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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158177/granger-causal-connectivity-dissociates-navigation-networks-that-subserve-allocentric-and-egocentric-path-integration
#1
Chin-Teng Lin, Te-Cheng Chiu, Yu-Kai Wang, Chun-Hsiang Chuang, Klaus Gramann
Studies on spatial navigation demonstrate a significant role of the retrosplenial complex (RSC) in the transformation of egocentric and allocentric information into complementary spatial reference frames (SRFs). The tight anatomical connections of the RSC with a wide range of other cortical regions processing spatial information support its vital role within the human navigation network. To better understand how different areas of the navigational network interact, we investigated the dynamic causal interactions of brain regions involved in solving a virtual navigation task...
November 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134457/thinking-about-others-and-the-future-neural-correlates-of-perspective-taking-relate-to-preferences-for-delayed-rewards
#2
Garret O'Connell, Chun-Ting Hsu, Anastasia Christakou, Bhismadev Chakrabarti
We infer the thoughts and feelings of others by taking their perspectives. Similar processes could be used to understand how we will be affected by future events, by allowing us to take the perspective of our future self. In this paper, we test this idea using a previously presented framework for guiding predictions. The framework proposes that a shared neural mechanism is involved in controlling egocentric bias, both while shifting our perspective away from self and towards others, and while shifting our perspective from immediate to future perspectives...
November 13, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130062/human-spatial-navigation-representations-across-dimensions-and-scales
#3
Arne D Ekstrom, Eve A Isham
Humans, like many other species, employ three fundamental forms of strategies to navigate: allocentric, egocentric, and beacon. Here, we review each of these different forms of navigation with a particular focus on how our high-resolution visual system contributes to their unique properties. We also consider how we might employ allocentric and egocentric representations, in particular, across different spatial dimensions, such as 1-D vs. 2-D. Our high acuity visual system also leads to important considerations regarding the scale of space we are navigating (e...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128977/dissociating-object-based-from-egocentric-transformations-in-mental-body-rotation-effect-of-stimuli-size
#4
Hamdi Habacha, David Moreau, Mohamed Jarraya, Laure Lejeune-Poutrain, Corinne Molinaro
The effect of stimuli size on the mental rotation of abstract objects has been extensively investigated, yet its effect on the mental rotation of bodily stimuli remains largely unexplored. Depending on the experimental design, mentally rotating bodily stimuli can elicit object-based transformations, relying mainly on visual processes, or egocentric transformations, which typically involve embodied motor processes. The present study included two mental body rotation tasks requiring either a same-different or a laterality judgment, designed to elicit object-based or egocentric transformations, respectively...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097754/real-time-acute-stress-facilitates-allocentric-spatial-processing-in-a-virtual-fire-disaster
#5
Zhengcao Cao, Yamin Wang, Liang Zhang
Prior studies have shown that spatial cognition is influenced by stress prior to task. The current study investigated the effects of real-time acute stress on allocentric and egocentric spatial processing. A virtual reality-based spatial reference rule learning (SRRL) task was designed in which participants were instructed to make a location selection by walking to one of three poles situated around a tower. A selection was reinforced by either an egocentric spatial reference rule (leftmost or rightmost pole relative to participant) or an allocentric spatial reference rule (nearest or farthest pole relative to the tower)...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094962/the-surprising-costs-of-silence-asymmetric-preferences-for-prosocial-lies-of-commission-and-omission
#6
Emma Levine, Joanna Hart, Kendra Moore, Emily Rubin, Kuldeep Yadav, Scott Halpern
Across 7 experiments (N = 3883), we demonstrate that communicators and targets make egocentric moral judgments of deception. Specifically, communicators focus more on the costs of deception to them-for example, the guilt they feel when they break a moral rule-whereas targets focus more on whether deception helps or harms them. As a result, communicators and targets make asymmetric judgments of prosocial lies of commission and omission: Communicators often believe that omitting information is more ethical than telling a prosocial lie, whereas targets often believe the opposite...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071008/selective-effects-of-sport-expertise-on-the-stages-of-mental-rotation-tasks-with-object-based-and-egocentric-transformations
#7
Tian Feng, Zhongqiu Zhang, Zhiguang Ji, Binbin Jia, Yawei Li
It is well established that motor expertise is linked to superior mental rotation ability, but few studies have attempted to explain the factors that influence the stages of mental rotation in sport experts. Some authors have argued that athletes are faster in the perceptual and decision stages but not in the rotation stages of object-based transformations; however, stimuli related to sport have not been used to test mental rotation with egocentric transformations. Therefore, 24 adolescent elite divers and 23 adolescent nonathletes completed mental rotation tasks with object-based and egocentric transformations...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064827/mental-body-transformation-deficits-in-patients-with-chronic-balance-disorders
