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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202653/argentine-ants-linepithema-humile-use-adaptable-transportation-networks-to-track-changes-in-resource-quality
#1
Tanya Latty, Michael J Holmes, James C Makinson, Madeleine Beekman
Transportation networks play a crucial role in human and animal societies. For a transportation network to be efficient, it must have adequate capacity to meet traffic demand. Network design becomes increasingly difficult in situations where traffic demand can change unexpectedly. In humans, network design is often constrained by path dependency because it is difficult to move a road once it is built. A similar issue theoretically faces pheromone-trail-laying social insects; once a trail has been laid, positive feedback makes re-routing difficult because new trails cannot compete with continually reinforced pre-existing trails...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187021/on-the-road-to-professionalism
#2
David H Chestnut
Many observers have concluded that we have a crisis of professionalism in the practice of medicine. In this essay, the author identifies and discusses personal attributes and commitments important in the development and maintenance of physician professionalism: humility, servant leadership, self-awareness, kindness, altruism, attention to personal well-being, responsibility and concern for patient safety, lifelong learning, self-regulation, and honesty and integrity. Professionalism requires character, but character alone is not enough...
February 10, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174546/once-an-impression-manager-always-an-impression-manager-antecedents-of-honest-and-deceptive-impression-management-use-and-variability-across-multiple-job-interviews
#3
Nicolas Roulin, Joshua S Bourdage
Research has examined the antecedents of applicants' use of impression management (IM) tactics in employment interviews. All existing empirical studies have measured IM in one particular interview. Yet, applicants generally interview multiple times for different positions, and thus have multiple opportunities to engage in IM, before they can secure a job. Similarly, recent theoretical advances in personnel selection and IM research have suggested that applicant behaviors should be considered as dynamic and adaptive in nature...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165694/to-reverse-the-cycle-of-violence-try-humility
#4
Thomas Nairn
The social tradition of the church constantly has decried violence. Pope Paul VI was clear when he stated: "The Church cannot accept violence ... because she knows that violence always provokes violence and irresistibly engenders new forms of oppression and enslavement."'.
July 2016: Health Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165286/the-erudite-humility-of-the-historian-the-critical-epistemology-of-georges-lant%C3%A3-ri-laura
#5
Elisabetta Basso Lorini
This paper analyses the historical and epistemological work of the French psychiatrist Georges Lantéri-Laura (1930-2004) within the context of the French 'tradition' of history and philosophy of sciences, with special reference to Georges Canguilhem and Michel Foucault. After an introduction devoted to a critical survey of the most recent works on the history and historiography of psychiatry in French, the paper outlines Lantéri-Laura's approach by focusing especially on the role played by the methodological concept of 'semiology' as regards the relation between medicine and psychiatry...
February 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143568/factors-predicting-training-transfer-in-health-professionals-participating-in-quality-improvement-educational-interventions
#6
Ahmed Eid, Doris Quinn
BACKGROUND: Predictors of quality improvement (QI) training transfer are needed. This study aimed to identify these predictors among health professionals who participated in a QI training program held at a large hospital in the United States between 2005 and 2014. It also aimed to determine how these predictive factors facilitated or impeded QI training transfer. METHODS: Following the Success Case Method, we used a screening survey to identify trainees with high and low levels of training transfer...
January 31, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081552/demographic-and-psychological-correlates-of-new-zealanders-support-for-euthanasia
#7
Carol Hj Lee, Isabelle M Duck, Chris G Sibley
AIMS: To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' support towards the legalisation of euthanasia and examine demographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes. METHODS: 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included an item on people's attitudes towards euthanasia, and information on their demographic and psychological characteristics. RESULTS: The majority of New Zealanders expressed support for euthanasia, which was assessed by asking "Suppose a person has a painful incurable disease...
