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Pierre-Luc Germain, Luca Chiapperino, Giuseppe Testa
This paper identifies a common political struggle behind debates on the validity and permissibility of animal experimentation, through an analysis of two recent European case studies: the Italian implementation of the European Directive 2010/63/EC regulating the use of animals in science, and the recent European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) 'Stop Vivisection'. Drawing from a historical parallel with Victorian antivivisectionism, we highlight important threads in our case studies that mark the often neglected specificities of debates on animal experimentation...
July 6, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Aria Amrom, Cynthia Calkins, Jamison Fargo
There has been limited conclusive research examining the personality characteristics of clergy who perpetrate abuse. To address this dearth of research, the current study aimed to develop a personality profile that distinguishes clergy members who sexually abuse children from other clergy. Personality and psychopathology were assessed using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Data were analyzed from a sample of clergy members, who comprised four comparison groups: clergy members referred to treatment for (a) child sexual abuse, (b) sexual misconduct with adults, (c) general clinical problems, or (d) routine employment evaluations with no previously identified clinical or sexual issues...
June 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
Ali Fakharri, Ali Jahani, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani, Mostafa Farahbakhsh, Asghar Mohammadpour Asl
INTRODUCTION: Psychological factors have always been considered for their role on risk taking behavior such as substance abuse, risky driving and smoking. The aim of this study was to determine the association between smoking behavior and potential personality patterns among high school students in Tabriz, Iran. METHODS: Through a multistage sampling in a cross-sectional study, 1000 students were enrolled to represent the final grade high school student population of Tabriz, Iran in 2013...
March 2017: Electronic Physician
Roger W Byard
Given the potential significance of mutilation of the external genitalia in medicolegal fatalities, a review of the literature was undertaken to identify subcategories. Such mutilations may have been sustained sometime before death, around the time of death, or after death. The most common type of ante mortem genital mutilations involves cultural practices such as male circumcision. Less common male mutilations such as subincisions are tribally based. Female genital mutilation is found particularly in African, Middle Eastern, or Asian populations...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Christopher A Fischer, Mace Beckson, Park Dietz
Factitious disorder involves the conscious simulation of psychological or physiological symptoms of illness, for the purpose of fulfilling the unconscious desire to be taken care of or to assume the "sick role." Typically patients with factitious disorder simulate conditions that are designed to arouse feelings of empathy in care providers with the intention to engage them in caretaking. However, patients might also simulate conditions that arouse revulsion or rejection and still meet full diagnostic criteria for factitious disorder...
May 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
David S Chester, C Nathan DeWall
How does emotion explain the relationship between social rejection and aggression? Rejection reliably damages mood, leaving individuals motivated to repair their negatively valenced affective state. Retaliatory aggression is often a pleasant experience. Rejected individuals may then harness revenge's associated positive affect to repair their mood. Across 6 studies (total N = 1,516), we tested the prediction that the rejection-aggression link is motivated by expected and actual mood repair. Further, we predicted that this mood repair would occur through the positive affect of retaliatory aggression...
March 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Giuseppe Civitarese
Over five years, from 1919 to 1924, Freud dealt with masochism in three texts written in close proximity: "A Child Is Being Beaten," Beyond the Pleasure Principle, and "The Economic Problem of Masochism." Initially Freud explains masochism as incestuous fixation on the father and regression to pregenital, sadistic ways of loving. Subsequently he considers it primarily as subservient to the death drive. This paper starts from an idea present in two of the three texts, but not developed by Freud, in which he refers to the role that the "qualitative" element of rhythm could play in the occurrence of pleasure in masochism...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
John H M Crichton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Andrea Pozza, Nicoletta Giaquinta, Davide Dèttore
Pathological skin picking (SP) is a strongly impairing condition characterized by repetitive picking behaviors resulting in significant tissue damage and distress. Recent research suggested the presence of different subtypes of SP. No study has investigated which personality traits could be specifically associated with different subtypes. In a community sample (N=285, 71.20% females, mean age =34.98 years, standard deviation =15.91), this cross-sectional study investigated which personality traits and emotion regulation deficits could predict specific SP subtypes...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Sarah Schaaf, Elizabeth L Jeglic, Cynthia Calkins, Linsey Raymaekers, Alejandro Leguizamo
Sex offender typologies have been developed in an effort to better understand the heterogeneity of sexual offending as well as offenders' varied risk and therapeutic needs. Perhaps the most well-known and validated child molester typology is the Massachusetts Treatment Center: Child Molester Typology-Version 3 (MTC:CM3). However, this typology was developed and validated using primarily White sex offenders. The current study aimed to replicate this typology in an ethno-racially diverse sample of incarcerated White, Black, and Latino child molesters (N = 499)...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Vera Békés, J Christopher Perry, Brian M Robertson
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on psychological masochism to identify hypotheses for examination in clinical studies. METHOD: We identified defenses, conflicts, and motives using standardized measures in 23 psychoanalytic papers. RESULTS: Three primary and three secondary subtypes of masochism emerged in the literature. Overall Gratification Inhibition (subtype I.1) was the "healthiest" form, associated with higher developmental level motives and neurotic defenses...
