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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910737/a-case-of-pure-autotopagnosia-following-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#1
Itaru Tamura, Shinsuke Hamada, Hiroyuki Soma, Fumio Moriwaka, Kunio Tashiro
A 69-year-old male (N.A.) with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease showed pure autotopagnosia. We administered tests evaluating his ability to name his own body parts, to point to body parts (his own and examiner's), and to recognize positional relationships between his body parts by verbal questions and responses. We found impaired localization of the patient's own body parts by pointing and impaired recognition of positional relationships between his body parts. However, there was no impairment in naming his own body parts or in localizing the examiner's body parts...
December 2, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890879/egocentric-disorientation-and-heading-disorientation-evaluation-by-a-new-test-named-card-placing-test
#2
Ritsuo Hashimoto, Momoko Uechi, Wako Yumura, Noriyo Komori, Masako Abe
We recently developed a new clinical test named card placing test (CPT) which can assess a subject's ability to deal with visuospatial information. The CPT requires a subject to recreate an array of three cards, each of which was randomly placed on eight grids around the subject, before (CPT-A) and after the subject's rotation (CPT-B). With this design, the CPT can assess a subject's ability to represent visuospatial information either egocentrically (CPT-A) or allocentrically (CPT-B). We administered the test on two patients with topographical disorientation; one with egocentric disorientation and another with heading disorientation...
November 25, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885551/condomless-sex-among-homeless-youth-the-role-of-multidimensional-social-norms-and-gender
#3
Anamika Barman-Adhikari, Hsun-Ta Hsu, Stephanie Begun, Andrea Perez Portillo, Eric Rice
Most studies of condomless sex among homeless youth have focused on peer norms, while excluding other potentially pertinent influences. This study explored how different types of relationships contributed to norms about condomless sex and whether such norms were associated with engagement in condomless sex among homeless youth. Additionally, because recent work has noted gender differences in social networks of male and female homeless youth, gender differences in social network norms of condomless sex were also assessed...
November 24, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881776/time-is-not-space-core-computations-and-domain-specific-networks-for-mental-travels
#4
Baptiste Gauthier, Virginie van Wassenhove
: Humans can consciously project themselves in the future and imagine themselves at different places. Do mental time travel and mental space navigation abilities share common cognitive and neural mechanisms? To test this, we recorded fMRI while participants mentally projected themselves in time or in space (e.g., 9 years ago, in Paris) and ordered historical events from their mental perspective. Behavioral patterns were comparable for mental time and space and shaped by self-projection and by the distance of historical events to the mental position of the self, suggesting the existence of egocentric mapping in both dimensions...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872373/real-world-visual-statistics-and-infants-first-learned-object-names
#5
Elizabeth M Clerkin, Elizabeth Hart, James M Rehg, Chen Yu, Linda B Smith
We offer a new solution to the unsolved problem of how infants break into word learning based on the visual statistics of everyday infant-perspective scenes. Images from head camera video captured by 8 1/2 to 10 1/2 month-old infants at 147 at-home mealtime events were analysed for the objects in view. The images were found to be highly cluttered with many different objects in view. However, the frequency distribution of object categories was extremely right skewed such that a very small set of objects was pervasively present-a fact that may substantially reduce the problem of referential ambiguity...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861588/endogenous-testosterone-and-exogenous-oxytocin-modulate-attentional-processing-of-infant-faces
#6
Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Katharina A Schwarz, Christian Sprenger, Luise Reimers, Esther K Diekhof
Evidence indicates that hormones modulate the intensity of maternal care. Oxytocin is known for its positive influence on maternal behavior and its important role for childbirth. In contrast, testosterone promotes egocentric choices and reduces empathy. Further, testosterone decreases during parenthood which could be an adaptation to increased parental investment. The present study investigated the interaction between testosterone and oxytocin in attentional control and their influence on attention to baby schema in women...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861154/presence-of-lacunar-infarctions-is-associated-with-the-spatial-navigation-impairment-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-dti-study
#7
Yan-Feng Wu, Wen-Bo Wu, Qing-Ping Liu, Wen-Wen He, Hong Ding, Zuzana Nedelska, Jakub Hort, Bing Zhang, Yun Xu
Lacunar cerebral infarction (LI) is one of risk factors of vascular dementia and correlates with progression of cognitive impairment including the executive functions. However, little is known on spatial navigation impairment and its underlying microstructural alteration of white matter in patients with LI and with or without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Our aim was to investigate whether the spatial navigation impairment correlated with the white matter integrity in LI patients with MCI (LI-MCI). Thirty patients with LI were included in the study and were divided into LI-MCI (n=17) and non MCI (LI-Non MCI) groups (n=13) according neuropsychological tests...
