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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329868/the-roles-for-prior-visual-experience-and-age-on-the-extraction-of-egocentric-distance
#1
Courtney P Wallin, Daniel A Gajewski, Rebeca W Teplitz, Sandra Mihelic Jaidzeka, John W Philbeck
Objectives: In a well-lit room, observers can generate well-constrained estimates of the distance to an object on the floor even with just a fleeting glimpse. Performance under these conditions is typically characterized by some underestimation but improves when observers have previewed the room. Such evidence suggests that information extracted from longer durations may be stored to contribute to the perception of distance at limited time frames. Here, we examined the possibility that this stored information is used differentially across age...
July 29, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326888/peripersonal-versus-extrapersonal-visual-scene-information-for-egocentric-direction-and-position-perception
#2
Ryoichi Nakashima, Takatsune Kumada
When perceiving the visual environment, people simultaneously perceive their own direction and position in the environment (i.e., egocentric spatial perception). This study investigated what visual information in a scene is necessary for egocentric spatial perceptions. In two perception tasks (the egocentric direction and position perception tasks), observers viewed two static road images presented sequentially. In Experiment 1, the critical manipulation involved an occluded region in the road image; an extrapersonal region (far-occlusion) and a peripersonal region (near-occlusion)...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324745/spatial-cognition-goal-vector-cells-in-the-bat-hippocampus
#3
William de Cothi, Hugo J Spiers
A new study recording from the hippocampus of flying bats has revealed populations of neurons tuned to the egocentric direction of the goal, the distance to the goal or their conjunction during spatial navigation.
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315945/organization-of-the-reach-and-grasp-in-head-fixed-vs-freely-moving-mice-provides-support-for-multiple-motor-channel-theory-of-neocortical-organization
#4
Ian Q Whishaw, Jamshid Faraji, Jessica Kuntz, Behroo Mirza Agha, Mukt Patel, Gerlinde A S Metz, Majid H Mohajerani
Multiple motor channel (MMC) theory of neocortical organization proposes that complex movements, such as reaching for a food item to eat, are produced by the coordinated action of separate neural channels. For example, the human reach-to-grasp act is mediated by two visuo-parieto-motor cortex channels, one for the reach and one for the grasp. The present analysis asked whether there is a similar organization of reach-and-grasp movements in the mouse. The reach-to-eat movements of the same mice were examined from high-shutter speed, frame-by-frame video analysis in three tasks in which the mice obtained equivalent success scores: when freely-moving reaching for food pellets, when head-fixed reaching for food pellets, and when head-fixed reaching for pieces of pasta...
March 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314918/oculomotor-prismatic-training-is-effective-in-ameliorating-spatial-neglect-a-pilot-study
#5
I Ronga, M Franza, P Sarasso, M Neppi-Modona
Visuomotor prismatic training has been demonstrated to be among the most effective rehabilitative techniques of spatial neglect, a neurological syndrome manifested by a number of right brain-damaged patients characterized by unawareness of the egocentric left half of the world. In the present study, we demonstrate that a novel oculomotor prismatic training procedure only consisting in a sequence of gaze shifts to visual targets, can reduce spatial neglect symptoms. Following oculomotor prismatic training, patients show a significant decrease in neglect severity in straight ahead and paper and pencil tasks...
March 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283695/restructuring-the-navigational-field-individual-predisposition-towards-field-independence-predicts-preferred-navigational-strategy
#6
Maddalena Boccia, Laura Piccardi, Adele D'Alessandro, Raffaella Nori, Cecilia Guariglia
To successfully navigate within an environment, individuals have to organize the spatial information in terms of salient landmarks, paths and general layout of the navigational environment. They may differ in the strategy they adopt to orientate themselves, with some individuals preferring to use salient landmarks (landmark spatial style, L-SS), others preferring to plan routes or paths through an egocentric strategy in which landmarks are connected with each other (route spatial style, R-SS) and others still create a global map-like configuration of the environment regardless of their own position in the environment (survey spatial style, S-SS)...
March 10, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280248/dynamics-of-cortical-dendritic-membrane-potential-and-spikes-in-freely-behaving-rats
#7
Jason J Moore, Pascal M Ravassard, David Ho, Lavanya Acharya, Ashley L Kees, Cliff Vuong, Mayank R Mehta
Neural activity in vivo is primarily measured using extracellular somatic spikes, which provide limited information about neural computation. Hence, it is necessary to record from neuronal dendrites, which can generate dendritic action potentials (DAPs) in vitro, which can profoundly influence neural computation and plasticity. We measured neocortical sub- and suprathreshold dendritic membrane potential (DMP) from putative distal-most dendrites using tetrodes in freely behaving rats over multiple days with a high degree of stability and submillisecond temporal resolution...