June 1, 2016: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Gerhard Dahl
The now available unabridged correspondence between Freud and Abraham leads to a re-evaluation of the significance of Abraham's work. The author proposes the thesis that clinical observations by Karl Abraham of the ambivalence of object relations and the destructive-sadistic aspects of orality have an important influence on the advancement of psychoanalytical theory. The phantasy problem of the Wolf Man and the question of the pathogenic relevance of early actual, or merely imagined traumata led Freud to doubt the validity of his theory...
October 2016: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
Nicholas Longpré, Jean Proulx, Sébastien Brouillette-Alarie
Sexual sadism can be described as the sexual pleasure produced by acts of cruelty and bodily punishment. The most common method for evaluating sexual sadism is clinical evaluation, that is, evaluation based on the diagnostic criteria of nosological instruments such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) or the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). It is also possible to evaluate sadistic sexual preferences by phallometry, which provides a physiological measure of sexual excitation by deviant and nondeviant scenarios...
May 26, 2016: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
Alexandra Stupperich, Micha Strack
In an attempt to explain the relationship between psychopathy and severe violent behavior, this study associates previous animal abuse, psychopathy, and sadistic acting in forensic patients. Two topics are addressed: (i) whether previous animal abuse can be identified by a patient's Psychopathy Checklist profile and (ii) whether animal abuse statistically mediates between psychopathy and sadistic acting. In a German forensic hospital, 60 patients were investigated. Animal abuse was assessed using face-to-face interviews and the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV), and sadistic acting was identified by file records...
May 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Nina A Cooperman, Shou-En Lu, Kimber P Richter, Steven L Bernstein, Jill M Williams
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate how psychiatric and personality disorders influence smoking cessation goals and attempts among people with opiate dependence who smoke. This information could aid the development of more effective cessation interventions for these individuals. METHODS: Participants (N = 116) were recruited from two methadone clinics, completed the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, and were asked about their smoking behavior and quitting goals...
April 2016: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
George Bissias, Brian Levine, Marc Liberatore, Brian Lynn, Juston Moore, Hanna Wallach, Janis Wolak
We provide detailed measurement of the illegal trade in child exploitation material (CEM, also known as child pornography) from mid-2011 through 2014 on five popular peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing networks. We characterize several observations: counts of peers trafficking in CEM; the proportion of arrested traffickers that were identified during the investigation as committing contact sexual offenses against children; trends in the trafficking of sexual images of sadistic acts and infants or toddlers; the relationship between such content and contact offenders; and survival rates of CEM...
February 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Alfonso Arteaga, Javier Fernández-Montalvo, José J López-Goñi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were, first, to explore the prevalence of aggressors with lifetime intimate partner violence (IPV) among patients in the Proyecto Hombre of Navarra (Spain) addiction treatment programme; and second, to know the specific and differential characteristics of patients presenting IPV as aggressors. METHODS: A sample of 162 patients (119 men and 43 women) was assessed. Data on socio-demographic and substance consumption characteristics, IPV variables, psychopathological symptoms, and personality variables were obtained...
December 2015: American Journal on Addictions
Anna Migliozzi
Does the concept of evil deserve special formulation in the realm of psychoanalytic thought? In agreement with authors such as Meltzer (1992) and De Masi (2003) and through selected moments from a boy's long analysis, I will propose a definition of evil as a state of mind, characterized by disregard for the human quality of the object and the destruction of meaning and meaningfulness of life in and for others. Evil drains, perverts and strips symbols of intentions and goals, leaving them empty of emotional significance...
August 2016: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
Om Prakash, Neelu Sharma, Amool R Singh, K S Sengar, Suprakash Chaudhury, Jay Kumar Ranjan
AIM: To assess personality disorder (PD), emotional intelligence (EI), and locus of control of alcohol dependent (AD) patients and its comparison with normal controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on purposive sampling technique, 33 AD patients were selected from the De-Addiction Ward of Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS) and 33 matched normal subjects were selected from Ranchi and nearby places. Both the groups were matched on various sociodemographic parameters, that is, age, gender, and socioeconomic level...
January 2015: Industrial Psychiatry Journal
Peder Chr Bryhn Nørbech, Cato Grønnerød, Ellen Hartmann
This study examined personality functioning in a group of 27 incarcerated criminal debt collectors as assessed by the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Rorschach, 1921/1942) and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003 ). To explore whether these individuals represent a distinct subgroup within the violent offender population, we compared them to a group of incarcerated homicide offenders (n = 23) without a previous history of significant violence and a group who had committed less serious violent crimes (n = 21)...
2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
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