November 16, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852770/environmental-anchoring-of-head-direction-in-a-computational-model-of-retrosplenial-cortex
#8
Andrej Bicanski, Neil Burgess
: Allocentric (world-centered) spatial codes driven by path integration accumulate error unless reset by environmental sensory inputs that are necessarily egocentric (body-centered). Previous models of the head direction system avoided the necessary transformation between egocentric and allocentric reference frames by placing visual cues at infinity. Here we present a model of head direction coding that copes with exclusively proximal cues by making use of a conjunctive representation of head direction and location in retrosplenial cortex...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815326/negative-responses-to-disclosure-of-sexual-victimization-and-victims-symptoms-of-ptsd-and-depression-the-protective-role-of-ethnic-identity
#9
Valentina Nikulina, Adrian Bautista, Elissa J Brown
College-aged women experience high rates of sexual victimization. Their postassault symptoms are associated with the types of responses they receive from the people to whom they disclose these experiences. Negative responses are pervasive and associated with poorer outcomes. The current study examined whether a strong sense of ethnic identity and comfort with the mainstream culture moderate the association between negative responses to the first disclosure of sexual victimization and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802238/homocysteine-and-real-space-navigation-performance-among-non-demented-older-adults
#10
Martina Pařízková, Ross Andel, Ondřej Lerch, Hana Marková, Ivana Gažová, Martin Vyhnálek, Jakub Hort, Jan Laczó
BACKGROUND: High plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level is related to higher risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and lower cognitive performance in older adults. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between plasma Hcy level and real-space navigation performance and the role of vascular risk and protective factors, APOE status, and white matter lesions (WML) on this association. METHODS: Ninety-two non-demented older adults (29 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 46 with subjective cognitive decline, and 17 cognitively normal older adults) underwent spatial navigation testing of egocentric, allocentric, and mixed navigation in a real-space analogue of the Morris water maze, neuropsychological examination, blood collection, and MRI brain scan with evaluation of WML...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784804/short-latency-allocentric-control-of-saccadic-eye-movements
#11
Mrinmoy Chakrabarty, Tamami Nakano, Shigeru Kitazawa
It is generally accepted that the neural circuits that are implicated in saccade control use retinotopically coded target locations. However, studies have revealed that non-retinotopic representation is also used. This idea raises a question about whether non-retinotopic coding is egocentric (head or body-centered) or allocentric (environment-centered). In the current study, we hypothesized that allocentric coding may play a crucial role in immediate saccade control. To test this hypothesis, we employed an immediate double step saccade task toward two sequentially flashed targets with a frame in the background, and we examined whether the end point of the second saccade was affected by a transient shift of the background that participants were told to ignore...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767990/the-proactive-self-in-space-how%C3%A2-egocentric-and-allocentric-spatial-impairments-contribute-to-anosognosia-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Silvia Serino, Giuseppe Riva
In addition to impairments in episodic and spatial memory, anosognosia (i.e., loss of awareness of the deficient aspect of own cognitive functioning) may be considered an important cognitive marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, although a growing body of interesting models have been proposed to explain this early symptom, what is still missing is a unifying framework of all the characteristic signs occurring in patients with AD that may guide the search for its causal neuropathological process and, ultimately, the etiological process...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756629/developmental-manganese-neurotoxicity-in-rats-cognitive-deficits-in-allocentric-and-egocentric-learning-and-memory
#13
Robyn M Amos-Kroohs, Laurie L Davenport, Nina Atanasova, Zuhair I Abdulla, Matthew R Skelton, Charles V Vorhees, Michael T Williams
Manganese (Mn) is an essential element but neurotoxic at higher exposure levels. The effects of Mn overexposure (MnOE) on hippocampal and striatal-dependent learning and memory in rats were tested in combination with iron deficiency (FeD) and developmental stress that often co-occur with MnOE. Moderate FeD affects up to 15% of U.S. children and developmental stress is common in lower socio-economic areas where MnOE occurs. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and their litters were housed in cages with or without (barren cage (BAR)) standard bedding from embryonic day (E)7 to postnatal day (P)28...
