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Jean Laurens, Dora E Angelaki
Head direction cells form an internal compass signaling head azimuth orientation even without visual landmarks. This property is generated by a neuronal ring attractor that is updated using rotation velocity cues. The properties and origin of this velocity drive remain, however, unknown. We propose a quantitative framework whereby this drive represents a multisensory self-motion estimate computed through an internal model that uses sensory prediction errors of vestibular, visual, and somatosensory cues to improve on-line motor drive...
January 17, 2018: Neuron
Gennaro Ruggiero, Francesco Ruotolo, Tina Iachini
Many everyday spatial activities require the cooperation or switching between egocentric (subject-to-object) and allocentric (object-to-object) spatial representations. The literature on blind people has reported that the lack of vision (congenital blindness) may limit the capacity to represent allocentric spatial information. However, research has mainly focused on the selective involvement of egocentric or allocentric representations, not the switching between them. Here we investigated the effect of visual deprivation on the ability to switch between spatial frames of reference...
January 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Jeremy Viczko, Valya Sergeeva, Laura B Ray, Adrian M Owen, Stuart M Fogel
Sleep facilitates the consolidation (i.e., enhancement) of simple, explicit (i.e., conscious) motor sequence learning (MSL). MSL can be dissociated into egocentric (i.e., motor) or allocentric (i.e., spatial) frames of reference. The consolidation of the allocentric memory representation is sleep-dependent, whereas the egocentric consolidation process is independent of sleep or wake for explicit MSL. However, it remains unclear the extent to which sleep contributes to the consolidation of implicit (i.e., unconscious) MSL, nor is it known what aspects of the memory representation (egocentric, allocentric) are consolidated by sleep...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
Qi Wang, Holly A Taylor, Tad T Brunyé
Action-compatibility effects (ACEs) arise due to incongruity between perceptuo-motor traces stored in memory and the perceptuo-motor demands of a retrieval task. Recent research has suggested that ACEs arising during spatial memory retrieval are additionally modulated by individual differences in how experienced participants are with a college campus environment. However, the extent and nature of experience with a real-world environment is difficult to assess and control, and characteristics of the retrieval task itself might modulate ACEs during spatial memory retrieval...
January 9, 2018: Psychological Research
Yuanlong Pan, Adam D Kennedy, Thomas J Jönsson, Nortan W Milgram
This study focused on the hypothesis that cognitive decline in aged dogs could be attenuated by dietary supplementation with a nutrient blend consisting of antioxidants, B vitamins, fish oil and l-arginine, referred to hereafter as the Brain Protection Blend (BPB). Baseline cognitive assessment before the start of treatment was used to establish cognitively equivalent control (10·464+2·33 kg) and treatment (12·118+3·386 kg) groups of aged dogs between 9·1 and 11·5 years of age and with body condition score of 5...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Christopher Rorden, Dongyun Li, Hans-Otto Karnath
Numerous studies have reported that temporal order perception is biased in neurological patients with extinction and neglect. These individuals tend to perceive two objectively simultaneous stimuli as occurring asynchronously, with the ipsilesional item being perceived as appearing prior to the contralesional item. Likewise, they report that two stimuli occurred simultaneously in situations where the contralesional item is presented substantially prior to the ipsilesional item. Therefore, they exhibit a biased point of subjective simultaneity (PSS)...
December 21, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Azzurra Annunziata
BACKGROUND: Although sustainable food consumption is gaining growing importance on the international agenda, research on this subject is still quite fragmented and most studies analyse single aspects of sustainable food consumption with particular reference to environmental sustainability. In addition, the literature highlights the need to take account of the strong heterogeneity of consumers in studying sustainable behaviour. Identifying consumer segments with common profiles, needs and values is essential for developing effective communication strategies to promote sustainability in food consumption...
December 14, 2017: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
Elizabeth Fearon, Richard D Wiggins, Audrey E Pettifor, Catherine MacPhail, Kathleen Kahn, Amanda Selin, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Sinéad Delany-Moretlwe, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Oliver Laeyendecker, James R Hargreaves
INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of HIV among young women in South Africa remains extremely high. Adolescent peer groups have been found to be an important influence on a range of health behaviours. The characteristics of young women's friendships might influence their sexual health and HIV risk via connections to sexual partners, norms around sexual initiation and condom use, or provision of social support. We investigated associations between young women's friendships and their Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) and HIV infection status in rural South Africa...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Patrick Janulis, Gregory Phillips, Michelle Birkett, Brian Mustanski
BACKGROUND: Substantial racial disparities exist in HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). However, evidence suggests Black YMSM do not engage in greater levels of risk behavior. Sexual networks may help explain this paradox. This study utilized egocentric exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to examine variation in concurrency (i.e., 2 or more simultaneous partners) and homophily (i.e., same race/ethnicity partners) across race/ethnicity groups in a diverse sample of YMSM...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Pavel N Krivitsky, Martina Morris
Egocentric network sampling observes the network of interest from the point of view of a set of sampled actors, who provide information about themselves and anonymized information on their network neighbors. In survey research, this is often the most practical, and sometimes the only, way to observe certain classes of networks, with the sexual networks that underlie HIV transmission being the archetypal case. Although methods exist for recovering some descriptive network features, there is no rigorous and practical statistical foundation for estimation and inference for network models from such data...
