle Jozet-Alves, Rachel Asselot, Pascale Schumann-Bard, Thomas Freret, Michel Boulouard, Eleni Paizanis
Spatial navigation is achieved through both egocentric (body-centered) and allocentric (externally-centered) strategies but decline with age, especially allocentric strategies. A better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these strategies would allow the development of new treatments to mitigate this deterioration. Among them, the modulation of 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) may constitute a potential strategy. Indeed, this receptor is known to play a role in spatial navigation, however its precise role in egocentric and allocentric strategies remains unclear...
December 8, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910737/a-case-of-pure-autotopagnosia-following-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#13
Itaru Tamura, Shinsuke Hamada, Hiroyuki Soma, Fumio Moriwaka, Kunio Tashiro
A 69-year-old male (N.A.) with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease showed pure autotopagnosia. We administered tests evaluating his ability to name his own body parts, to point to body parts (his own and examiner's), and to recognize positional relationships between his body parts by verbal questions and responses. We found impaired localization of the patient's own body parts by pointing and impaired recognition of positional relationships between his body parts. However, there was no impairment in naming his own body parts or in localizing the examiner's body parts...
December 2, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890879/egocentric-disorientation-and-heading-disorientation-evaluation-by-a-new-test-named-card-placing-test
#14
Ritsuo Hashimoto, Momoko Uechi, Wako Yumura, Noriyo Komori, Masako Abe
We recently developed a new clinical test named card placing test (CPT) which can assess a subject's ability to deal with visuospatial information. The CPT requires a subject to recreate an array of three cards, each of which was randomly placed on eight grids around the subject, before (CPT-A) and after the subject's rotation (CPT-B). With this design, the CPT can assess a subject's ability to represent visuospatial information either egocentrically (CPT-A) or allocentrically (CPT-B). We administered the test on two patients with topographical disorientation; one with egocentric disorientation and another with heading disorientation...
November 25, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885551/condomless-sex-among-homeless-youth-the-role-of-multidimensional-social-norms-and-gender
#15
Anamika Barman-Adhikari, Hsun-Ta Hsu, Stephanie Begun, Andrea Perez Portillo, Eric Rice
Most studies of condomless sex among homeless youth have focused on peer norms, while excluding other potentially pertinent influences. This study explored how different types of relationships contributed to norms about condomless sex and whether such norms were associated with engagement in condomless sex among homeless youth. Additionally, because recent work has noted gender differences in social networks of male and female homeless youth, gender differences in social network norms of condomless sex were also assessed...
November 24, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881776/time-is-not-space-core-computations-and-domain-specific-networks-for-mental-travels
#16
Baptiste Gauthier, Virginie van Wassenhove
: Humans can consciously project themselves in the future and imagine themselves at different places. Do mental time travel and mental space navigation abilities share common cognitive and neural mechanisms? To test this, we recorded fMRI while participants mentally projected themselves in time or in space (e.g., 9 years ago, in Paris) and ordered historical events from their mental perspective. Behavioral patterns were comparable for mental time and space and shaped by self-projection and by the distance of historical events to the mental position of the self, suggesting the existence of egocentric mapping in both dimensions...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872373/real-world-visual-statistics-and-infants-first-learned-object-names
#17
Elizabeth M Clerkin, Elizabeth Hart, James M Rehg, Chen Yu, Linda B Smith
We offer a new solution to the unsolved problem of how infants break into word learning based on the visual statistics of everyday infant-perspective scenes. Images from head camera video captured by 8 1/2 to 10 1/2 month-old infants at 147 at-home mealtime events were analysed for the objects in view. The images were found to be highly cluttered with many different objects in view. However, the frequency distribution of object categories was extremely right skewed such that a very small set of objects was pervasively present-a fact that may substantially reduce the problem of referential ambiguity...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861588/endogenous-testosterone-and-exogenous-oxytocin-modulate-attentional-processing-of-infant-faces
#18
Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Katharina A Schwarz, Christian Sprenger, Luise Reimers, Esther K Diekhof
Evidence indicates that hormones modulate the intensity of maternal care. Oxytocin is known for its positive influence on maternal behavior and its important role for childbirth. In contrast, testosterone promotes egocentric choices and reduces empathy. Further, testosterone decreases during parenthood which could be an adaptation to increased parental investment. The present study investigated the interaction between testosterone and oxytocin in attentional control and their influence on attention to baby schema in women...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861154/presence-of-lacunar-infarctions-is-associated-with-the-spatial-navigation-impairment-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-dti-study
#19
Yan-Feng Wu, Wen-Bo Wu, Qing-Ping Liu, Wen-Wen He, Hong Ding, Zuzana Nedelska, Jakub Hort, Bing Zhang, Yun Xu
Lacunar cerebral infarction (LI) is one of risk factors of vascular dementia and correlates with progression of cognitive impairment including the executive functions. However, little is known on spatial navigation impairment and its underlying microstructural alteration of white matter in patients with LI and with or without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Our aim was to investigate whether the spatial navigation impairment correlated with the white matter integrity in LI patients with MCI (LI-MCI). Thirty patients with LI were included in the study and were divided into LI-MCI (n=17) and non MCI (LI-Non MCI) groups (n=13) according neuropsychological tests...
November 16, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852770/environmental-anchoring-of-head-direction-in-a-computational-model-of-retrosplenial-cortex
#20
Andrej Bicanski, Neil Burgess
: Allocentric (world-centered) spatial codes driven by path integration accumulate error unless reset by environmental sensory inputs that are necessarily egocentric (body-centered). Previous models of the head direction system avoided the necessary transformation between egocentric and allocentric reference frames by placing visual cues at infinity. Here we present a model of head direction coding that copes with exclusively proximal cues by making use of a conjunctive representation of head direction and location in retrosplenial cortex...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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