October 15, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752773/orthogonal-compatibility-effects-confound-automatic-imitation-implications-for-measuring-self-other-distinction
#14
Daniel Joel Shaw, Kristína Czekóová, Michaela Porubanová
Accurate distinction between self and other representations is fundamental to a range of social cognitive capacities, and understanding individual differences in this ability is an important aim for psychological research. This demands accurate measures of self-other distinction (SOD). The present study examined an experimental paradigm employed frequently to measure SOD in the action domain; specifically, we evaluated the rotated finger-action stimuli used increasingly to measure automatic imitation (AI). To assess the suitability of these stimuli, we compared AI elicited by different action stimuli to the performance on a perspective-taking task believed to measure SOD in the perception domain...
October 17, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736123/elaborating-on-the-construct-validity-of-triarchic-psychopathy-measure-in-chinese-clinical-and-nonclinical-samples
#15
Yiyun Shou, Martin Sellbom, Jing Xu, Tunong Chen, Aiping Sui
The contemporary knowledge of the construct and operationalization of psychopathy in East Asian countries is still limited. The present paper examines the validity and applicability of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) based on the triarchic model of psychopathy in Chinese clinical and nonclinical samples. The results of Study 1 using a psychiatric patient sample (N = 193) showed that the pattern of associations between the TriPM scales (Boldness, Meanness, and Disinhibition) and the 3 factors (Egocentricity, Callous, and Antisocial) of the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale were similar to previous studies using English-speaking samples...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723907/ultrasonography-for-acute-appendicitis-the-way-it-looks-today
#16
B Lembcke
Despite sophisticated physical examination and laboratory support, diagnosis of acute appendicitis remained challenging in clinical practice with a negative appendectomy rate of 15 - 30 %. As a remarkable clue and as early as 1986, ultrasonography (US) has been proven a reliable diagnostic method that is also explicitly helpful in difficult cases with atypical presentation and enables to rule out many differential diagnoses.Recent publications emphasized the role of multidetector computed tomography (CT) resulting in a significant reduction of false negative findings at operation...
October 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714662/personality-and-uveitis
#17
Ankush Kawali, Ringhoo Theresa Jose, Aishwarya, Mathew Kurian, Kushal Kacha, Padmamalini Mahendradas, Rohit Shetty
BACKGROUND: Psycho-immunology is an emerging branch of science which studies the interaction between the brain and the immune system. The purpose of this study is to identify the types of personality factors in patients with non-infectious uveitis and to find its association with a particular uveitic entity if any. This is a prospective, observational, case-control study of 186 patients with non-infectious uveitis (group A) and controls from general ophthalmology outpatient department (group B)...
December 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703548/a-methodological-approach-to-the-analysis-of-egocentric-social-networks-in-public-health-research-a-practical-example
#18
Janet Klara Djomba, Lijana Zaletel-Kragelj
INTRODUCTION: Research on social networks in public health focuses on how social structures and relationships influence health and health-related behaviour. While the sociocentric approach is used to study complete social networks, the egocentric approach is gaining popularity because of its focus on individuals, groups and communities. METHODS: One of the participants of the healthy lifestyle health education workshop 'I'm moving', included in the study of social support for exercise was randomly selected...
December 1, 2016: Zdravstveno Varstvo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693138/honeybees-learn-landscape-features-during-exploratory-orientation-flights
#19
Jacqueline Degen, Andreas Kirbach, Lutz Reiter, Konstantin Lehmann, Philipp Norton, Mona Storms, Miriam Koblofsky, Sarah Winter, Petya B Georgieva, Hai Nguyen, Hayfe Chamkhi, Hanno Meyer, Pawan K Singh, Gisela Manz, Uwe Greggers, Randolf Menzel
Exploration is an elementary and fundamental form of learning about the structure of the world [1-3]. Little is known about what exactly is learned when an animal seeks to become familiar with the environment. Navigating animals explore the environment for safe return to an important place (e.g., a nest site) and to travel between places [4]. Flying central-place foragers like honeybees (Apis mellifera) extend their exploration into distances from which the features of the nest cannot be directly perceived [5-10]...
September 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689895/children-s-representations-of-another-person-s-spatial-perspective-different-strategies-for-different-viewpoints
#20
Karin M Vander Heyden, Mariette Huizinga, Maartje E J Raijmakers, Jelle Jolles
The current study investigated development and strategy use of spatial perspective taking (i.e., the ability to represent how an object or array of objects looks from other viewpoints) in children between 8 and 12years of age. We examined this ability with a task requiring children to navigate a route through a model city of wooden blocks from a 90° and 180° rotated perspective. We tested two hypotheses. First, we hypothesized that children's perspective-taking skills increase during this age period and that this process is related to a co-occurring increase in working memory capacity...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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