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Jana E Jones, Prabha Siddarth, Dace Almane, Suresh Gurbani, Bruce P Hermann, Rochelle Caplan
OBJECTIVE: This study identified items on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) that predict those children and adolescents with epilepsy at highest risk for multiple psychiatric diagnoses. METHODS: Three hundred twenty-eight children, ages 5-18 years, and their parents participated in separate structured psychiatric interviews about the children, which yielded Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnoses...
October 14, 2016: Epilepsia
O Vallès-Fructuoso, B Ruiz-de Pablo, M Fernández-Plaza, V Fuentes-Milà, O Vallès-Fructuoso, G Martínez-Estalella
OBJECTIVE: To determine the perspective of intensive care nursing staff on the limitation of life support treatment (LLST) in the Intensive Care Units. METHOD: An exploratory qualitative study was carried out by applying the theory of Strauss and Corbin as the analysis tool. Constructivist paradigm. POPULATION: Nursing staff from three Intensive Care Units of Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge. Convenience sampling to reach theoretical saturation of data...
October 1, 2016: Enfermería Intensiva
Kwok Ho Tsoi, Sau Ying Chan, Yeung Chung Lee, Brian Ho Yeung Ip, Chi Chiu Cheang
Shark conservation has become a focus of current international conservation efforts. However, the misunderstanding of sharks and their negative public portrayal may hinder their conservation. More importantly, the consumption of shark fin, which is very common in Chinese cultures, poses a significant threat to sharks. Hong Kong has long been the world's largest shark fin trading center. Shark conservation would become more sustainable if public understanding of this predatory fish and an appreciation of its ecological significance could be promoted...
2016: PloS One
Emily Burton, Andrew Tribe
Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH), Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH), Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH) and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA)), and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species...
2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Fernanda Auciello Salvagni, Adriana de Siqueira, Andre Rinaldi Fukushima, Marina Frota de Albuquerque Landi, Heidi Ponge-Ferreira, Paulo Cesar Maiorka
Animal cruelty is a known behavior of psychopaths, and although the serial killing of humans is widely acknowledged worldwide, this type of crime against animals is seldom discussed. This report describes the necropsy and toxicological findings of 37 dogs and cats, which were found dead in plastic bags in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The animals had all been in the care of an alleged animal rescuer and were to be referred for adoption before being found dead. In the necropsy, the animals showed varying degrees of putrefaction, indicating different periods of death, as well as single or multiple perforations on the thorax...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
Michael T Baglivio, Kevin T Wolff, Matt DeLisi, Michael G Vaughn, Alex R Piquero
BACKGROUND: There is a view that young people presenting with an animal cruelty and firesetting combination represent a uniquely risky group, but prior work has relied on samples with insufficient power. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the prevalence of the co-occurrence of animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour among young delinquents? What other features correlate with this? METHODS: We measured the prevalence of animal cruelty and firesetting among 292,649 juvenile offenders and used rare events logistic regression to examine demographic, criminal, mental health and family histories as correlates...
September 4, 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Jessica Sommer, Martina Hinsberger, Thomas Elbert, Leon Holtzhausen, Debra Kaminer, Soraya Seedat, Solomon Madikane, Roland Weierstall
BACKGROUND: In persistently unsafe environments, the cumulative exposure to violence predicts not only the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but also of increased aggression and violent outbursts. Substance use disorders interact with these developments, as drug consumption may blunt symptoms and also reduce the threshold for violent acts. Investigating the interplay between these variables and the possible cumulative effect of drug abuse on the attraction to cruelty is a crucial step in understanding the cycle of violence and developing intervention programs that address this cycle in violence-troubled communities such as low-income urban areas in South Africa...
August 10, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Krzysztof Goniewicz, Mariusz Goniewicz, Witold Pawłowski
International humanitarian law provides special protection devices and medical personnel during armed conflicts. In today's wars it became more frequent lack of respect for the protective emblems of the red cross and red crescent and the lack of respect for medical activities. The paper presents selected issues of humanitarian law with a particular emphasis on the rules concerning the protection of medical services and victims of armed conflicts. All countries that have ratified the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols, are required to comply in time of war the principles contained in them and their dissemination in peacetime...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Garthine Walker
This article explores the ways in which parricide was comprehended in England and Wales, c.1600-1760, and shows that while some parallels exist with modern explanatory models of parricide offenders, they had very different meanings in the early modern context. While both lunacy and the cruelty of parents were understood as possible contexts for parricide, neither were common. The dominant explanation was the gratuitous violence of a selfish individual who lacked compassion and who saw the parent as an obstacle-to an inheritance, riches, marriage, and freedom-to be removed...
July 2016: Journal of Family History
S Alexandra Burt, Kelly L Klump, Deborah Gorman-Smith, Jenae M Neiderhiser
Neighborhood disadvantage plays a pivotal role in child mental health, including child antisocial behavior (e.g., lying, theft, vandalism; assault, cruelty). Prior studies have indicated that shared environmental influences on youth antisocial behavior increase with increasing disadvantage, but have been unable to confirm that these findings persist once various selection confounds are considered. The current study sought to fill this gap in the literature, examining whether and how neighborhood disadvantage alters the genetic and environmental origins of child antisocial behavior...
