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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219785/transcriptional-alterations-induced-by-binary-mixtures-of-ethinylestradiol-and-norgestrel-during-the-early-development-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#1
Yan-Qiu Liang, Guo-Yong Huang, Jian-Liang Zhao, Wen-Jun Shi, Li-Xin Hu, Fei Tian, Shuang-Shuang Liu, Yu-Xia Jiang, Guang-Guo Ying
Synthetic estrogens and progestins are commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. After use, they reach aquatic environments via discharge of wastewaters from human and animals, thus posing potential risks to organisms. So far, very little is known about their combined effects in aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of binary mixtures of ethinylestradiol (EE2) and norgestrel (NGT) on embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) by measuring transcriptional alterations. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to EE2 and NGT alone or in combination at concentrations between 36 and 5513 ng L(-1) for 96 h post fertilization (hpf)...
February 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197776/effects-of-melanocortin-4-receptor-agonists-and-antagonists-on-expression-of-genes-related-to-reproduction-in-spotted-scat-scatophagus-argus
#2
Dong-Neng Jiang, Jian-Tao Li, Ya-Xiong Tao, Hua-Pu Chen, Si-Ping Deng, Chun-Hua Zhu, Guang-Li Li
Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r) function related to reproduction in fish has not been extensively investigated. Here, we report on gene expression changes by real-time PCR following treatment with Mc4r agonists and antagonists in the spotted scat (Scatophagus argus). Using in vitro incubated hypothalamus, the Mc4r nonselective agonist NDP-MSH ([Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-α-melanocyte stimulating hormone; 10(-6) M) and selective agonist THIQ (N-[(3R)-1, 2, 3, 4-Tetrahydroisoquinolinium-3-ylcarbonyl]- (1R)-1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2-[4-cyclohexyl-4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl) piperidin-1-yl]-2-oxoethylamine; 10(-7) M) significantly increased the expression of gnrh (Gonadotropin releasing hormone), while the Mc4r nonselective antagonist SHU9119 (Ac-Nle-[Asp-His-DPhe/DNal(2')-Arg-Trp-Lys]-NH2; 10(-6) M) and selective antagonist Ipsen 5i (compound 5i synthesized in Ipsen Research Laboratories; 10(-6) M) significantly inhibited gnrh expression after 3 h of incubation...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195137/erbb4-confers-risk-for-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-han-chinese
#3
Yingqian Peng, Wei Zhang, Ping Yang, Ye Tian, Shizhen Su, Changming Zhang, Zi-Jiang Chen, Han Zhao
A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in European cohorts has identified six susceptibility loci mapping to 11q22.1 (YAP1), 2p21 (THADA), 11p14.1 (FSHB), 2q34 (ERBB4), 12q21.2 (KRR1), and 5q31.1 (RAD50). The loci of 11q22.1, 2p21 and 11p14.1 have been confirmed to be associated with PCOS in Chinese; whereas the other three new loci (2q34, 12q21.2, and 5q31.1) still need to be evaluated in Chinese. This study was aimed to determine if the three new loci identified in European PCOS also confer risks for PCOS in Han Chinese...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068351/phenotype-and-tissue-expression-as-a-function-of-genetic-risk-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#4
Cindy T Pau, Tim Mosbruger, Richa Saxena, Corrine K Welt
Genome-wide association studies and replication analyses have identified (n = 5) or replicated (n = 10) DNA variants associated with risk for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in European women. However, the causal gene and underlying mechanism for PCOS risk at these loci have not been determined. We hypothesized that analysis of phenotype, gene expression and metformin response as a function of genotype would identify candidate genes and pathways that could provide insight into the underlying mechanism for risk at these loci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998941/mir-361-3p-regulates-fsh-by-targeting-fshb-in-a-porcine-anterior-pituitary-cell-model
#5
Rui-Song Ye, Meng Li, Chao-Yun Li, Qi-En Qi, Ting Chen, Xiao Cheng, Songbo Wang, Gang Shu, Li-Na Wang, Xiao-Tong Zhu, Qingyan Jiang, Qian-Yun Xi, Yong-Liang Zhang
FSH plays an essential role in processes involved in human reproduction, including spermatogenesis and the ovarian cycle. While the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms underlying its synthesis and secretion have been extensively studied, little is known about its post-transcriptional regulation. A bioinformatics analysis from our group indicated that a microRNA (miRNA; miR-361-3p) could regulate FSH secretion by potentially targeting the FSHB subunit. Herein, we sought to confirm these findings by investigating the miR-361-3p-mediated regulation of FSH production in primary pig anterior pituitary cells...
