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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532859/humility-when-responding-to-the-abuse-of-adults-with-mental-disabilities
#1
Paul Skowron
Legal theorists often reduce the ethics of responding to the abuse of another person to a clash between the principles of autonomy and protection. This reduction is a problem. Responding to suspected abuse requires humility - the potential responder must be aware of and respect their own limits - but humility cannot be usefully reduced to protection and autonomy. Using examples from the Court of Protection of England and Wales, this article examines the different ways that someone responding to abuse should respect their own limits, and suggests that a failure to do so will disproportionately affect people with mental disabilities...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531326/relationship-among-establishment-durations-kin-relatedness-aggressiveness-and-distance-between-populations-of-eight-invasive-argentine-ant-hymenoptera-formicidae-supercolonies-in-japan
#2
K Sato, H Sakamoto, M Hirata, M Kidokoro-Kobayashi, M Ozaki, S Higashi, T Murakami
We investigated kin relatedness and kin-recognition abilities of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), an invader from North America that has pervaded Japan for 20 yr, using genetic analyses and behavioral bioassays. From these data and interactions among factors, we formulated an eradication and management time-scale pattern diagram. Relatedness within a colony using microsatellite markers was effectively zero, whereas relatedness estimated by multilocus DNA fingerprinting markers was relatively high...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517237/development-of-an-alginate-hydrogel-to-deliver-aqueous-bait-for-pest-ant-management
#3
Jia-Wei Tay, Mark S Hoddle, Ashok Mulchandani, Dong-Hwan Choe
BACKGROUND: Insecticide sprays used for ant control cause environmental contamination. Liquid bait is a safe and effective alternative, but it requires bait stations to dispense the toxicant. We developed a biodegradable hydrogel to deliver liquid bait obviating the need for bait stations. RESULTS: Alginate hydrogel beads with preferred rigidity and maximum hydration in 25% sucrose solution were engineered by optimizing a crosslinking process. The moisture content of the substrate on which the beads were placed and the relative atmospheric humidity significantly influenced water loss dynamics of the hydrated hydrogel beads...
May 18, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501142/charcot-past-and-present
#4
REVIEW
C G Goetz
Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) was the preeminent neurologist of the nineteenth century. Several of his major contributions remain fully relevant to contemporary neurology, and this essay highlights three areas of particular importance to the modern neurologist: the anatomo-clinical method that Charcot developed as the anchor of neurological study; the integration of new scientific discoveries from other fields as a core strategy for neurological advancement; and the role of heredity as the fundamental etiological focus to the understanding of the pathogenesis of primary neurological disorders...
May 10, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450847/the-role-of-cognition-personality-and-trust-in-fraud-victimization-in-older-adults
#5
Rebecca A Judges, Sara N Gallant, Lixia Yang, Kang Lee
Older adults are more at risk to become a victim of consumer fraud than any other type of crime (Carcach et al., 2001) but the research on the psychological profiles of senior fraud victims is lacking. To bridge this significant gap, we surveyed 151 (120 female, 111 Caucasian) community-dwelling older adults in Southern Ontario between 60 and 90 years of age about their experiences with fraud. Participants had not been diagnosed with cognitive impairment or a neurological disorder by their doctor and looked after their own finances...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441674/the-development-of-an-indigenous-health-curriculum-for-medical-students
#6
Melissa Lewis, Amy Prunuske
Indigenous populations experience dramatic health disparities; yet, few medical schools equip students with the skills to address these inequities. At the University of Minnesota Medical School, Duluth campus, a project to develop an Indigenous health curriculum began in September 2013. This project used collaborative and decolonizing methods to gather ideas and opinions from multiple stakeholders, including students, community members, faculty, and administration, to guide the process of adding Indigenous health content to the curriculum to prepare students to work effectively with Indigenous populations...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432522/diagnostic-uncertainty-and-epistemologic-humility
#7
EDITORIAL
Andrew Kelly, Richard S Panush
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 22, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414529/introduction-arthur-d-smith-md-humility-hard-work-and-grace
#8
Ralph V Clayman, John Denstedt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375721/emotions-in-depression-what-do-we-really-know
#9
Jonathan Rottenberg
Major depressive disorder is among the most common and costly of all mental health conditions, and in the last 20 years, emotional dysfunction has been increasingly seen as central to depression. Accordingly, research on emotions in depression has proceeded with fury. The urgency of the work has tempted investigators to issue premature declarations and to sometimes overlook theoretical and methodological challenges entailed in studying emotion. I report on what we have learned thus far about how depression influences emotional reactivity and emotion regulation, and also carefully demarcate the vast terrain of what we do not yet know...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353189/reflections-on-ethics-and-humanity-in-pediatric-neurology-the-value-of-recognizing-ethical-issues-in-common-clinical-practice
#10
REVIEW
Gabriel M Ronen, Peter L Rosenbaum
Our goals in this reflection are to (i) identify the ethical dimensions inherent in any clinical encounter and (ii) bring to the forefront of our pediatric neurology practice the myriad of opportunities to explore and learn from these ethical questions. We highlight specifically Beauchamp and Childress's principles of biomedical ethics. We use the terms ethics in common clinical practice and an ethical lens to remind people of the ubiquity of ethical situations and the usefulness of using existing ethical principles to analyze and resolve difficult situations in clinical practice...
May 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347520/-some-of-them-shut-the-door-with-a-single-word-but-she-was-different-a-migrant-patient-s-culture-a-physician-s-narrative-humility-and-a-researcher-s-bias
#11
Kristina Würth, Sylvie Schuster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346115/the-malevolent-side-of-human-nature
#12
Peter Muris, Harald Merckelbach, Henry Otgaar, Ewout Meijer
The term dark triad refers to the constellation of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Over the past few years, the concept has gained momentum, with many researchers assuming that the dark triad is a prominent antecedent of transgressive and norm-violating behavior. Our purpose in this meta-analytic review was to evaluate (a) interrelations among narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy; (b) gender differences in these traits; (c) how these traits are linked to normal personality factors; and (d) the psychosocial correlates of the dark triad...