#8
J H J Allum, W Langewitz, M Sleptsova, A Welge-Luessen, F Honegger, T H Schatz, C L Biner, C Maguire, D A Schmid
BACKGROUND: Movements may be generated consistent with imagining one's own body transformed or "disembodied" to a new position. Based on this concept we hypothesized that patients with objective balance deficits (obj-BD) would have altered neural transformation processes executing own body transformation (OBT) with functional consequences on balance control. Also we examined whether feeling unstable due to dizziness only (DO), without an obj-BD, also lead to an impaired OBT. METHODS: 32 patients with chronic dizziness were tested: 16 patients with obj-BD as determined by balance control during a sequence of stance and gait tasks, 16 patients with dizziness only (DO)...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045500/using-egocentric-analysis-to-investigate-professional-networks-and-productivity-of-graduate-students-and-faculty-in-life-sciences-in-japan-singapore-and-taiwan
#9
Noriko Hara, Hui Chen, Marcus Antonius Ynalvez
Prior studies showed that scientists' professional networks contribute to research productivity, but little work has examined what factors predict the formation of professional networks. This study sought to 1) examine what factors predict the formation of international ties between faculty and graduate students and 2) identify how these international ties would affect publication productivity in three East Asian countries. Face-to-face surveys and in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of faculty and doctoral students in life sciences at 10 research institutions in Japan, Singapore, and Taiwan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028867/how-flexible-is-the-use-of-egocentric-versus-allocentric-frame-of-reference-in-the-williams-syndrome-population
#10
J Heiz, S Majerus, K Barisnikov
Objective: This study examined the spontaneous use of allocentric and egocentric frames of reference and their flexible use as a function of instructions. Method: The computerized spatial reference task created by Heiz and Barisnikov (2015) was used. Participants had to choose a frame of reference according to three types of instructions: spontaneous, allocentric and egocentric. The performances of 16 Williams Syndrome participants between 10 and 41 years were compared to those of two control groups (chronological age and non-verbal intellectual ability)...
September 28, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018195/prior-preferences-beneficially-influence-social-and-non-social-learning
#11
Tor Tarantola, Dharshan Kumaran, Peter Dayan, Benedetto De Martino
Our personal preferences affect a broad array of social behaviors. This includes the way we learn the preferences of others, an ability that often relies on limited or ambiguous information. Here we report an egocentric influence on this type of social learning that is reflected in both performance and response times. Using computational models that combine inter-trial learning and intra-trial choice, we find transient effects of participants' preferences on the learning process, through the influence of priors, and persistent effects on the choice process...
October 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988121/a-study-on-the-independence-of-egocentric-and-allocentric-neglect
#12
Nergiz Turgut, Claudia Mödden, Tanja Brumund, Paul Eling, Helmut Hildebrandt
Currently there seems to be consensus that visuospatial neglect may involve egocentric and allocentric symptoms. However, the relation between the two is still discussed and models have been proposed based on the high correlation between allocentric and egocentric neglect symptoms. To analyze the relation between these two kinds of symptoms we developed a new paradigm. In contrast to previous paradigms, we varied the extension of the search field and we added centered reference targets to evaluate egocentric effects independent from allocentric effects...
September 15, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980612/-topographical-disorientation-in-patients-with-brain-impairment
#13
V N Grigoryeva, G V Tikhomirov
Topographical disorientation refers to inability to recognize the environment, as well as to orient, to find the right way into a familiar or new environment and to use a map for the orientation. These functions are based on neuronal activity of posterior parietal cortex, retrosplenial cortex and the posterior part of cingular gyrus, medial temporal lobe, lingual gyrus and prefrontal cortex and are considered within egocentric or allocentric (exocentric) reference systems. Object locations in the egocentric system are evaluated with respect to the subject's body position while object locations in the allocentric reference frame are evaluated with respect to the object-to-object relations in the external environment...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979000/autism-is-associated-with-reduced-ability-to-interpret-grasping-actions-of-others
#14
Marco Turi, Filippo Muratori, Francesca Tinelli, Maria Concetta Morrone, David C Burr
We investigated the ability of children with ASD to discriminate a small cylinder from a large cube by observing a point-light movie of an actor grasping the object, either from an allocentric or egocentric viewpoint (observing action of others or self). Compared with typically developing controls, high functioning autistic children showed a strong selective impairment in this task, but only with the allocentric viewpoint, where thresholds were twice as high: egocentric thresholds were similar to age- and ability-matched controls...
