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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931613/interacting-networks-of-brain-regions-underlie-human-spatial-navigation-a-review-and-novel-synthesis-of-the-literature
#1
Arne D Ekstrom, Derek J Huffman, Michael Starrett
Navigation is an inherently dynamic and multimodal process, making isolation of the unique cognitive components underlying it challenging. The assumptions of much of the literature on human spatial navigation are that: 1) spatial navigation involves modality independent, discrete metric representations (i.e., egocentric vs. allocentric) 2) such representations can be further distilled to elemental cognitive processes 3) these cognitive processes can be ascribed to unique brain regions. Here, we argue that modality independent spatial representations, instead of providing exact metrics about our surrounding environment, more often involve heuristics for estimating spatial topology useful to the current task at hand...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923462/competing-perspectives-on-frames-of-reference-in-language-and-thought
#2
Peggy Li, Linda Abarbanell
A study found that Dutch-speaking children who prefer an egocentric (left/right) reference frame when describing spatial relationships, and Hai||om-speaking children who use a geocentric (north/south) frame had difficulty recreating small-scale spatial arrays using their language-incongruent system (Haun, Rapold, Janzen, & Levinson, 2011). In five experiments, we reconciled these results with another study showing that English (egocentric) and Tseltal Mayan (geocentric) speakers can flexibly use both systems (Abarbanell, 2010; Li, Abarbanell, Gleitman, & Papafragou, 2011)...
September 15, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918308/appropriateness-of-different-pedagogical-approaches-to-road-safety-education-for-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-dcd
#3
C Purcell, A R Romijn
BACKGROUND: In 2016, 29% of pedestrians killed or seriously injured on the roads in Great Britain were under 15 years of age. Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), a chronic disorder affecting the acquisition and execution of motor skills, may be more vulnerable at the roadside than typically developing (TD) children. Current methods used to teach road safety are typically knowledge-based and do not necessarily improve behaviour in real traffic situations. Virtual reality road crossing tasks may be a viable alternative...
September 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915266/evaluation-of-a-conceptual-framework-for-predicting-navigation-performance-in-virtual-reality
#4
Jascha Grübel, Tyler Thrash, Christoph Hölscher, Victor R Schinazi
Previous research in spatial cognition has often relied on simple spatial tasks in static environments in order to draw inferences regarding navigation performance. These tasks are typically divided into categories (e.g., egocentric or allocentric) that reflect different two-systems theories. Unfortunately, this two-systems approach has been insufficient for reliably predicting navigation performance in virtual reality (VR). In the present experiment, participants were asked to learn and navigate towards goal locations in a virtual city and then perform eight simple spatial tasks in a separate environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910623/laminar-organization-of-encoding-and-memory-reactivation-in-the-parietal-cortex
#5
Aaron A Wilber, Ivan Skelin, Wei Wu, Bruce L McNaughton
Egocentric neural coding has been observed in parietal cortex (PC), but its topographical and laminar organization is not well characterized. We used multi-site recording to look for evidence of local clustering and laminar consistency of linear and angular velocity encoding in multi-neuronal spiking activity (MUA) and in the high-frequency (300-900 Hz) component of the local field potential (HF-LFP), believed to reflect local spiking activity. Rats were trained to run many trials on a large circular platform, either to LED-cued goal locations or as a spatial sequence from memory...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894832/visual-effects-on-the-subjective-visual-vertical-and-subjective-postural-head-vertical-during-static-roll-tilt
#6
Atsushi Tamura, Yoshiro Wada, Akihiro Kurita, Takeshi Matsunobu, Takuo Inui, Akihiro Shiotani
OBJECTIVES: Tilt perception is part of the perception of spatial orientation. It is determined not only by the allocentric gravity axis, but also by a second allocentric axis induced by visual information as well as by the egocentric body (head) axis induced by somatosensory information. The aim of this study was to quantify roll-tilt perception using the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the newly developed subjective postural head vertical (SPHV) and to investigate the visual effects on both during static roll-tilt...
June 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880126/detecting-allocentric-and-egocentric-navigation-deficits-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-using-virtual-reality
#7
Alireza Mohammadi, Ehsan Hesami, Mahmoud Kargar, Jamal Shams
Present evidence suggests that the use of virtual reality has great advantages in evaluating visuospatial navigation and memory for the diagnosis of psychiatric or other neurological disorders. There are a few virtual reality studies on allocentric and egocentric memories in schizophrenia, but studies on both memories in bipolar disorder are lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of allocentric and egocentric memories in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. For this resolve, an advanced virtual reality navigation task (VRNT) was presented to distinguish the navigational performances of these patients...
