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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638969/introduction-childhood-and-disability
#1
EDITORIAL
Erica K Salter
From growth attenuation therapy for severely developmentally disabled children to the post-natal management of infants with trisomy 13 and 18, pediatric treatment decisions regularly involve assessments of the probability and severity of a child's disability. Because these decisions are almost always made by surrogate decision-makers (parents and caregivers) and because these decision-makers must often make decisions based on both prognostic guesses and potentially biased quality of life judgments, they are among the most ethically complex in pediatric care...
June 21, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633732/to-err-is-human-can-american-medicine-learn-from-past-mistakes
#2
Jeffrey B Ritterman
The history of medicine includes many errors. Some persisted for decades and caused great harm. Several are highlighted in this article, including the mythical thymic diseases: thymic asthma and status thymicolymphaticus. Some medical mistakes, such as the diet-heart hypothesis of Ancel Keys, continue to cause harm. To avoid future errors and their associated harm, I suggest a cultural shift encouraging professional humility and greater questioning of medical dogma. Medical education focused on teaching students this history may help with this cultural shift...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632597/leadership-communication-and-negotiation-across-a-diverse-workforce-an-aoa-critical-issues-symposium
#3
Denis R Clohisy, Michael J Yaszemski, Joanne Lipman
The current workforce in the United States is rapidly changing and is increasingly inclusive of individuals from a broad range of ages, ethnicities, and cultural backgrounds. Engaging and leading a diverse workforce creates great opportunities for innovation and adaptation in our evolving medical economic and clinical care delivery environment. For optimal engagement of employees and partners, orthopaedic surgeons must develop the necessary skills for executing change inside complex organizations and across teams composed of a variety of providers and skilled workers...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628586/building-a-pediatric-oral-health-training-curriculum-for-community-health-workers
#4
Molly Martin, William Frese, Christie Lumsden, Anna Sandoval
OBJECTIVES: Community health workers (CHWs) are a promising approach to oral health promotion in high-risk populations. This article describes the process of creating a pediatric oral health CHW training curriculum. DESIGN: Existing curricula were identified through outreach efforts to experts in the oral health and CHW fields, as well as PubMed and Google searches. After coding basic information, curricula were mapped to define oral health domains. Then group discussion was employed to determine final curriculum contents...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616899/improving-socially-constructed-cross-cultural-communication-in-aged-care-homes-a-critical-perspective
#5
Lily Dongxia Xiao, Eileen Willis, Ann Harrington, David Gillham, Anita De Bellis, Wendy Morey, Lesley Jeffers
Cultural diversity between residents and staff is significant in aged care homes in many developed nations in the context of international migration. This diversity can be a challenge to achieving effective cross-cultural communication. The aim of this study was to critically examine how staff and residents initiated effective cross-cultural communication and social cohesion that enabled positive changes to occur. A critical hermeneutic analysis underpinned by Giddens' Structuration Theory was applied to the study...
June 14, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615401/indigenous-medicine-approaching-the-challenges-with-courage-and-humility
#6
Sarah de Leeuw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611440/declaration-of-local-chemical-eradication-of-the-argentine-ant-bayesian-estimation-with-a-multinomial-mixture-model
#7
Yoshiko Sakamoto, Naoki H Kumagai, Koichi Goka
Determining the success of eradication of an invasive species requires a way to decide when its risk of reoccurrence has become acceptably low. In Japan, the area populated by the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), is expanding, and eradication via chemical treatment is ongoing at various locations. One such program in Tokyo was apparently successful, because the ant population decreased to undetectable levels within a short time. However, construction of a population model for management purposes was difficult because the probability of detecting ants decreases rapidly as the population collapses...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611410/politeness-and-compassion-differentially-predict-adherence-to-fairness-norms-and-interventions-to-norm-violations-in-economic-games
#8
Kun Zhao, Eamonn Ferguson, Luke D Smillie
Adherence to norms and interventions to norm violations are two important forms of social behaviour modelled in economic games. While both appear to serve a prosocial function, they may represent separate mechanisms corresponding with distinct emotional and psychological antecedents, and thus may be predicted by different personality traits. In this study, we compared adherence to fairness norms in the dictator game with responses to violations of the same norms in third-party punishment and recompensation games with respect to prosocial traits from the Big Five and HEXACO models of personality...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607437/single-stranded-rna-viruses-infecting-the-invasive-argentine-ant-linepithema-humile
#9
Monica A M Gruber, Meghan Cooling, James W Baty, Kevin Buckley, Anna Friedlander, Oliver Quinn, Jessica F E J Russell, Alexandra Sébastien, Philip J Lester
Social insects host a diversity of viruses. We examined New Zealand populations of the globally widely distributed invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) for RNA viruses. We used metatranscriptomic analysis, which identified six potential novel viruses in the Dicistroviridae family. Of these, three contigs were confirmed by Sanger sequencing as Linepithema humile virus-1 (LHUV-1), a novel strain of Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV), while the others were chimeric or misassembled sequences...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604227/on-the-violation-of-hospitalized-patients-rights-a-qualitative-study
#10
Mojgan Khademi, Eesa Mohammadi, Zohreh Vanaki
BACKGROUND: Nurses have always been known as an advocate for the rights of patients. The recognition of what is perceived as the violation of patients' rights can help nurses to understand patients' concerns and priorities. Thus, it helps nurses play their supportive roles more effectively. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore different dimensions of the violation of patients' rights. RESEARCH DESIGN: Data were collected utilizing unstructured interviews and field notes...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594200/a-mixed-methods-study-of-personality-conceptions-in-the-levant-jordan-lebanon-syria-and-the-west-bank
#11
Pia Zeinoun, Lina Daouk-Öyry, Lina Choueiri, Fons J R van de Vijver
Personality taxonomies are investigated using either etic-style studies that test whether Western-developed models fit in a new culture, or emic-style studies that derive personality dimensions from a local culture, using a psycholexical approach. Recent studies have incorporated strengths from both approaches. We combine the 2 approaches in the first study of personality descriptors in spoken Arabic. In Study 1, we collected 17,283 responses from a sample of adults in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and the West Bank (N = 545)...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585478/succession-humility-and-fidelity-to-a-vision
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578833/life-values-of-elderly-people-suffering-from-incurable-cancer-a-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Anne Ebenau, Jelle van Gurp, Jeroen Hasselaar
OBJECTIVE: Due to aging Western societies, older patients suffering from incurable cancer will present themselves more often to health care professionals. To be of service to these severely ill elderly patients, more knowledge is needed on which life values are guiding them through their last phases of life. This review aims to describe which life values play an important part in the lives of elderly people suffering from incurable cancer. METHODS: We conducted a literature review with a structured search to identify empirical studies (January 1950-February 2016) using six databases...