January 13, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071983/what-does-leaders-character-add-to-transformational-leadership
#8
Patrick Liborius
The influence of leaders' character (e.g., integrity, humility/forgiveness) has rarely been examined in leadership research. The current investigation focused on the impact of integrity and humility/forgiveness on both followers' perceptions of leaders' worthiness of being followed (WBF) and stress. Results from a scenario experiment (n = 347) and a field study (n = 110) indicated that these aspects incrementally predict WBF above and beyond the impact of transformational leadership. Similar results were found concerning followers' stress with the exception of leader integrity in the field study...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062825/global-family-medicine-a-universal-mnemonic
#9
William B Ventres
In this essay, I borrow the idea of universal precautions from infection control and suggest that family physicians use a set of considerations, based on the mnemonic UNIVERSAL, to nurture cultural humility, enter a metaphoric "space-in-between" in cross-cultural encounters, and foster global fluency. These UNIVERSAL considerations I base on my experiences in global family medicine, attending to economically poor and socially marginalized patients in both international and domestic settings. They are informed by readings in transcultural psychiatry, medical anthropology, development studies, and primary care...
January 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039867/symbiotic-bacterial-communities-in-ants-are-modified-by-invasion-pathway-bottlenecks-and-alter-host-behavior
#10
Philip J Lester, Alexandra Sébastien, Andrew V Suarez, Rafael F Barbieri, Monica A M Gruber
Biological invasions are a threat to global biodiversity and provide unique opportunities to study ecological processes. Population bottlenecks are a common feature of biological invasions and the severity of these bottlenecks is likely to be compounded as an invasive species spreads from initial invasion sites to additional locations. Despite extensive work on the genetic consequences of bottlenecks, we know little about how they influence microbial communities of the invaders themselves. Due to serial bottlenecks, invasive species may lose microbial symbionts including pathogenic taxa (the enemy release hypothesis) and/or may accumulate natural enemies with increasing time after invasion (the pathogen accumulation and invasive decline hypothesis)...
December 31, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027035/justice-and-u-s-occupational-therapy-practice-a-relationship-100-years-in-the-making
#11
Rebecca M Aldrich, Tessa L Boston, Claire E Daaleman
At 99 years old, occupational therapy is a global health care profession with a growing orientation toward justice. Because much of the occupational justice discourse has developed outside the United States, parallels between the profession's ethos and its current focus on justice must be examined more closely in this country. Although occupational therapy practitioners in the United States are better equipped than their predecessors with language and theories that explicitly emphasize justice, the potential for bringing that focus to bear depends on practitioners' willingness to think differently about their practices...
January 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026894/by-their-own-devices-invasive-argentine-ants-have-shifted-diet-without-clear-aid-from-symbiotic-microbes
#12
Yi Hu, David A Holway, Piotr Łukasik, Linh Chau, Adam D Kay, Edward G LeBrun, Katie A Miller, Jon G Sanders, Andrew V Suarez, Jacob A Russell
The functions and compositions of symbiotic bacterial communities often correlate with host ecology. Yet cause-and-effect relationships, and the order of symbiont versus host change, remain unclear in the face of ancient symbioses and conserved host ecology. Several groups of ants exemplify this challenge, as their low-nitrogen diets and specialized symbioses appear conserved and ancient. To address whether nitrogen-provisioning symbionts might be important in the early stages of ant trophic shifts we studied bacteria from the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile-an invasive species that has transitioned toward greater consumption of sugar-rich, nitrogen-poor foods in parts of its introduced range...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026702/operational-readiness-for-conducting-global-health-research-abroad
#13
Judy M McDonald, Theresa W Gyorkos
Research excellence is the goal of all researchers. Conducting quality research with the ultimate aim of improving health is a shared goal among researchers in the global health domain. The competencies required for conducting and producing quality research in global health go far beyond the academic or scientific spheres. They incorporate aspects of research partnership, which places humility, empathy, and mutual respect at its core. Conducting quality respectful global health research requires an appropriate balance of operational readiness (i...
