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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733921/social-support-networks-and-hiv-sti-risk-behaviors-among-latino-immigrants-in-a-new-receiving-environment
#1
Meghan D Althoff, Katherine Theall, Norine Schmidt, John Hembling, Hirut T Gebrekristos, Michelle M Thompson, Stephen Q Muth, Samuel R Friedman, Patricia Kissinger
The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe the quantity and quality of social support networks of Latino immigrants living in a new receiving environment, and (2) determine the role such networks play in their HIV/STI risk behaviors, including substance use. Double incentivized convenience sampling was used to collect egocentric social support network data on 144 Latino immigrants. Latent class analysis was used for data reduction and to identify items best suited to measure quality and quantity of social support...
July 21, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724337/handedness-effects-of-imagined-fine-motor-movements
#2
Christopher M Donoff, Christopher R Madan, Anthony Singhal
Previous studies of movement imagery have found inter-individual differences in the ability to imagine whole-body movements. The majority of these studies have used subjective scales to measure imagery ability, which may be confounded by other factors related to effort. Madan and Singhal [2013. Introducing TAMI: An objective test of ability in movement imagery. Journal of Motor Behavior, 45(2), 153-166. doi: 10.1080/00222895.2013.763764 ] developed the Test of Ability in Movement Imagery (TAMI) to address these confounds by using a multiple-choice format with objectively correct responses...
July 19, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713234/leftward-deviation-and-asymmetric-speed-of-egocentric-judgment-between-left-and-right-visual-fields
#3
Ying Zhou, Bing Li, Gang Wang, Mingsha Zhang, Yujun Pan
The egocentric reference frame is essential for body orientation and spatial localization of external objects. Recent neuroimaging and lesion studies have revealed that the right hemisphere of humans may play a more dominant role in processing egocentric information than the left hemisphere. However, previous studies of egocentric discrimination mainly focused on assessing the accuracy of egocentric judgment, leaving its timing unexplored. In addition, most previous studies never monitored the subjects' eye position during the experiments, so the influence of eye position on egocentric judgment could not be excluded...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711815/geschwind-syndrome-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-neuroanatomical-and-neuropsychological-features-over-9-years
#4
Laura Veronelli, Sara J Makaretz, Megan Quimby, Bradford C Dickerson, Jessica A Collins
Geschwind Syndrome, a characteristic behavioral syndrome frequently described in patients affected by temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), consists of the following features: hyper-religiosity, hypergraphia, hyposexuality, and irritability. Here we report the 9-year-clinical course of a case of Geschwind Syndrome that developed as a first and salient clinical expression of right temporal lobe variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Only one patient affected by frontotemporal dementia has previously been shown to present with Geschwind Syndrome...
June 27, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705363/black-people-don-t-exercise-in-my-neighborhood-perceived-racial-composition-and-leisure-time-physical-activity-among-middle-class-blacks-and-whites
#5
Rashawn Ray
Using a sample of middle class blacks and whites living in urban and suburban areas, this article focuses on how perceptions of the racial composition of neighborhoods influence leisure-time physical activity. Using an ordinal representation of an underlying continuous indication of the perceived percentage of blacks and whites within an egocentric neighborhood, the results show that black men are significantly less likely to be physically active in neighborhoods perceived as predominately white. Alternatively, they are more likely to be physically active in neighborhoods perceived as racially diverse and predominately black...
August 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697554/egocentric-versus-allocentric-spatial-memory-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Sicong Tu, Hugo J Spiers, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Michael Hornberger
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) can be challenging, in particular when patients present with significant memory problems, which can increase the chance of a misdiagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Growing evidence suggests spatial orientation is a reliable cognitive marker able to differentiate these two clinical syndromes. OBJECTIVE: Assess the integrity of egocentric and allocentric heading orientation and memory in bvFTD and AD, and their clinical implications...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690501/cortical-activation-during-landmark-centered-vs-gaze-centered-memory-of-saccade-targets-in-the-human-an-fmri-study
#7
Ying Chen, J D Crawford
A remembered saccade target could be encoded in egocentric coordinates such as gaze-centered, or relative to some external allocentric landmark that is independent of the target or gaze (landmark-centered). In comparison to egocentric mechanisms, very little is known about such a landmark-centered representation. Here, we used an event-related fMRI design to identify brain areas supporting these two types of spatial coding (i.e., landmark-centered vs. gaze-centered) for target memory during the Delay phase where only target location, not saccade direction, was specified...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687845/wayfinding-and-glaucoma-a-virtual-reality-experiment
#8
Fábio B Daga, Eduardo Macagno, Cory Stevenson, Ahmed Elhosseiny, Alberto Diniz-Filho, Erwin R Boer, Jürgen Schulze, Felipe A Medeiros
Purpose: Wayfinding, the process of determining and following a route between an origin and a destination, is an integral part of everyday tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of glaucomatous visual field loss on wayfinding behavior using an immersive virtual reality (VR) environment. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 31 glaucomatous patients and 20 healthy subjects without evidence of overall cognitive impairment. Wayfinding experiments were modeled after the Morris water maze navigation task and conducted in an immersive VR environment...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683569/perspective-taking-is-two-sided-misunderstandings-between-people-with-asperger-s-syndrome-and-their-family-members
#9
Brett Heasman, Alex Gillespie
Misunderstandings are social in nature, always having two sides. Yet the misunderstandings experienced by people with Asperger's syndrome are usually studied in terms of the individual with a diagnosis, with less emphasis on social relations. We use a two-sided methodology to map out misunderstandings within 22 dyads (n = 44) consisting of people with Asperger's syndrome and their family members. Both sides of the relationship were asked about 12 topics in terms of one's rating of Self, one's rating of Other and one's predicted rating by Other...
