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Daniel S Martin, Helen T McKenna, Clare M Morkane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Britta Wigginton, Coral Gartner, Ingrid J Rowlands
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, or vaping, is increasing against a backdrop of declining smoking rates. E-cigarettes contain fewer toxicants than cigarettes, but their appearance and mode of use has the potential to satisfy the habitual aspects of smoking. To date, we know little about lay perceptions of the safety of using e-cigarettes in pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted a thematic discourse analysis of 13 online discussion forum threads that discussed e-cigarette use during pregnancy...
October 20, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Edwina A Brown, Frederic O Finkelstein, Osasuyi U Iyasere, Alan S Kliger
Management of older people on dialysis requires focus on the wider aspects of aging as well as dialysis. Almost all frail and older patients receiving dialysis will default to in-center hemodialysis, although the availability of assisted peritoneal dialysis enables dialysis at home. As with any disease management decision, patients approaching end-stage renal disease need all the appropriate facts about their prognosis, the natural history of their disease without dialysis, and the resulting outcomes and complications of the different dialysis modalities...
October 20, 2016: Kidney International
Upendra Kumar, J Berliner, Totan Adak, Prakash C Rath, Avro Dey, Somnath S Pokhare, Nitiprasad N Jambhulkar, P Panneerselvam, Anjani Kumar, Shyamranjan D Mohapatra
Application of pesticide in agricultural fields is "unnecessary evil" for non-target microflora and fauna. Hence, to identify the safer pesticide molecules against non-target microbes, a long-term pesticide experiment was initiated at National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, India. In the present study, the effect of continuous application of chlorpyrifos (0.5kgha(-1)) in rice fields on non-target groups of soil microbes and nematodes was studied for seven seasons (four wet and three dry seasons) during 2009-2013...
October 13, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Stuart L Goldstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article will review the current state of our understanding of nephrotoxic medication-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) and provide strategies to reduce its impact. RECENT FINDINGS: Nephrotoxic medications contribute to a substantial proportion of AKI in hospitalized patients. The previous perspective of nephrotoxic medication-associated AKI as a nonmodifiable necessary evil of providing appropriate therapy to ill patients had led to an incomplete understanding of its epidemiology and provided little impetus to reduce its occurrence...
September 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Chao Hu, Chao Zhang, Cheng Yang
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is manifested by inflammation, and an early feature in the pathogenesis is the accumulation of immune cells in the kidney. Natural killer T (NKT) cells, a peculiar T cells subtype, serve as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. Due to the difference between type I and type II subsets, NKT cells were supposed to play a dual role in IR-related tissue injury. Furthermore, membrane receptors and clinical immunosuppressive agents remain involved in the modulation of NKT cell function...
September 9, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Severina Haugvik, David Beran, Pamela Klassen, Akhtar Hussain, Ane Haaland
AIMS: To explore and describe perceptions and experiences of living with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus among children/youths in Tajikistan. METHODS: Qualitative methods were employed. Participants were recruited through purposive and snowball samplings. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview guide with children/youths having diabetes, their parents as well as health professionals. Data were analyzed according to Malterud's systematic text condensation...
September 10, 2016: Chronic Illness
Meron Awraris Gebrewold, Fikre Enquselassie, Redda Teklehaimanot, Seid Ali Gugssa
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia where the burden of epilepsy is highest among school age children and teenagers, and where people with epilepsy (PWE) and their relatives suffers from high level of perceived stigma, there had not been any study that assessed the knowledge, attitude and practice of teachers towards PWE. This study aims to assess and understand the social and demographic determinants of knowledge, attitude and practice of teachers towards PLW in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling procedure was used to identify twenty schools from three sub cities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
September 8, 2016: BMC Neurology
Kate Winskell, Gaëlle Sabben, Kaitlyn L Pruitt, Kristi Allen, Trinity Findlay, Rob Stephenson
Sexual minorities are stigmatised in much of sub-Saharan Africa, restricting their access to sexual health services and undermining their mental health. Although public attitudes and social representations inform the experience of sexual stigma, little is known about how young Africans make sense of sexual diversity. We conducted a thematic analysis of 56 texts contributed by young people from 10 countries in response to a prompt in a scriptwriting competition inviting participants to 'tell a story about someone who is attracted to people of the same sex'...
