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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427989/egocentric-and-allocentric-visuospatial-working-memory-in-premotor-huntington-s-disease-a-double-dissociation-with-caudate-and-hippocampal-volumes
#1
Katherine L Possin, Hosung Kim, Michael D Geschwind, Tacie Moskowitz, Erica T Johnson, Sharon J Sha, Alexandra Apple, Duan Xu, Bruce L Miller, Steven Finkbeiner, Christopher P Hess, Joel H Kramer
Our brains represent spatial information in egocentric (self-based) or allocentric (landmark-based) coordinates. Rodent studies have demonstrated a critical role for the caudate in egocentric navigation and the hippocampus in allocentric navigation. We administered tests of egocentric and allocentric working memory to individuals with premotor Huntington's disease (pmHD), which is associated with early caudate nucleus atrophy, and controls. Each test had 80 trials during which subjects were asked to remember 2 locations over 1-sec delays...
April 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426950/testing-the-validity-of-a-continuous-false-belief-task-in-3-to-7-year-old-children
#2
Caitlin E V Mahy, Daniel M Bernstein, Lindsey D Gerrard, Cristina M Atance
In two studies, we examined young children's performance on the paper-and-pencil version of the Sandbox task, a continuous measure of false belief, and its relations with other false belief and inhibition tasks. In Study 1, 96 children aged 3 to 7years completed three false belief tasks (Sandbox, Unexpected Contents, and Appearance/Reality) and two inhibition tasks (Head-Shoulders-Knees-Toes and Grass/Snow). Results revealed that false belief bias-a measure of egocentrism-on the Sandbox task correlated with age but not with the Unexpected Contents or Appearance/Reality task or with measures of inhibition after controlling for age...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410393/counting-distance-effects-of-egocentric-distance-on-numerical-perception
#3
Nurit Gronau, Anna Izoutcheev, Tsafnat Nave, Avishai Henik
Numerical value is long known to be associated with a variety of magnitude representations, such as size, time and space. The present study focused on the interactive relations of numerical magnitude with a spatial factor which is dominant in everyday vision and is often overlooked, namely, egocentric distance, or depth. We hypothesized that digits denoting large magnitudes are associated with large perceived distances, and vice versa. While the relations of numerical value and size have been long documented, effects of egocentric distance on numeral perception have been scarcely investigated, presumably due to the difficulty to disentangle size and depth factors within three-dimensional visual displays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375716/does-the-convergent-validity-of-the-pai-antisocial-features-scale-depend-on-offender-response-style
#4
Brett O Gardner, Marcus T Boccaccini
Researchers have recently questioned the utility of the response style indicators included on many self-report measures of personality and psychopathology. We examined whether the size of convergent validity coefficients for Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) Antisocial Features (ANT) scores depends on PAI validity scale scores. Using PAI and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) scores from 477 offenders evaluated for civil commitment as sexually violent predators, we found that PAI Positive Impression (PIM), Negative Impression (NIM), Malingering Index (MAL), Defensiveness Index (DEF), and Infrequency (INF) scores moderated the association between ANT and PCL-R scores...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367609/topographical-disorientation-in-a-patient-with-right-parahippocampal-infarction
#5
Kazuhiro Ishii, Reiko Koide, Naomi Mamada, Akira Tamaoka
We here describe a patient showing topographical disorientation (TD) after infarction of the right medial occipital lobe; the lesion included the parahippocampal gyrus. Clinical and neuropsychological observations demonstrated a specific pattern of impairment in terms of visual and visuospatial (topographical) learning, and memory. He had no landmark agnosia. His defective route finding resulted from impaired allocentric and egocentric spatial representations. Drawing illustrations of both familial and unfamiliar place and orientation tasks in an egocentric coordination context is a useful means of recognizing the influence of egocentric and/or allocentric spatial disturbance...
April 3, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365362/the-precuneus-and-hippocampus-contribute-to-individual-differences-in-the-unfolding-of-spatial-representations-during-episodic-autobiographical-memory
#6
Melissa Hebscher, Brian Levine, Asaf Gilboa
Spatial information is a central aspect of episodic autobiographical memory (EAM). Space-based theories of memory, including cognitive map and scene construction models, posit that spatial reinstatement is a required process during early event recall. Spatial information can be represented from both allocentric (third-person) and egocentric (first-person) perspectives during EAM, with egocentric perspectives being important for mental imagery and supported by the precuneus. Individuals differ in their tendency to rely on allocentric or egocentric information, and in general, the subjective experience of remembering in EAM differs greatly across individuals...