March 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346113/wisdom-in-context
#13
Igor Grossmann
Philosophers and psychological scientists have converged on the idea that wisdom involves certain aspects of thinking (e.g., intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty and change), enabling application of knowledge to life challenges. Empirical evidence indicates that people's ability to think wisely varies dramatically across experiential contexts that they encounter over the life span. Moreover, wise thinking varies from one situation to another, with self-focused contexts inhibiting wise thinking...
March 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325980/baby-killers-documentation-and-evolution-of-scuttle-fly-diptera-phoridae-parasitism-of-ant-hymenoptera-formicidae-brood
#14
Brian V Brown, John M Hash, Emily A Hartop, Wendy Porras, Dalton de Souza Amorim
BACKGROUND: Numerous well-documented associations occur among species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), but examples of brood parasitism are rare and the mechanisms of parasitism often remain unsubstantiated. NEW INFORMATION: We present two video-documented examples of ant brood (larvae and pupae) parasitism by scuttle flies. In footage from Estação Biológica de Boracéia in Brazil, adult females of Ceratoconus setipennis Borgmeier can be seen attacking workers of Linepithema humile (Mayr) species group while they are carrying brood, and ovipositing directly onto brood in the nest...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298156/a-new-admission-method-may-select-applicants-with-a-distinct-personality-profile
#15
Aya G Talmor, Amir Falk, Yaniv Almog
BACKGROUND: There is little data to suggest that a specific admission method can select students with a distinct personality profile. We have recently introduced a new admission process that combines a computerized personality test, with a single interview. The purpose of the current study was to find whether the new method selects applicants with a different personality profile and attitudes compared with the previous method. METHOD: Using a validated personality questionnaire (HEXACO) and attitudes questionnair, that were filled anonymously between November 2014 and May 2015, the authors compared two groups of students: group A comprising students accepted with the new method (first and second year) with group B comprising students accepted with the previous method (third to sixth year)...
March 15, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277039/therapists-honesty-humor-styles-playfulness-and-creativity-as-outcome-predictors-a-retrospective-study-of-the-therapist-effect
#16
Refael Yonatan-Leus, Orya Tishby, Gaby Shefler, Hadas Wiseman
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether therapists' honesty, humor style, playfulness, and creativity would retrospectively predict the outcomes of therapies ended five years earlier. METHOD: In the Jerusalem-Haifa study, 29 therapists treated 70 clients in dynamic psychotherapy for 1 year. The Outcome Questionnaire 45 scores were collected at five time points. Five years later, the therapists were contacted via email and asked to fill out honesty, humor styles, playfulness, and creativity self-report questionnaires...
February 24, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263618/honesty-humility-under-threat-self-uncertainty-destroys-trust-among-the-nice-guys
#17
Stefan Pfattheicher, Robert Böhm
Recent research on humans' prosociality has highlighted the crucial role of Honesty-Humility, a basic trait in the HEXACO personality model. There is overwhelming evidence that Honesty-Humility predicts prosocial behavior across a vast variety of situations. In the present contribution, we cloud this rosy picture, examining a condition under which individuals high in Honesty-Humility reduce prosocial behavior. Specifically, we propose that under self-uncertainty, it is particularly those individuals high in Honesty-Humility who reduce trust in unknown others and become less prosocial...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230266/who-is-a-distracted-driver-associations-between-mobile-phone-use-while-driving-domain-specific-risk-taking-and-personality
#18
Madison Sween, Andrea Ceschi, Francesco Tommasi, Riccardo Sartori, Joshua Weller
Mobile phone use while driving (MPUWD) is an increasingly common form of distracted driving. Given its widespread prevalence, it is important for researchers to identify factors that may predict who is more likely to engage in this risky behavior. The current study investigates associations between MPUWD risk behaviors, domain-specific risk perceptions, and broad personality dimensions. An Italian community sample (n = 804) completed a survey regarding MPUWD risk perceptions and engagement in MPUWD, in addition to the HEXACO-PI-R, a broad six-factor personality inventory (honesty-humility, emotionality, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience), and the DOSPERT, a six-factor domain-specific self-report risk-taking measure (health/safety, recreational, social, ethical, gambling, and investment)...
February 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202653/argentine-ants-linepithema-humile-use-adaptable-transportation-networks-to-track-changes-in-resource-quality
#19
Tanya Latty, Michael J Holmes, James C Makinson, Madeleine Beekman
Transportation networks play a crucial role in human and animal societies. For a transportation network to be efficient, it must have adequate capacity to meet traffic demand. Network design becomes increasingly difficult in situations where traffic demand can change unexpectedly. In humans, network design is often constrained by path dependency because it is difficult to move a road once it is built. A similar issue theoretically faces pheromone-trail-laying social insects; once a trail has been laid, positive feedback makes re-routing difficult because new trails cannot compete with continually reinforced pre-existing trails...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187021/on-the-road-to-professionalism
#20
REVIEW
David H Chestnut
Many observers have concluded that we have a crisis of professionalism in the practice of medicine. In this essay, the author identifies and discusses personal attributes and commitments important in the development and maintenance of physician professionalism: humility, servant leadership, self-awareness, kindness, altruism, attention to personal well-being, responsibility and concern for patient safety, lifelong learning, self-regulation, and honesty and integrity. Professionalism requires character, but character alone is not enough...
May 2017: Anesthesiology
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