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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646363/the-many-routes-of-mental-navigation-contrasting-the-effects-of-a-detailed-and-gist-retrieval-approach-on-using-and-forming-spatial-representations
#1
Signy Sheldon, Alexa Ruel
Navigated routes can be recalled by remembering a schematic layout or with additional sensory and perceptual details, engaging episodic memory processes. In this study, we contrasted the effects of these remembering approaches on retrieving real-world navigated routes, the impact on flexibly using familiar route information and on learning new spatial representations. In a within-subjects design, participants were oriented to recall familiar routes under two remembering conditions-a detail condition that promoted episodic memory processes and a gist condition in which routes were recalled via schematic processes...
June 23, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642217/an-interactive-mobile-based-tool-for-personal-social-network-data-collection-and-visualization-among-a-geographically-isolated-and-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-population-early-stage-feasibility-study-with-qualitative-user-feedback
#2
Katherine S Eddens, Jesse M Fagan, Tom Collins
BACKGROUND: Personal social networks have a profound impact on our health, yet collecting personal network data for use in health communication, behavior change, or translation and dissemination interventions has proved challenging. Recent advances in social network data collection software have reduced the burden of network studies on researchers and respondents alike, yet little testing has occurred to discover whether these methods are: (1) acceptable to a variety of target populations, including those who may have limited experience with technology or limited literacy; and (2) practical in the field, specifically in areas that are geographically and technologically disconnected, such as rural Appalachian Kentucky...
June 22, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634887/aberrant-connections-between-climbing-fibres-and-purkinje-cells-induce-alterations-in-the-timing-of-an-instrumental-response-in-the-rat
#3
Lorena Gaytán-Tocavén, Miguel Ángel López-Vázquez, Miguel Ángel Guevara, María Esther Olvera-Cortés
Cerebellar participation in timing and sensory-motor sequences has been supported by several experimental and clinical studies. A relevant role of the cerebellum in timing of conditioned responses in the range of milliseconds has been demonstrated, but less is known regarding the role of the cerebellum in supra-second timing of operant responses. A dissociated role of the cerebellum and striatum in timing in the millisecond and second range had been reported, respectively. The climbing fibre-Purkinje cell synapse is crucial in timing models; thus, the aberrant connection between these cellular elements is a suitable model for evaluating the contribution of the cerebellum in timing in the supra-second range...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633886/remembering-and-imagining-alternative-versions-of-the-personal-past
#4
Peggy L St Jacques, Alexis C Carpenter, Karl K Szpunar, Daniel L Schacter
Although autobiographical memory and episodic simulations recruit similar core brain regions, episodic simulations engage additional neural recruitment in the frontoparietal control network due to greater demands on constructive processes. However, previous functional neuroimaging studies showing differences in remembering and episodic simulation have focused on veridical retrieval of past experiences, and thus have not fully considered how retrieving the past in different ways from how it was originally experienced may also place similar demands on constructive processes...
June 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633321/places-in-the-brain-bridging-layout-and-object-geometry-in-scene-selective-cortex
#5
Moira R Dillon, Andrew S Persichetti, Elizabeth S Spelke, Daniel D Dilks
Diverse animal species primarily rely on sense (left-right) and egocentric distance (proximal-distal) when navigating the environment. Recent neuroimaging studies with human adults show that this information is represented in 2 scene-selective cortical regions-the occipital place area (OPA) and retrosplenial complex (RSC)-but not in a third scene-selective region-the parahippocampal place area (PPA). What geometric properties, then, does the PPA represent, and what is its role in scene processing? Here we hypothesize that the PPA represents relative length and angle, the geometric properties classically associated with object recognition, but only in the context of large extended surfaces that compose the layout of a scene...
June 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632038/spatial-navigation-deficits-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-with-neuropsychiatric-comorbidity
#6
Roxanne C Keynejad, Hana Marková, Kamila Šiffelová, Naveen Kumar, Kamil Vlček, Jan Laczó, Ellen M Migo, Jakub Hort, Michael D Kopelman
AIMS: To find out whether neuropsychiatric comorbidity (comMCI) influences spatial navigation performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHODS: We recruited aMCI patients with (n = 21) and without (n = 21) neuropsychiatric comorbidity or alcohol abuse, matched for global cognitive impairment and cognitively healthy elderly participants (HE, n = 22). They completed the Mini-Mental State Examination and a virtual Hidden Goal Task in egocentric, allocentric, and delayed recall subtests...