September 7, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843415/complexity-vs-unity-in-unilateral-spatial-neglect
#8
REVIEW
G Rode, M Fourtassi, C Pagliari, L Pisella, Y Rossetti
Unilateral spatial neglect constitutes a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by two main entangled components: a contralesional bias of spatial attention orientation; and impaired building and/or exploration of mental representations of space. These two components are present in different subtypes of unilateral spatial neglect (visual, auditory, somatosensory, motor, allocentric, egocentric, personal, representational and productive manifestations). Detailed anatomical and clinical analyses of these conditions and their underlying disorders show the complexity of spatial cognitive deficits and the difficulty of proposing just one explanation...
August 23, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837967/stereovision-for-action-reflects-our-perceptual-experience-of-distance-and-depth
#9
Carlo Campagnoli, Sholei Croom, Fulvio Domini
Binocular vision is widely recognized as the most reliable source of 3D information within the peripersonal space, where grasping takes place. Since grasping is normally successful, it is often assumed that stereovision for action is accurate. This claim contradicts psychophysical studies showing that observers cannot estimate the 3D properties of an object veridically from binocular information. In two experiments, we compared a front-to-back grasp with a perceptual depth estimation task and found that in both conditions participants consistently relied on the same distorted 3D representation...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828738/can-burt-s-theory-of-structural-holes-be-applied-to-study-social-support-among-mid-age-female-sex-workers-a-multi-site-egocentric-network-study-in-china
#10
Hongjie Liu
The epidemic of HIV/AIDS continues to spread among older adults and mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. We used egocentric network data collected from three study sites in China to examine the applicability of Burt's Theory of Social Holes to study social support among mid-age FSWs. Using respondent-driven sampling, 1245 eligible mid-age FSWs were interviewed. Network structural holes were measured by network constraint and effective size. Three types of social networks were identified: family networks, workplace networks, and non-FSW networks...
August 21, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818696/cortical-networks-for-reference-frame-processing-are-shared-by-language-and-spatial-navigation-systems
#11
Nikola Vukovic, Yury Shtyrov
To help us live in the three-dimensional world, our brain integrates incoming spatial information into reference frames, which are based either on our own body (egocentric) or independent from it (allocentric). Such frames, however, may be crucial not only when interacting with the visual world, but also in language comprehension, since even the simplest utterance can be understood from different perspectives. While significant progress has been made in elucidating how linguistic factors, such as pronouns, influence reference frame adoption, the neural underpinnings of this ability are largely unknown...
August 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816483/effect-of-travel-speed-on-the-visual-control-of-steering-toward-a-goal
#12
Rongrong Chen, Diederick C Niehorster, Li Li
Previous studies have proposed that people can use visual cues such as the instantaneous direction (i.e., heading) or future path trajectory of travel specified by optic flow or target visual direction in egocentric space to steer or walk toward a goal. In the current study, we examined what visual cues people use to guide their goal-oriented locomotion and whether their reliance on such visual cues changes as travel speed increases. We presented participants with optic flow displays that simulated their self-motion toward a target at various travel speeds under two viewing conditions in which we made target egocentric direction available or unavailable for steering...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814002/joint-based-velocity-feedback-to-virtual-limb-dynamic-perturbations
#13
Eric J Earley, Kyle J Kaveny, Reva E Johnson, Levi J Hargrove, Jon W Sensinger
Despite significant research developing myoelectric prosthesis controllers, many amputees have difficulty controlling their devices due in part to reduced sensory feedback. Many attempts at providing supplemental sensory feedback have not significantly aided control. We hypothesize this is because the feedback provided contains redundant information already provided by vision. However, whereas vision provides egocentric, position-based feedback, sensory feedback tied to joint coordinates may provide information complementary to vision...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802103/where-you-are-affects-what-you-can-easily-imagine-environmental-geometry-elicits-sensorimotor-interference-in-remote-perspective-taking
#14
Bernhard E Riecke, Timothy P McNamara
Imagined perspective switches are notoriously difficult, a fact often ascribed to sensorimotor interference between one's to-be-imagined versus actual orientation. Here, we demonstrate similar interference effects, even if participants know they are in a remote environment with unknown spatial relation to the learning environment. Participants learned 15 target objects irregularly arranged in an office from one orientation (0°, 120°, or 240°). Participants were blindfolded and disoriented before being wheeled to a test room of similar geometry (exp...