March 29, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361562/age-related-similarities-and-differences-in-monitoring-spatial-cognition
#7
Robert Ariel, Scott D Moffat
Spatial cognitive performance is impaired in later adulthood but it is unclear whether the metacognitive processes involved in monitoring spatial cognitive performance are also compromised. Inaccurate monitoring could affect whether people choose to engage in tasks that require spatial thinking and also the strategies they use in spatial domains such as navigation. The current experiment examined potential age differences in monitoring spatial cognitive performance in a variety of spatial domains including visual-spatial working memory, spatial orientation, spatial visualization, navigation, and place learning...
March 31, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361383/-does-this-look-infected-to-you-social-network-predictors-of-dental-help-seeking-among-mexican-immigrants
#8
Erin Pullen, Brea L Perry, Gerardo Maupome
Compared to U.S. born Latinos, Mexican immigrants (MAs) have diminished health care access and face substantial barriers to accessing needed dental health services. However, little research has examined how MAs social networks shape their use of dental health services. Using data from 332 Mexican immigrants to the Midwest, this research examines the significance of individual and egocentric network characteristics on two measures of dental health service utilization. Findings reveal that network size, network dental service utilization, and the frequency with which MAs discuss acute problems with network ties, positively correspond to use of oral health services...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358297/spatial-updating-of-haptic-arrays-across-the-life-span
#9
Nicholas A Giudice, Christopher R Bennett, Roberta L Klatzky, Jack M Loomis
Background/Study Context: Aging research addressing spatial learning, representation, and action is almost exclusively based on vision as the input source. Much less is known about how spatial abilities from nonvisual inputs, particularly from haptic information, may change during life-span spatial development. This research studied whether learning and updating of haptic target configurations differs as a function of age. METHODS: Three groups of participants, ranging from 20 to 80 years old, felt four-target table-top circular arrays and then performed several tasks to assess life-span haptic spatial cognition...
May 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352948/visual-information-from-observing-grasping-movement-in-allocentric-and-egocentric-perspectives-development-in-typical-children
#10
Francesca Tinelli, Giovanni Cioni, Giulio Sandini, Marco Turi, Maria Concetta Morrone
Development of the motor system lags behind that of the visual system and might delay some visual properties more closely linked to action. We measured the developmental trajectory of the discrimination of object size from observation of the biological motion of a grasping action in egocentric and allocentric viewpoints (observing action of others or self), in children and adolescents from 5 to 18 years of age. Children of 5-7 years of age performed the task at chance, indicating a delayed ability to understand the goal of the action...
March 28, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329868/the-roles-for-prior-visual-experience-and-age-on-the-extraction-of-egocentric-distance
#11
Courtney P Wallin, Daniel A Gajewski, Rebeca W Teplitz, Sandra Mihelic Jaidzeka, John W Philbeck
Objectives: In a well-lit room, observers can generate well-constrained estimates of the distance to an object on the floor even with just a fleeting glimpse. Performance under these conditions is typically characterized by some underestimation but improves when observers have previewed the room. Such evidence suggests that information extracted from longer durations may be stored to contribute to the perception of distance at limited time frames. Here, we examined the possibility that this stored information is used differentially across age...
July 29, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326888/peripersonal-versus-extrapersonal-visual-scene-information-for-egocentric-direction-and-position-perception
#12
Ryoichi Nakashima, Takatsune Kumada
When perceiving the visual environment, people simultaneously perceive their own direction and position in the environment (i.e., egocentric spatial perception). This study investigated what visual information in a scene is necessary for egocentric spatial perceptions. In two perception tasks (the egocentric direction and position perception tasks), observers viewed two static road images presented sequentially. In Experiment 1, the critical manipulation involved an occluded region in the road image; an extrapersonal region (far-occlusion) and a peripersonal region (near-occlusion)...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324745/spatial-cognition-goal-vector-cells-in-the-bat-hippocampus
#13
William de Cothi, Hugo J Spiers
A new study recording from the hippocampus of flying bats has revealed populations of neurons tuned to the egocentric direction of the goal, the distance to the goal or their conjunction during spatial navigation.
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315945/organization-of-the-reach-and-grasp-in-head-fixed-vs-freely-moving-mice-provides-support-for-multiple-motor-channel-theory-of-neocortical-organization
#14
Ian Q Whishaw, Jamshid Faraji, Jessica Kuntz, Behroo Mirza Agha, Mukt Patel, Gerlinde A S Metz, Majid H Mohajerani
Multiple motor channel (MMC) theory of neocortical organization proposes that complex movements, such as reaching for a food item to eat, are produced by the coordinated action of separate neural channels. For example, the human reach-to-grasp act is mediated by two visuo-parieto-motor cortex channels, one for the reach and one for the grasp. The present analysis asked whether there is a similar organization of reach-and-grasp movements in the mouse. The reach-to-eat movements of the same mice were examined from high-shutter speed, frame-by-frame video analysis in three tasks in which the mice obtained equivalent success scores: when freely-moving reaching for food pellets, when head-fixed reaching for food pellets, and when head-fixed reaching for pieces of pasta...