February 28, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617796/egocentric-and-allocentric-representations-in-auditory-cortex
#7
Stephen M Town, W Owen Brimijoin, Jennifer K Bizley
A key function of the brain is to provide a stable representation of an object's location in the world. In hearing, sound azimuth and elevation are encoded by neurons throughout the auditory system, and auditory cortex is necessary for sound localization. However, the coordinate frame in which neurons represent sound space remains undefined: classical spatial receptive fields in head-fixed subjects can be explained either by sensitivity to sound source location relative to the head (egocentric) or relative to the world (allocentric encoding)...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610816/egocentric-distance-perception-and-performance-of-direct-pointing-in-stereoscopic-displays
#8
Chiuhsiang J Lin, Bereket H Woldegiorgis
In this study, the interaction performances and spatial perceptions in stereoscopic environments were investigated. The experiment compared direct user interactions during pointing at a target, which was continuously visible or presented briefly and disappeared, in both stereoscopic and real environments, at three parallax/depth levels. The position data, collected by a motion system, were used to compute accuracy, signed error, movement time, and throughput. The results showed inaccurate egocentric distance judgment in stereoscopic displays and accurate perceptions in the real world...
October 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605699/intergroup-visual-perspective-taking-shared-group-membership-impairs-self-perspective-inhibition-but-may-facilitate-perspective-calculation
#9
Austin J Simpson, Andrew R Todd
Reasoning about what other people see, know, and want is essential for navigating social life. Yet, even neurodevelopmentally healthy adults make perspective-taking errors. Here, we examined how the group membership of perspective-taking targets (ingroup vs. outgroup) affects processes underlying visual perspective-taking. In three experiments using two bases of group identity (university affiliation and minimal groups), interference from one's own differing perspective (i.e., egocentric intrusion) was stronger when responding from an ingroup versus an outgroup member's perspective...
June 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604722/webknossos-efficient-online-3d-data-annotation-for-connectomics
#10
Kevin M Boergens, Manuel Berning, Tom Bocklisch, Dominic Bräunlein, Florian Drawitsch, Johannes Frohnhofen, Tom Herold, Philipp Otto, Norman Rzepka, Thomas Werkmeister, Daniel Werner, Georg Wiese, Heiko Wissler, Moritz Helmstaedter
We report webKnossos, an in-browser annotation tool for 3D electron microscopic data. webKnossos provides flight mode, a single-view egocentric reconstruction method enabling trained annotator crowds to reconstruct at a speed of 1.5 ± 0.6 mm/h for axons and 2.1 ± 0.9 mm/h for dendrites in 3D electron microscopic data from mammalian cortex. webKnossos accelerates neurite reconstruction for connectomics by 4- to 13-fold compared with current state-of-the-art tools, thus extending the range of connectomes that can realistically be mapped in the future...
June 12, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604043/in-your-shoes-or-mine-shifting-from-other-to-self-perspective-is-vital-for-emotional-empathy
#11
Chui-De Chiu, Yei-Yu Yeh
Emotional empathy-feeling another person's affective states-entails simulating how one would feel in the same circumstance. Prior research has implicated the role of executive controls and shown a link between visuospatial perspective taking and personal disposition of empathy. No study has investigated how executive control processes involved in perspective shifting relate to emotional empathy. Incorporating a spatial perspective-taking task in a set switch paradigm, we investigated whether swiftly switching from the altercentric to the egocentric perspective is associated with heightened emotional empathy but not with accurate classification of low-level perceptual affective cues...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601404/meeting-physical-activity-guidelines-the-role-of-personal-networks-among-residents-of-low-income-communities
#12
Stephanie Child, Andrew T Kaczynski, Spencer Moore
INTRODUCTION: Despite known benefits of regular physical activity (PA), residents of low-income communities have disproportionately high rates of physical inactivity. Mounting evidence suggests that social network characteristics may be associated with health behaviors, including PA. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations between egocentric network characteristics and meeting PA guidelines among residents of low-income and predominantly African-American communities...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600249/egocentric-mapping-of-body-surface-constraints
#13
Eray Molla, Henrique Galvan Debarba, Ronan Boulic
The relative location of human body parts often materializes the semantics of on-going actions, intentions and even emotions expressed, or performed, by a human being. However, traditional methods of performance animation fail to correctly and automatically map the semantics of performer postures involving self-body contacts onto characters with different sizes and proportions. Our method proposes an egocentric normalization of the body-part relative distances to preserve the consistency of self contacts for a large variety of human-like target characters...