May 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
N Bradley-Siemens, A I Brower
Projectile injury represents an estimated 14% of reported animal cruelty cases in the United States. Cases involving projectiles are complicated by gross similarities to other common types of injury, including bite wounds and motor vehicle injuries, by weapons and ammunition not commonly recognized or understood by veterinary medical professionals, and by required expertise beyond that employed in routine postmortem examination. This review describes the common types of projectile injuries encountered within the United States, as well as firearms and ammunition associated with this form of injury...
September 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Nicholas Longpré, Jean Proulx, Sébastien Brouillette-Alarie
Sexual sadism can be described as the sexual pleasure produced by acts of cruelty and bodily punishment. The most common method for evaluating sexual sadism is clinical evaluation, that is, evaluation based on the diagnostic criteria of nosological instruments such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) or the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). It is also possible to evaluate sadistic sexual preferences by phallometry, which provides a physiological measure of sexual excitation by deviant and nondeviant scenarios...
May 26, 2016: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
Reese Frederickson
When veterinary pathologists testify as expert witnesses in animal cruelty trials, they may find themselves in an intimidating and unfamiliar environment. The legal rules are clouded in mystery, the lawyers dwell on mundane details, and the witness's words are extracted with precision by a verbal scalpel. An unprepared expert witness can feel ungrounded and stripped of confidence. The goal of this article is to lift the veil of mystery and give the veterinary pathologist the tools to be a knowledgeable and confident expert witness before and during testimony...
September 2016: Veterinary Pathology
John A Browne, Christopher Hensley, Karen M McGuffee
The goal of the current study was to examine the association between demographic characteristics and childhood experiences on the respondents' age of committing childhood animal cruelty and its recurrency. Using data collected from 257 male inmates at a Southern medium-security state prison, the current study seeks to replicate a study by Hensley, Tallichet, and Dutkiewicz. Results revealed that those respondents who were physically abused as children reported engaging in recurrent animal cruelty. The younger the age of respondent for first witnessing animal cruelty, the sooner his initiation to hurting and killing animals occurred...
May 10, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Brian J Holoyda, William J Newman
Animal cruelty has been a concern of the legal and psychiatric communities for many years. Beginning in the early 1800s, state legislatures in the United States established laws to protect the basic safety and security of animals in their jurisdictions. Legislatures have differed in opinion on the animals to receive protection under the law and have instituted differing penalties for infractions of anti-cruelty measures. In the 1960s, the psychiatric community took notice of childhood animal cruelty as a potential risk factor for violent acts against humans...
July 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Raewyn Graham, Phil McManus
Changing social values and new technologies have contributed to increasing media attention and debate about the acceptable use of animals in sport. This paper focuses on the use of the whip in thoroughbred horse racing. Those who defend its use argue it is a necessary tool needed for safety, correction and encouragement, and that it does not cause the horse any pain. For those who oppose its use, it is an instrument of cruelty. Media framing is employed to unpack the discourses played out in print and social media in the UK (2011) and Australia (2009) during key periods of the whip debate following the introduction of new whip rules...
2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Jane Appleton, Catherine Powell, Lindsey Coombes
AIM: This National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC) funded UK study sought to examine organisational and professional responses to children's missed healthcare appointments. DESIGN/METHODS: The study comprised two parts: phase I was a web-based scoping and systematic analysis of UK National Health Service healthcare organisations' internal policies on missed appointments. Phase II involved a case study of how missed appointments were managed within one hospital trust, including interviews with hospital-based staff, review of organisational data and examination of policies and 'systems' in place...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
S M Gwaltney-Brant
Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis...
September 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Àngels Esteller, Rosario Poy, Javier Moltó
This study examined the contribution of the phenotypic domains of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition of the triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009) to deficient aversive-potentiated startle in a mixed-gender sample of 180 undergraduates. Eyeblink responses to noise probes were recorded during a passive picture-viewing task (erotica, neutral, threat, and mutilation). Deficient threat vs. neutral potentiation was uniquely related to increased boldness scores, thus suggesting that the diminished defensive reaction to aversive stimulation is specifically linked to the charm, social potency and venturesomeness features of psychopathy (boldness), but not to features such as callousness, coldheartedness and cruelty traits (meanness), even though both phenotypes theoretically share the same underlying low-fear disposition...
May 2016: Biological Psychology
Nikita Basant, Shikha Gupta, Kunwar P Singh
Experimental determination of the eye irritation potential (EIP) of chemicals is not only tedious, time and resource intensive, it involves cruelty to test animals. In this study, we have established a three-tier QSAR modeling strategy for estimating the EIP of chemicals for the use of pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies. Accordingly, a qualitative (binary classification: irritating, non-irritating), semi-quantitative (four-category classification), and quantitative (regression) QSAR models employing the SDT, DTF, and DTB methods were developed for predicting the EIP of chemicals in accordance with the OECD guidelines...
June 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
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