March 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314918/oculomotor-prismatic-training-is-effective-in-ameliorating-spatial-neglect-a-pilot-study
#15
I Ronga, M Franza, P Sarasso, M Neppi-Modona
Visuomotor prismatic training has been demonstrated to be among the most effective rehabilitative techniques of spatial neglect, a neurological syndrome manifested by a number of right brain-damaged patients characterized by unawareness of the egocentric left half of the world. In the present study, we demonstrate that a novel oculomotor prismatic training procedure only consisting in a sequence of gaze shifts to visual targets, can reduce spatial neglect symptoms. Following oculomotor prismatic training, patients show a significant decrease in neglect severity in straight ahead and paper and pencil tasks...
March 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283695/restructuring-the-navigational-field-individual-predisposition-towards-field-independence-predicts-preferred-navigational-strategy
#16
Maddalena Boccia, Laura Piccardi, Adele D'Alessandro, Raffaella Nori, Cecilia Guariglia
To successfully navigate within an environment, individuals have to organize the spatial information in terms of salient landmarks, paths and general layout of the navigational environment. They may differ in the strategy they adopt to orientate themselves, with some individuals preferring to use salient landmarks (landmark spatial style, L-SS), others preferring to plan routes or paths through an egocentric strategy in which landmarks are connected with each other (route spatial style, R-SS) and others still create a global map-like configuration of the environment regardless of their own position in the environment (survey spatial style, S-SS)...
March 10, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280248/dynamics-of-cortical-dendritic-membrane-potential-and-spikes-in-freely-behaving-rats
#17
Jason J Moore, Pascal M Ravassard, David Ho, Lavanya Acharya, Ashley L Kees, Cliff Vuong, Mayank R Mehta
Neural activity in vivo is primarily measured using extracellular somatic spikes, which provide limited information about neural computation. Hence, it is necessary to record from neuronal dendrites, which can generate dendritic action potentials (DAPs) in vitro, which can profoundly influence neural computation and plasticity. We measured neocortical sub- and suprathreshold dendritic membrane potential (DMP) from putative distal-most dendrites using tetrodes in freely behaving rats over multiple days with a high degree of stability and submillisecond temporal resolution...
March 24, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261066/ring-attractor-dynamics-emerge-from-a-spiking-model-of-the-entire-protocerebral-bridge
#18
Kyobi S Kakaria, Benjamin L de Bivort
Animal navigation is accomplished by a combination of landmark-following and dead reckoning based on estimates of self motion. Both of these approaches require the encoding of heading information, which can be represented as an allocentric or egocentric azimuthal angle. Recently, Ca(2+) correlates of landmark position and heading direction, in egocentric coordinates, were observed in the ellipsoid body (EB), a ring-shaped processing unit in the fly central complex (CX; Seelig and Jayaraman, 2015). These correlates displayed key dynamics of so-called ring attractors, namely: (1) responsiveness to the position of external stimuli; (2) persistence in the absence of external stimuli; (3) locking onto a single external stimulus when presented with two competitors; (4) stochastically switching between competitors with low probability; and (5) sliding or jumping between positions when an external stimulus moves...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261053/auditory-spatial-recalibration-in-congenital-blind-individuals
#19
Sara Finocchietti, Giulia Cappagli, Monica Gori
Blind individuals show impairments for auditory spatial skills that require complex spatial representation of the environment. We suggest that this is partially due to the egocentric frame of reference used by blind individuals. Here we investigate the possibility of reducing the mentioned auditory spatial impairments with an audio-motor training. Our hypothesis is that the association between a motor command and the corresponding movement's sensory feedback can provide an allocentric frame of reference and consequently help blind individuals in understanding complex spatial relationships...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258363/theta-rhythm-makes-the-world-go-round-dissociative-effects-of-tms-theta-versus-alpha-entrainment-of-right-ptpj-on-embodied-perspective-transformations
#20
Gerard Gooding-Williams, Hongfang Wang, Klaus Kessler
Being able to imagine another person's experience and perspective of the world is a crucial human ability and recent reports suggest that humans "embody" another's viewpoint by mentally rotating their own body representation into the other's orientation. Our recent Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data further confirmed this notion of embodied perspective transformations and pinpointed the right posterior temporo-parietal junction (pTPJ) as the crucial hub in a distributed network oscillating at theta frequency (3-7 Hz)...
March 3, 2017: Brain Topography
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