June 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580837/representing-spatial-layout-according-to-intrinsic-frames-of-reference
#14
Chaoxiang Xie, Shiyi Li, Weidong Tao, Yiping Wei, Hong-Jin Sun
Mou and McNamara have suggested that object locations are represented according to intrinsic reference frames. In three experiments, we investigated the limitations of intrinsic reference frames as a mean to represent object locations in spatial memory. Participants learned the locations of seven or eight common objects in a rectangular room and then made judgments of relative direction based on their memory of the layout. The results of all experiments showed that when all objects were positioned regularly, judgments of relative direction were faster or more accurate for novel headings that were aligned with the primary intrinsic structure than for other novel headings; however, when one irregularly positioned object was added to the layout, this advantage was eliminated...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578106/investigating-peri-limb-interaction-between-nociception-and-vision-using-spatial-depth
#15
Camille Vanderclausen, Lieve Filbrich, Andrea Alamia, Valéry Legrain
In order to adapt behavior to a potentially body damaging threat, it is crucial to coordinate the perception of the location of the threat in external space and that of the location of the potential damage on the body surface. Such ability presupposes interactions between nociceptive stimuli and visual stimuli occurring close to the body. We hypothesized that these interactions would rely on multisensory representations of each limb itself, extending its boundaries slightly into external space, with less influence of the global representation of the body as a whole...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558393/effect-of-allocentric-landmarks-on-primate-gaze-behavior-in-a-cue-conflict-task
#16
Jirui Li, Amirsaman Sajad, Robert Marino, Xiaogang Yan, Saihong Sun, Hongying Wang, J Douglas Crawford
The relative contributions of egocentric versus allocentric cues on goal-directed behavior have been examined for reaches, but not saccades. Here, we used a cue conflict task to assess the effect of allocentric landmarks on gaze behavior. Two head-unrestrained macaques maintained central fixation while a target flashed in one of eight radial directions, set against a continuously present visual landmark (two horizontal/vertical lines spanning the visual field, intersecting at one of four oblique locations 11° from the target)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539910/the-role-of-emotional-landmarks-on-topographical-memory
#17
Massimiliano Palmiero, Laura Piccardi
The investigation of the role of emotional landmarks on human navigation has been almost totally neglected in psychological research. Therefore, the extent to which positive and negative emotional landmarks affect topographical memory as compared to neutral emotional landmark was explored. Positive, negative and neutral affect-laden images were selected as landmarks from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) Inventory. The Walking Corsi test (WalCT) was used in order to test the landmark-based topographical memory...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537369/dental-problems-and-familismo-social-network-discussion-of-oral-health-issues-among-adults-of-mexican-origin-living-in-the-midwest-united-states
#18
G Maupome, W R McConnell, B L Perry
Objective: To examine the influence of collectivist orientation (often called familismo when applied to the Latino sub-group in the United States) in oral health discussion networks. Basic Research Design: Through respondent-driven sampling and face-to-face interviews, we identified respondents' (egos) personal social network members (alters). Egos stated whom they talked with about oral health, and how often they discussed dental problems in the preceding 12 months...
December 2016: Community Dental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536954/sex-differences-in-dogs-social-learning-of-spatial-information
#19
Claudia Fugazza, Paolo Mongillo, Lieta Marinelli
We used a modified version of the Do as I Do paradigm to investigate dogs' preference and flexibility in the acquisition of different types of spatial information in social learning situations. When required to match the location of the demonstration, dogs (N = 16) preferentially relied on allocentric information, i.e., the relationship between the location of the demonstration and the various objects surrounding it. However, when allocentric cues were inadequate to solve the task, dogs learned to rely on egocentric information, i...
July 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526516/comparing-the-effect-of-temporal-delay-on-the-availability-of-egocentric-and-allocentric-information-in-visual-search
#20
Keira Ball, Yan Birch, Alison Lane, Amanda Ellison, Thomas Schenk
Frames of reference play a central role in perceiving an object's location and reaching to pick that object up. It is thought that the ventral stream, believed to subserve vision for perception, utilises allocentric coding, while the dorsal stream, argued to be responsible for vision for action, primarily uses an egocentric reference frame. We have previously shown that egocentric representations can survive a delay; however, it is possible that in comparison to allocentric information, egocentric information decays more rapidly...
May 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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