March 24, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261066/ring-attractor-dynamics-emerge-from-a-spiking-model-of-the-entire-protocerebral-bridge
#8
Kyobi S Kakaria, Benjamin L de Bivort
Animal navigation is accomplished by a combination of landmark-following and dead reckoning based on estimates of self motion. Both of these approaches require the encoding of heading information, which can be represented as an allocentric or egocentric azimuthal angle. Recently, Ca(2+) correlates of landmark position and heading direction, in egocentric coordinates, were observed in the ellipsoid body (EB), a ring-shaped processing unit in the fly central complex (CX; Seelig and Jayaraman, 2015). These correlates displayed key dynamics of so-called ring attractors, namely: (1) responsiveness to the position of external stimuli; (2) persistence in the absence of external stimuli; (3) locking onto a single external stimulus when presented with two competitors; (4) stochastically switching between competitors with low probability; and (5) sliding or jumping between positions when an external stimulus moves...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261053/auditory-spatial-recalibration-in-congenital-blind-individuals
#9
Sara Finocchietti, Giulia Cappagli, Monica Gori
Blind individuals show impairments for auditory spatial skills that require complex spatial representation of the environment. We suggest that this is partially due to the egocentric frame of reference used by blind individuals. Here we investigate the possibility of reducing the mentioned auditory spatial impairments with an audio-motor training. Our hypothesis is that the association between a motor command and the corresponding movement's sensory feedback can provide an allocentric frame of reference and consequently help blind individuals in understanding complex spatial relationships...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258363/theta-rhythm-makes-the-world-go-round-dissociative-effects-of-tms-theta-versus-alpha-entrainment-of-right-ptpj-on-embodied-perspective-transformations
#10
Gerard Gooding-Williams, Hongfang Wang, Klaus Kessler
Being able to imagine another person's experience and perspective of the world is a crucial human ability and recent reports suggest that humans "embody" another's viewpoint by mentally rotating their own body representation into the other's orientation. Our recent Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data further confirmed this notion of embodied perspective transformations and pinpointed the right posterior temporo-parietal junction (pTPJ) as the crucial hub in a distributed network oscillating at theta frequency (3-7 Hz)...
March 3, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253333/personality-traits-and-ego-network-dynamics
#11
Simone Centellegher, Eduardo López, Jari Saramäki, Bruno Lepri
Strong and supportive social relationships are fundamental to our well-being. However, there are costs to their maintenance, resulting in a trade-off between quality and quantity, a typical strategy being to put a lot of effort on a few high-intensity relationships while maintaining larger numbers of less close relationships. It has also been shown that there are persistent individual differences in this pattern; some individuals allocate their efforts more uniformly across their networks, while others strongly focus on their closest relationships...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253002/the-grounded-nature-of-psychological-perspective-taking
#12
Thorsten M Erle, Sascha Topolinski
Psychological perspective-taking is a powerful social cognition that helps us to understand other people. It creates feelings of closeness and sympathy, motivates us to help others, and is important for positive social relationships. In contrast to the impressive knowledge about its consequences, relatively little is known about how exactly people achieve them. The present paper addresses this question from a grounded cognition perspective, drawing on recent findings on the embodiment of visuospatial perspective-taking...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223931/a-computational-model-for-spatial-navigation-based-on-reference-frames-in-the-hippocampus-retrosplenial-cortex-and-posterior-parietal-cortex
#13
Timo Oess, Jeffrey L Krichmar, Florian Röhrbein
Behavioral studies for humans, monkeys, and rats have shown that, while traversing an environment, these mammals tend to use different frames of reference and frequently switch between them. These frames represent allocentric, egocentric, or route-centric views of the environment. However, combinations of either of them are often deployed. Neurophysiological studies on rats have indicated that the hippocampus, the retrosplenial cortex, and the posterior parietal cortex contribute to the formation of these frames and mediate the transformation between those...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221082/partial-lesion-of-the-nigrostriatal-dopamine-pathway-in-rats-impairs-egocentric-learning-but-not-spatial-learning-or-behavioral-flexibility
#14
Katharine M Seip-Cammack, James J Young, Megan E Young, Matthew L Shapiro
Degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in Parkinson's disease (PD) causes motor dysfunction and cognitive impairment, but the etiology of the cognitive deficits remains unclear. The present study investigated the behavioral effects of partial lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway. Rats received bilateral infusions of either 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or vehicle into the dorsolateral striatum and were tested in spatial and procedural learning tasks. Compared with intact rats, DA-depleted rats were impaired when the first task they learned required egocentric responses...