March 2017: Annals of Applied Statistics
Linda B Smith, Lauren K Slone
Visual learning depends on both the algorithms and the training material. This essay considers the natural statistics of infant- and toddler-egocentric vision. These natural training sets for human visual object recognition are very different from the training data fed into machine vision systems. Rather than equal experiences with all kinds of things, toddlers experience extremely skewed distributions with many repeated occurrences of a very few things. And though highly variable when considered as a whole, individual views of things are experienced in a specific order - with slow, smooth visual changes moment-to-moment, and developmentally ordered transitions in scene content...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Leslie E Cofie, Clare Barrington, Kavita Singh, Sodzi Sodzi-Tettey, Susan Ennett, Suzanne Maman
BACKGROUND: Health facility births contribute to the prevention of maternal deaths. Although theoretical and empirical evidence suggest that social network characteristics influence facility delivery, examination of this relationship in sub-Saharan Africa is limited. We determined whether network structural and functional characteristics were associated with, or had an interactive effect on health facility delivery in rural Ghana. METHODS: Data on mothers (n = 783) aged 15-49 years came from a Maternal and Newborn Health Referral (MNHR) project in Ghana, and included egocentric network data on women's social network characteristics...
December 19, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Eunice Barbosa, Sara Silva, José Pinto-Gouveia, João Salgado
OBJECTIVE: The potential benefit or harm of immersion (egocentric perspective) and distancing (observer perspective) on negative experiences are unclear and have not been empirically investigated in therapy. This is a first exploratory study aimed to analyze and compare the perspectives adopted on reflection (immersion and distancing) of negative experiences across therapy and the relationship between them and depressive symptoms in contrasting therapeutic outcomes of emotion-focused therapy (EFT)...
December 17, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Clare M Eddy, Hugh E Rickards, Peter C Hansen
Huntington's disease (HD) can impair social cognition. This study investigated whether patients with HD exhibit neural differences to healthy controls when they are considering mental and physical states relating to the static expressions of human eyes. Thirty-two patients with HD and 28 age-matched controls were scanned with fMRI during two versions of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task: The standard version requiring mental state judgments, and a comparison version requiring judgments about age. HD was associated with behavioral deficits on only the mental state eyes task...
December 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Otmar Bock, Nils Bury
Our perception of the vertical corresponds to the weighted sum of gravicentric, egocentric, and visual cues. Here we evaluate the interplay of those cues not for the perceived but rather for the motor vertical. Participants were asked to flip an omnidirectional switch down while their egocentric vertical was dissociated from their visual-gravicentric vertical. Responses were directed mid-between the two verticals; specifically, the data suggest that the relative weight of congruent visual-gravicentric cues averages 0...
January 1, 2017: Perception
John W Philbeck, Daniel A Gajewski, Sandra Mihelič Jaidzeka, Courtney P Wallin
Judgments of egocentric distances in well-lit natural environments can differ substantially in indoor versus outdoor contexts. Visual cues (e.g., linear perspective, texture gradients) no doubt play a strong role in context-dependent judgments when cues are abundant. Here we investigated a possible top-down influence on distance judgments that might play a unique role under conditions of perceptual uncertainty: assumptions or knowledge that one is indoors or outdoors. We presented targets in a large outdoor field and in an indoor classroom...
December 4, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Meg J Spriggs, Ian J Kirk, Ronald W Skelton
Spatial navigation is a complex and multi-faceted skill that, in humans, is understood to encompass two distinct navigational strategies, namely allocentric and egocentric navigation. These differ in the frame of reference used and the brain networks activated. However, egocentric navigation can be further divided into two, equally distinct strategies depending on whether the navigator is using subject-to-object relations (egocentric-cue) or direction of body turns (egocentric-response) to navigate. To date, there are no experimental paradigms able to distinguish between participants' employment of allocentric, egocentric-cue and egocentric-response strategies, and to track their usage over time...
December 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Sandra Kaltner, Petra Jansen
[This corrects the article on p. 67 in vol. 12, PMID: 27512525.].
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
Tong Yue, Yuhan Jiang, Caizhen Yue, Xiting Huang
Although oxytocin (OXT) has been shown to lead to reduced self-orientation, no study to date has directly and effectively weakened the egocentric tendencies in perspective taking tasks for both men and women. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, mixed design study we investigated the effects of OXT on men and women in visual perspective taking tasks. The results showed that OXT shortened the differences in response time between men and women in all experimental conditions. In addition, after OXT administration, the difference in reaction time between judging from one's own perspective and judging from others' perspectives decreased in female participants; however, this effect was not present in males...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
William R McConnell
Research on relationships and health often interprets culture as the passively transmitted "content" of social ties, an approach that overlooks the influence of cultural resources on relationships themselves. I propose that mental health patients seek social support partly based on cultural resources held by their network members, including members' medical knowledge and beliefs. I test hypotheses using data from the Indianapolis Network Mental Health Study, an egocentric network survey of new mental health patients ( N = 152) and their personal relationships ( N = 1,868)...
December 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
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