August 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798682/a-novel-virtual-reality-based-training-protocol-for-the-enhancement-of-the-mental-frame-syncing-in-individuals-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-development-of-concept-trial
#15
Silvia Serino, Elisa Pedroli, Cosimo Tuena, Gianluca De Leo, Marco Stramba-Badiale, Karine Goulene, Noemi G Mariotti, Giuseppe Riva
A growing body of evidence suggests that people with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) show compromised spatial abilities. In addition, there exists from the earliest stages of AD a specific impairment in "mental frame syncing," which is the ability to synchronize an allocentric viewpoint-independent representation (including object-to-object information) with an egocentric one by computing the bearing of each relevant "object" in the environment in relation to the stored heading in space (i.e., information about our viewpoint contained in the allocentric viewpoint-dependent representation)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798674/adaptive-gaze-strategies-for-locomotion-with-constricted-visual-field
#16
Colas N Authié, Alain Berthoz, José-Alain Sahel, Avinoam B Safran
In retinitis pigmentosa (RP), loss of peripheral visual field accounts for most difficulties encountered in visuo-motor coordination during locomotion. The purpose of this study was to accurately assess the impact of peripheral visual field loss on gaze strategies during locomotion, and identify compensatory mechanisms. Nine RP subjects presenting a central visual field limited to 10-25° in diameter, and nine healthy subjects were asked to walk in one of three directions-straight ahead to a visual target, leftward and rightward through a door frame, with or without obstacle on the way...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790948/bridging-social-circles-need-for-cognition-prejudicial-judgments-and-personal-social-network-characteristics
#17
Petru L Curşeu, Jeroen P de Jong
Various factors pertaining to the social context (availability of plausible social contacts) as well as personality traits influence the emergence of social ties that ultimately compose one's personal social network. We build on a situational selection model to argue that personality traits influence the cognitive processing of social cues that in turn influences the preference for particular social ties. More specifically, we use a cross-lagged design to test a mediation model explaining the effects of need for cognition (NFC) on egocentric network characteristics...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789680/the-influential-role-of-personal-advice-networks-on-general-practitioners-performance-a-social-capital-perspective
#18
Stefano Calciolari, Laura G González-Ortiz, Federico Lega
BACKGROUND: In several health systems of advanced countries, reforms have changed primary care in the last two decades. The literature has assessed the effects of a variety of interventions and individual factors on the behavior of general practitioners (GPs). However, there has been a lack of investigation concerning the influence of the resources embedded in the GPs' personal advice networks (i.e., social capital) on GPs' capacity to meet defined objectives. The present study has two goals: (a) to assess the GPs' personal advice networks according to the social capital framework and (b) to test the influence of such relationships on GPs' capacity to accomplish organizational goals...
August 8, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783938/neural-correlates-of-a-perspective-taking-task-using-in-a-realistic-three-dimmensional-environment-based-task-a-pilot-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#19
Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Venkataram Shivakumar, Sunil V Kalmady, Vijay Danivas, Anekal C Amaresha, Anushree Bose, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Michel-Ange Amorim, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Objective: Perspective-taking ability is an essential spatial faculty that is of much interest in both health and neuropsychiatric disorders. There is limited data on the neural correlates of perspective taking in the context of a realistic three-dimensional environment. We report the results of a pilot study exploring the same in eight healthy volunteers. Methods: Subjects underwent two runs of an experiment in a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) involving alternate blocks of a first-person perspective based allocentric object location memory task (OLMT), a third-person perspective based egocentric visual perspective taking task (VPRT), and a table task (TT) that served as a control...
August 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780430/hippocampal-activation-and-memory-performance-in-schizophrenia-depend-on-strategy-use-in-a-virtual-maze
#20
Leanne K Wilkins, Todd A Girard, Katherine A Herdman, Bruce K Christensen, Jelena King, Michael Kiang, Veronique D Bohbot
Different strategies may be spontaneously adopted to solve most navigation tasks. These strategies are associated with dissociable brain systems. Here, we use brain-imaging and cognitive tasks to test the hypothesis that individuals living with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD) have selective impairment using a hippocampal-dependent spatial navigation strategy. Brain activation and memory performance were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the 4-on-8 virtual maze (4/8VM) task, a human analog of the rodent radial-arm maze that is amenable to both response-based (egocentric or landmark-based) and spatial (allocentric, cognitive mapping) strategies to remember and navigate to target objects...
July 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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