September 8, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Ashwini Kumar, Bibhukalyan P Nayak, Awanish Kumar
World Health Organization (WHO) considers obesity as one of the fastest growing metabolic disorders other than diabetes. It is a complex interplay of lifestyle and associated genes. Obesity has been considered as a disease with multiple targets and very often compared in this sense with its sibling disease type 2 diabetes. The disease is pathology of the adipocytes and develops as a result of hypertrophy and hyperplasia of these cells, former being the major concern but its effects could be seen on various organs in the form of cardio-vascular disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, sexual dysfunction, respiratory problems and many more...
December 2016: Minerva Endocrinologica
Eric D Miller
This article offers an analytic, integrative review of select themes associated with one of history's greatest atrocities: the Holocaust. Much of this review considers general and Holocaust-specific themes as they pertain to the nature of senseless violence and evil. The importance of having a greater understanding of the sheer brutality of violence perpetuated in the Holocaust is emphasized. As part of this discussion, considerable attention is given to how Internet-based photographs and videos from the Holocaust era can provide greater insight into understanding the evil associated with this genocide...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Psychology
John Hickner
Violence and discrimination, like chronic disease, seem to be permanent fixtures on the human landscape. What can we do to prevent and mitigate these evils?
July 2016: Journal of Family Practice
Lionel Chudzik
Therapeutic Assessment (TA) emphasizes the importance of the clinical relationship and the core values of collaboration, respect, humility, compassion, and curiosity, which guide all aspects of the endeavor (Finn, 2007 ). Those values are not easy to apply with violent offenders. However, this article explains how TA can significantly contribute to the treatment of those clients by helping the therapist avoid common cultural narratives about evil. We see that these culturally based myths permit us to explain violent behaviors, but also prevent us from treating them because they lead us to a circular countertransference-transference process...
November 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
Tomohiro Tsunekawa, Kent W Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 30, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Oliver R B Thomas, Nicole C Barbee, Kathryn L Hassell, Stephen E Swearer
Fish, at all life stages, utilize olfactory information in the decision-making processes essential to survival. Olfaction is a sensitive sensory process, and toxicants within urban aquatic environments can have destructive or depreciating effects. In the present study, the authors exposed Galaxias maculatus, a native fish commonly found in urban waterways throughout southeastern Australia, to 1 of 5 ecologically relevant copper (II) chloride concentrations (<1 μg/L, 1 μg/L, 6 μg/L, 8 μg/L, 18 μg/L) for 16 h...
September 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Robert Kwan, Cecilia Mafe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
Gianluca Ianiro, Herbert Tilg, Antonio Gasbarrini
The recent increase in our knowledge of human gut microbiota has changed our view on antibiotics. Antibiotics are, indeed, no longer considered only beneficial, but also potentially harmful drugs, as their abuse appears to play a role in the pathogenesis of several disorders associated with microbiota impairment (eg, Clostridium difficile infection or metabolic disorders). Both drug-related factors (such as antibiotic class, timing of exposure or route of administration) and host-related factors appear to influence the alterations of human gut microbiota produced by antibiotics...
August 16, 2016: Gut
A C Rogers, S Chalasani, A G Ryan, K S C Cross, M P McMonagle
Aneurysmal degeneration of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare clinical finding, estimated to affect less than 1% of the general population in post-mortem studies. Due to the rare prevalence of aneurysms affecting the SMA, there are no clear or definitive published consensus guidelines for its management at presentation, with both surgical and endovascular options described. An aberrant or replaced right hepatic artery (RRHA) is thought to affect 10-15% of the population. The prevalence of both conditions presenting concomitantly is unknown, but undoubtedly even rarer...
August 12, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Robert M Veatch
In the 1950s and '60s, Henry Beecher pioneered the discussion of the ethics of clinical research, leading eventually to the publication of the famous New England Journal of Medicine article summarizing 22 research studies that Beecher suggests were unethical. Those studies generally showed a pattern of posing serious risks to subjects without anticipated proportional benefit. Beecher famously claimed that the problem was not that researchers were malicious or evil; rather, he claimed the problem was they manifested thoughtlessness or carelessness...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
Zhi-qiang Chen, Shu-sheng Wang, Zun-guang Bai, Zhao-hui Wang, Li-guo Lv, Chi-ming Gu, Song-tao Xiang, Rui-xin Dai, Shou-lun Zhu
Authors raised that staging based strategies and practice of integrative medicine (IM) by combining syndrome typing and disease identification, and choosing suitable measures in accordance with different persons and seasonal conditions after more than ten years' clinical practice and researches. Radical operation as prior (as evil eliminating) and strengthening vital qi in perioerative period are best strategy for promoting rapid rehabilitation of early stage prostate cancer patients. Strengthening body resistance to eliminate evil was used in treating advanced prostate cancer patients...
June 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
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