December 27, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018250/grit-or-honesty-humility-new-insights-into-the-moderating-role-of-personality-between-the-health-impairment-process-and-counterproductive-work-behavior
#14
Andrea Ceschi, Riccardo Sartori, Stephan Dickert, Arianna Costantini
It is acknowledged that chronic job demands may be depleting workers' stamina resulting in burnout conditions and ultimately causing further health problems. This relation, known as health impairment process, has recently been considered as a possible explanation for the emergence of counterproductive work behavior (CWB). The present work aims to examine the role of two personality traits (i.e., Grit and Honesty-Humility) in this process. The results, based on a sample of 208 private service sector employees, confirm the presence of a fully mediated process and show how Honesty-Humility positively moderates the relationship between job demands and exhaustion, whereas Grit has a negative effect on the relation between exhaustion and CWB...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006805/the-ant-genus-i-linepithema-i-formicidae-dolichoderinae-in-colombia
#15
Mayron Escárraga, Roberto J Guerrero
The species of Linepithema Mayr in Colombia are reviewed from collection material. The genus Linepithema comprises 20 species, of which the following are reported in Colombia: L. angulatum (Emery), L. dispertitum (Forel), L. gallardoi (Brèthes), L. humile (Mayr), L. iniquum (Mayr), L. neotropicum Wild, L. piliferum (Mayr), L. tsachila Wild, and a new species, Linepithema hirsutum sp. nov. Linepithema dispertitum is a new record for Colombia and South America. A taxonomic key (English and Spanish) and distribution maps to the species of Linepithema in Colombia are provided...
December 19, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005251/investigating-trust-expertise-and-epistemic-injustice-in-chronic-pain
#16
Daniel Z Buchman, Anita Ho, Daniel S Goldberg
Trust is central to the therapeutic relationship, but the epistemic asymmetries between the expert healthcare provider and the patient make the patient, the trustor, vulnerable to the provider, the trustee. The narratives of pain sufferers provide helpful insights into the experience of pain at the juncture of trust, expert knowledge, and the therapeutic relationship. While stories of pain sufferers having their testimonies dismissed are well documented, pain sufferers continue to experience their testimonies as being epistemically downgraded...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996905/uncertainty-humility-and-engagement-in-pregnancy-care
#17
Jamie L Shirley, Meghan Eagen-Torkko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915463/the-our-hope-approach-for-ethics-and-communication-about-neonatal-neurological-injury
#18
REVIEW
Eric Racine, Emily Bell, Barbara Farlow, Steven Miller, Antoine Payot, Lisa Anne Rasmussen, Michael I Shevell, Donna Thomson, Pia Wintermark
Predicting neurological outcomes of neonates with acute brain injury is an essential component of shared decision-making, in order to guide the development of treatment goals and appropriate care plans. It can aid parents in imagining the child's future, and guide timely and ongoing treatment decisions, including shifting treatment goals and focusing on comfort care. However, numerous challenges have been reported with respect to evidence-based practices for prognostication such as biases about prognosis among clinicians...
February 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895609/to-fake-or-not-to-fake-antecedents-to-interview-faking-warning-instructions-and-its-impact-on-applicant-reactions
#19
Stephanie J Law, Joshua Bourdage, Thomas A O'Neill
In the present study, we examined the antecedents and processes that impact job interviewees' decisions to engage in deceptive impression management (i.e., interview faking). Willingness and capacity to engage in faking were found to be the processes underlying the decision to use deceptive impression management in the interview. We also examined a personality antecedent to this behavior, Honesty-Humility, which was negatively related to the use of deceptive impression management through increased willingness to engage in these behaviors...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876106/hubris-and-humility-effect-and-the-domain-masculine-intelligence-type-in-two-countries-colombia-and-the-uk
#20
Josephine Storek, Adrian Furnham
Spanish-speaking Colombian (n = 50) and English-speaking British (N = 52) adults completed a self-assessed intelligence measure that yielded a score on domain-masculine intelligence (DMIQ), a composite of mathematical/logical and spatial intelligences. They also completed a Sex Role inventory in order to establish their masculinity and femininity. Males in both countries gave significantly higher self-estimates (Colombia: Males 110.36, Females 100.75, d = .94; England: Males 114.37, Females 105.75, d = .86; both p < ...
November 23, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
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