October 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972889/spontaneous-mentalizing-in-neurotypicals-scoring-high-versus-low-on-symptomatology-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Annabel D Nijhof, Marcel Brass, Jan R Wiersema
Spontaneous mentalizing ability has been linked to symptoms severity in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here we investigated whether in neurotypicals, higher levels of ASD symptomatology could also be linked to lower levels of spontaneous mentalizing, by comparing neurotypicals scoring high with those scoring low on the short Autism Spectrum Quotient. Participants watched movies during which they, and another agent, formed beliefs about the location of an object. These beliefs could influence reaction times (RT) to that object in the outcome phase...
December 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969287/prevalence-of-principles-of-piaget-s-theory-among-4-7-year-old-children-and-their-correlation-with-iq
#16
Sugandha Marwaha, Mousumi Goswami, Binny Vashist
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive development is a major area of human development and was extensively studied by Jean Piaget. He proposed that the development of intellectual abilities occurs in a series of relatively distinct stages and that a child's way of thinking and viewing the world is different at different stages. AIM: To assess Piaget's principles of the intuitive stage of preoperational period among 4-7-year-old children relative to their Intelligence quotient (IQ)...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967784/rescaling-of-perceived-space-transfers-across-virtual-environments
#17
Zachary D Siegel, Jonathan W Kelly, Lucia A Cherep
Research over the past 20 years has consistently shown that egocentric distance is underperceived in virtual environments (VEs) compared with real environments. In 2 experiments, judgments of object distance (Experiment 1) and object size (Experiment 2) improved after a brief period of walking through the VE with continuous visual feedback. Whereas improvement of blind-walking distance judgments could be attributable to recalibration of walking, improvement in perceived size is considered evidence for rescaling of perceived space, whereby perceived size and distance increased after walking interaction...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958006/network-connections-and-salivary-testosterone-among-older-u-s-women-social-modulation-or-hormonal-causation
#18
Aniruddha Das
Objectives: This study examined potentially bidirectional connections of older U.S. women's salivary testosterone with their social network connections. Methods: Data were from the 2005-2006 and 2010-2011 waves of the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), a national probability sample of older U.S. adults. Autoregressive cross-lagged panel models tested linkages of women's testosterone with their social networks. Results: Consistent with recent biological theory suggesting social modulation of hormones, a higher kin proportion in one's egocentric (person-centered) network, arguably a stable compositional feature, negatively predicted women's testosterone levels...
August 21, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931613/interacting-networks-of-brain-regions-underlie-human-spatial-navigation-a-review-and-novel-synthesis-of-the-literature
#19
Arne D Ekstrom, Derek J Huffman, Michael Starrett
Navigation is an inherently dynamic and multimodal process, making isolation of the unique cognitive components underlying it challenging. The assumptions of much of the literature on human spatial navigation are that: 1) spatial navigation involves modality independent, discrete metric representations (i.e., egocentric vs. allocentric) 2) such representations can be further distilled to elemental cognitive processes 3) these cognitive processes can be ascribed to unique brain regions. Here, we argue that modality independent spatial representations, instead of providing exact metrics about our surrounding environment, more often involve heuristics for estimating spatial topology useful to the current task at hand...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923462/competing-perspectives-on-frames-of-reference-in-language-and-thought
#20
Peggy Li, Linda Abarbanell
A study found that Dutch-speaking children who prefer an egocentric (left/right) reference frame when describing spatial relationships, and Hai||om-speaking children who use a geocentric (north/south) frame had difficulty recreating small-scale spatial arrays using their language-incongruent system (Haun, Rapold, Janzen, & Levinson, 2011). In five experiments, we reconciled these results with another study showing that English (egocentric) and Tseltal Mayan (geocentric) speakers can flexibly use both systems (Abarbanell, 2010; Li, Abarbanell, Gleitman, & Papafragou, 2011)...
September 15, 2017: Cognition
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