July 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668621/circadian-disruption-affects-initial-learning-but-not-cognitive-flexibility-in-an-automated-set-shifting-task-in-adult-long-evans-rats
#10
Audrey L Robertson, Rekha C Balachandran, Megan M Mahoney, Paul A Eubig
A sizeable percent of adults are subject to circadian disturbances such as shift work, which involves misalignment of time of light exposure, activity periods, sleep, and eating. Chronic adherence to disruptive circadian schedules can negatively impact cognitive functioning. Developing preclinical models of circadian disruption allow investigation of the relationship and underlying mechanisms between circadian disruption and cognitive functioning. We placed adult Long-Evans rats of both sexes on a 12:12h light:dark schedule in which rats performed an automated operant-behavior task for 3months, with daily testing occurring either 4h after lights-on or lights-off...
June 29, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654839/dissociating-contributions-of-head-and-torso-to-spatial-reference-frames-the-misalignment-paradigm
#11
Adrian J T Alsmith, Elisa R Ferrè, Matthew R Longo
When we represent someone's view of a scene as egocentrically structured, where do we represent the origin of the reference frame? By analysing responses in a spatial perspective-taking task as a function of spatial location with respect to both head and torso, we isolated the respective contribution of each part to spatial judgments. Both the head and the torso contributed to judgements, though with greater contributions from the torso. A second experiment manipulating visual contrast of the torso showed that this does not reflect low-level differences in visual salience between body parts...
June 24, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648411/visual-feedback-explains-why-propointing-is-better-than-antipointing-in-spatial-neglect
#12
Kathrin S Utz, Constanze Hesse, Annika Hintz, Daniela Grüneberger, Hartwig Kulke, Inga Roth, Thomas Klos, Vaclav Kromichal, Arthur Melms, Wilfried Schupp, Detlef Kohl, Thomas Schenk
Rossit et al. (2011) showed that neglect patients perform normally in a propointing task but not in an antipointing task which requires pointing towards the mirrored position of a target. It is assumed that antipointing relies on information from the perceptual pathway of our visual brain. Therefore, this finding supports the notion that neglect is a disorder that primarily affects perceptual spatial representations within the brain leaving spatial maps used for visuomotor guidance intact. Alternatively, performance of patients might be compromised in both tasks, but only obviously so in tasks in which online corrections are made more difficult...
May 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646363/the-many-routes-of-mental-navigation-contrasting-the-effects-of-a-detailed-and-gist-retrieval-approach-on-using-and-forming-spatial-representations
#13
Signy Sheldon, Alexa Ruel
Navigated routes can be recalled by remembering a schematic layout or with additional sensory and perceptual details, engaging episodic memory processes. In this study, we contrasted the effects of these remembering approaches on retrieving real-world navigated routes, the impact on flexibly using familiar route information and on learning new spatial representations. In a within-subjects design, participants were oriented to recall familiar routes under two remembering conditions-a detail condition that promoted episodic memory processes and a gist condition in which routes were recalled via schematic processes...
June 23, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642217/an-interactive-mobile-based-tool-for-personal-social-network-data-collection-and-visualization-among-a-geographically-isolated-and-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-population-early-stage-feasibility-study-with-qualitative-user-feedback
#14
Katherine S Eddens, Jesse M Fagan, Tom Collins
BACKGROUND: Personal social networks have a profound impact on our health, yet collecting personal network data for use in health communication, behavior change, or translation and dissemination interventions has proved challenging. Recent advances in social network data collection software have reduced the burden of network studies on researchers and respondents alike, yet little testing has occurred to discover whether these methods are: (1) acceptable to a variety of target populations, including those who may have limited experience with technology or limited literacy; and (2) practical in the field, specifically in areas that are geographically and technologically disconnected, such as rural Appalachian Kentucky...