April 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190682/perception-of-active-head-rotation-in-patients-with-severe-left-unilateral-spatial-neglect
#15
Shinobu Kaibe, Manabu Okita, Hideto Kaba
Unilateral spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following predominantly right hemisphere damage, and is characterized by a failure to perceive and report stimuli in the contralesional side of space. To test the reference shift hypothesis that contralesional spatial neglect in right-brain-damaged patients is attributed to a rightward deviation of the egocentric reference frame, we measured the final angular position to which controls and left-side neglect patients actively turned their head toward the left in response to a verbal instruction given from each of three locations-right, left, and front-in two conditions, with and without visual feedback...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188853/drifting-while-stepping-in-place-in-old-adults-association-of-self-motion-perception-with-reference-frame-reliance-and-ground-optic-flow-sensitivity
#16
Catherine P Agathos, Delphine Bernardin, Konogan Baranton, Christine Assaiante, Brice Isableu
Optic flow provides visual self-motion information and is shown to modulate gait and provoke postural reactions. We have previously reported an increased reliance on the visual, as opposed to the somatosensory-based egocentric, frame of reference (FoR) for spatial orientation with age. In this study, we evaluated FoR reliance for self-motion perception with respect to the ground surface. We examined how effects of ground optic flow direction on posture may be enhanced by an intermittent podal contact with the ground, and reliance on the visual FoR and aging...
April 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185328/where-is-the-subjective-straight-ahead-in-williams-syndrome
#17
A Saj, J Heiz, K Barisnikov
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Williams Syndrome (WS) are known to have particular difficulties when performing visuo-spatial tasks, which could be related to their difficulties in using a specific reference system to determine spatial relations. The aim of the present study was to assess the internal representation of the body's sagittal plane, which is an important benchmark for an egocentric frame of reference. METHOD: The results of 18 WS individuals (mean age = 20...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168112/what-has-been-missed-for-predicting-human-attention-in-viewing-driving-clips
#18
Jiawei Xu, Shigang Yue, Federica Menchinelli, Kun Guo
Recent research progress on the topic of human visual attention allocation in scene perception and its simulation is based mainly on studies with static images. However, natural vision requires us to extract visual information that constantly changes due to egocentric movements or dynamics of the world. It is unclear to what extent spatio-temporal regularity, an inherent regularity in dynamic vision, affects human gaze distribution and saliency computation in visual attention models. In this free-viewing eye-tracking study we manipulated the spatio-temporal regularity of traffic videos by presenting them in normal video sequence, reversed video sequence, normal frame sequence, and randomised frame sequence...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166888/how-much-time-do-drivers-need-to-obtain-situation-awareness-a-laboratory-based-study-of-automated-driving
#19
Zhenji Lu, Xander Coster, Joost de Winter
Drivers of automated cars may occasionally need to take back manual control after a period of inattentiveness. At present, it is unknown how long it takes to build up situation awareness of a traffic situation. In this study, 34 participants were presented with animated video clips of traffic situations on a three-lane road, from an egocentric viewpoint on a monitor equipped with eye tracker. Each participant viewed 24 videos of different durations (1, 3, 7, 9, 12, or 20 s). After each video, participants reproduced the end of the video by placing cars in a top-down view, and indicated the relative speeds of the placed cars with respect to the ego-vehicle...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162167/-change-of-white-matter-neuronal-integrity-associated-with-spatial-navigation-impairment-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#20
W P Li, F F Wang, J M Lu, S C Wu, W B Wu, R Y Liu, X Zhang, M Li, H Zhao, B Zhu, Y Xu, B Zhang
Objective: To analyze the correlation between white matter integrity and spatial navigation impairment in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: A total of 27 MCI subjects and 24 healthy controls were enrolled from the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School from May 2015 to February 2016, who underwent 3.0 T MRI scan and 2D-computer version spatial navigation test.DTI preprocessing and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were performed by PANDA.Two sample t-test and partial correlation coefficients were performed to investigate the correlation of white matter impairments and spatial navigation decline...
January 17, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
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