May 24, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575351/-enquire-into-all-the-circumstances-of-the-patient-narrowly-john-rutherford-s-clinical-lectures-in-edinburgh-1749-53
#14
Stephen C Craig
Early eighteenth-century Edinburgh provided a unique learning environment for aspiring practitioners: one in which the unity of medicine and surgery was appreciated and clinical observations and a reasoning practitioner became the well spring of proper patient care. John Rutherford, a surgical apprentice in this environment, student on the wards of London hospitals and under Boerhaave at Leiden, became one of the original medical professors at the University of Edinburgh medical school in 1726. Rutherford taught the popular, theory-based Practice of Medicine for twenty-two years...
May 29, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560025/an-unusual-case-of-massive-hematemesis-caused-by-aorto-esophageal-fistula-due-to-mycotic-aneurysm-of-mid-thoracic-aorta-in-a-patient-without-prior-aortic-instrumentation
#15
Erion Qaja, Mahalingam Sivakumar, Maryam Saleemi
In the words of Sir William Osler: "There is no disease more conducive to clinical humility than aneurysms of the aorta". Here, we describe a case of a primary fistulous tract between a pseudoaneurysm sac and a portion of the mid thoracic esophagus leading to massive extravasation of blood causing hemorrhagic shock in a 71-year-old female.
May 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559110/protein-restriction-affects-sperm-number-but-not-sperm-viability-in-male-ants
#16
Francisco Dávila, Serge Aron
Sperm cells are costly to produce; diet should therefore affect sperm number and/or viability. In non-social insects and vertebrates, there is compelling evidence that diet influences sperm production. Less is known about this relationship in eusocial hymenopterans (all ants and some bees and wasps), whose mating systems impose unique selective pressures on sperm production. Males face physiological constraints: they acquire all of the resources they will use in future reproductive efforts as larvae and emerge from the pupal stage with a fixed, non-renewable amount of sperm...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558628/the-hexaco-model-of-personality-and-risky-driving-behavior
#17
Vlad Burtăverde, Mihaela Chraif, Mihai Aniţei, Daniela Dumitru
This research tested the association between the HEXACO personality model and risky driving behavior as well as the predictive power of the HEXACO model in explaining risky driving behavior compared with the Big Five model. In Sample 1, 227 undergraduate students completed measures of the HEXACO personality model, the Big Five model, and driving aggression. In Sample 2, 244 community respondents completed measures of the HEXACO personality model, the Big Five model, and driving styles. Results showed that the Honesty-Humility factor is an important addition to personality models that aim to explain risky driving behavior as being related to all forms of driving aggression as well as to maladaptive and adaptive driving styles and having incremental validity in predicting verbally aggressive expression, risky driving, high-velocity driving, and careful driving...
April 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543418/reconciling-patient-safety-and-epistemic-humility-an-ethical-use-of-opioid-treatment-plans
#18
Anita Ho
In this issue of the Hastings Center Report, Joshua Rager and Peter Schwartz suggest using opioid treatment agreements as public health monitoring tools to inform patients about "the requirements entailed by undergoing opioid therapy," rather than as contractual agreements to alter patients' individual behavior or to benefit them directly. Because Rager and Schwartz's argument presents suspected OTA violations as a justification to stop providing opioids yet does not highlight the broader epistemic and systemic context within which clinicians prescribe these medications, their proposal may perpetuate a climate of distrust and stigmatization without correcting systemic factors that may have placed patients and others at risk in the first place...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541553/occurrence-of-15-haplotypes-of-linepithema-micans-hymenoptera-formicidae-in-southern-brazil
#19
Manuela Oliveira Ramalho, C Martins, T Campos, A Nondillo, M Botton, O C Bueno
The ant genus Linepithema is widely known, thanks to the pest species Linepithema humile (Mayr), which is easily mistaken for Linepithema micans (Forel) due to their morphological similarity. Like L. humile, L. micans is associated to the main grapevine pest in Brazil, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille), also known as ground pearl. Therefore, the present study uses mtDNA fragments to expand the knowledge of haplotype diversity and distribution of L. micans in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), to understand the genetic differences of the populations identified in this study...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532859/humility-when-responding-to-the-abuse-of-adults-with-mental-disabilities
#20
Paul Skowron
Legal theorists often reduce the ethics of responding to the abuse of another person to a clash between the principles of autonomy and protection. This reduction is a problem. Responding to suspected abuse requires humility - the potential responder must be aware of and respect their own limits - but humility cannot be usefully reduced to protection and autonomy. Using examples from the Court of Protection of England and Wales, this article examines the different ways that someone responding to abuse should respect their own limits, and suggests that a failure to do so will disproportionately affect people with mental disabilities...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
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