June 22, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634887/aberrant-connections-between-climbing-fibres-and-purkinje-cells-induce-alterations-in-the-timing-of-an-instrumental-response-in-the-rat
#15
Lorena Gaytán-Tocavén, Miguel Ángel López-Vázquez, Miguel Ángel Guevara, María Esther Olvera-Cortés
Cerebellar participation in timing and sensory-motor sequences has been supported by several experimental and clinical studies. A relevant role of the cerebellum in timing of conditioned responses in the range of milliseconds has been demonstrated, but less is known regarding the role of the cerebellum in supra-second timing of operant responses. A dissociated role of the cerebellum and striatum in timing in the millisecond and second range had been reported, respectively. The climbing fibre-Purkinje cell synapse is crucial in timing models; thus, the aberrant connection between these cellular elements is a suitable model for evaluating the contribution of the cerebellum in timing in the supra-second range...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633886/remembering-and-imagining-alternative-versions-of-the-personal-past
#16
Peggy L St Jacques, Alexis C Carpenter, Karl K Szpunar, Daniel L Schacter
Although autobiographical memory and episodic simulations recruit similar core brain regions, episodic simulations engage additional neural recruitment in the frontoparietal control network due to greater demands on constructive processes. However, previous functional neuroimaging studies showing differences in remembering and episodic simulation have focused on veridical retrieval of past experiences, and thus have not fully considered how retrieving the past in different ways from how it was originally experienced may also place similar demands on constructive processes...
June 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633321/places-in-the-brain-bridging-layout-and-object-geometry-in-scene-selective-cortex
#17
Moira R Dillon, Andrew S Persichetti, Elizabeth S Spelke, Daniel D Dilks
Diverse animal species primarily rely on sense (left-right) and egocentric distance (proximal-distal) when navigating the environment. Recent neuroimaging studies with human adults show that this information is represented in 2 scene-selective cortical regions-the occipital place area (OPA) and retrosplenial complex (RSC)-but not in a third scene-selective region-the parahippocampal place area (PPA). What geometric properties, then, does the PPA represent, and what is its role in scene processing? Here we hypothesize that the PPA represents relative length and angle, the geometric properties classically associated with object recognition, but only in the context of large extended surfaces that compose the layout of a scene...
June 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632038/spatial-navigation-deficits-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-with-neuropsychiatric-comorbidity
#18
Roxanne C Keynejad, Hana Marková, Kamila Šiffelová, Naveen Kumar, Kamil Vlček, Jan Laczó, Ellen M Migo, Jakub Hort, Michael D Kopelman
AIMS: To find out whether neuropsychiatric comorbidity (comMCI) influences spatial navigation performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHODS: We recruited aMCI patients with (n = 21) and without (n = 21) neuropsychiatric comorbidity or alcohol abuse, matched for global cognitive impairment and cognitively healthy elderly participants (HE, n = 22). They completed the Mini-Mental State Examination and a virtual Hidden Goal Task in egocentric, allocentric, and delayed recall subtests...
February 28, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617796/egocentric-and-allocentric-representations-in-auditory-cortex
#19
Stephen M Town, W Owen Brimijoin, Jennifer K Bizley
A key function of the brain is to provide a stable representation of an object's location in the world. In hearing, sound azimuth and elevation are encoded by neurons throughout the auditory system, and auditory cortex is necessary for sound localization. However, the coordinate frame in which neurons represent sound space remains undefined: classical spatial receptive fields in head-fixed subjects can be explained either by sensitivity to sound source location relative to the head (egocentric) or relative to the world (allocentric encoding)...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610816/egocentric-distance-perception-and-performance-of-direct-pointing-in-stereoscopic-displays
#20
Chiuhsiang J Lin, Bereket H Woldegiorgis
In this study, the interaction performances and spatial perceptions in stereoscopic environments were investigated. The experiment compared direct user interactions during pointing at a target, which was continuously visible or presented briefly and disappeared, in both stereoscopic and real environments, at three parallax/depth levels. The position data, collected by a motion system, were used to compute accuracy, signed error, movement time, and throughput. The results showed inaccurate egocentric distance judgment in stereoscopic displays and accurate perceptions in the real world...
October 2017: Applied Ergonomics
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