December 20, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994055/smad3-regulates-follicle-stimulating-hormone-synthesis-by-pituitary-gonadotrope-cells-in-vivo
#6
Yining Li, Gauthier Schang, Ulrich Boehm, Chu-Xia Deng, Jonathan Graff, Daniel J Bernard
Pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is an essential regulator of fertility in females and of quantitatively normal spermatogenesis in males. Pituitary-derived activins are thought to act as major stimulators of FSH synthesis by gonadotrope cells. In vitro, activins signal via SMAD3, SMAD4, and forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) to regulate transcription of the FSHβ subunit gene (Fshb). Consistent with this model, gonadotrope-specific Smad4 or Foxl2 knock-out mice have greatly reduced FSH and are subfertile. The role of SMAD3 in vivo is unresolved; however, residual FSH production in Smad4 conditional knock-out mice may derive from partial compensation by SMAD3 and its ability to bind DNA in the absence of SMAD4...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940043/gonadotropin-subunits-of-the-characiform-astyanax-altiparanae-molecular-characterization-spatiotemporal-expression-and-their-possible-role-on-female-reproductive-dysfunction-in-captivity
#7
Lázaro Wender O de Jesus, Jan Bogerd, Felipe M Vieceli, Giovana S Branco, Marília P Camargo, Mônica Cassel, Renata G Moreira, Chao Y I Yan, Maria I Borella
To better understand the endocrine control of reproduction in Characiformes and the reproductive dysfunctions that commonly occur in migratory fish of this order when kept in captivity, we chose Astyanax altiparanae, which has asynchronous ovarian development and multiple spawning events, as model species. From A. altiparanae pituitary total RNA, we cloned the full-length cDNAs coding for the follicle-stimulating hormone β subunit (fshb), the luteinizing hormone β subunit (lhb), and the common gonadotropin α subunit (gpha)...
December 8, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916574/temperature-affects-sexual-maturation-through-the-control-of-kisspeptin-kisspeptin-receptor-gnrh-and-gth-subunit-gene-expression-in-the-grass-puffer-during-the-spawning-season
#8
Md Shahjahan, Takashi Kitahashi, Hironori Ando
Water temperature is an environmental factor of primary importance that influences reproductive function in fish. To understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the regulation of reproduction by temperature, we examined changes in expression of genes encoding kisspeptin (kiss2), kisspeptin receptor (kiss2r) and three gonadotropin-releasing hormones (gnrh1, gnrh2 and gnrh3) in the brain and genes encoding gonadotropin (GTH) subunits (gpa, fshb and lhb) in the pituitary of grass puffer exposed to a low temperature (14°C), normal temperature (21°C) and high temperature (28°C) for 7days...
March 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907851/effects-of-antiandrogenic-progestins-chlormadinone-and-cyproterone-acetate-and-the-estrogen-17%C3%AE-ethinylestradiol-ee2-and-their-mixtures-transactivation-with-human-and-rainbowfish-hormone-receptors-and-transcriptional-effects-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-eleuthero
#9
Patricia Franziska Siegenthaler, Peter Bain, Francesco Riva, Karl Fent
Synthetic progestins act as endocrine disrupters in fish but their risk to the environment is not sufficiently known. Here, we focused on an unexplored antiandrogenic progestin, chlormadinone acetate (CMA), and the antiandrogenic progestin cyproterone acetate (CPA). The aim was to evaluate whether their in vitro interaction with human and rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) sex hormone receptors is similar. Furthermore, we investigated their activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleuthero-embryos. First, we studied agonistic and antagonistic activities of CMA, CPA, and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), in recombinant yeast expressing either the human progesterone (PGR), androgen (AR), or estrogen receptor...
January 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803150/gonadotropin-characterization-localization-and-expression-in-the-european-hake-merluccius-merluccius
#10
Michela Candelma, Romain Fontaine, Sabrina Colella, Alberto Santojanni, Finn-Arne Weltzien, Oliana Carnevali
In vertebrates, the regulation of gametogenesis is under the control of gonadotropins (Gth), follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh). In fish, the physiological role of Gths is not fully understood, especially in species with asynchronous ovarian development. To elucidate the role of Gths in species with asynchronous ovary, we studied European hake (Merluccius merluccius) during the reproductive season. For this aim, we first cloned and sequenced both hormones. Then, we characterized their amino acid sequence and performed phylogenetic analyses to verify the relationship to their orthologues in other species...
February 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616647/reproductive-toxicity-of-azoxystrobin-to-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#11
Fangjie Cao, Lizhen Zhu, Hui Li, Song Yu, Chengju Wang, Lihong Qiu
In the past few decades, extensive application of azoxystrobin has led to great concern regarding its adverse effects on aquatic organisms. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of azoxystrobin to zebrafish. After adult zebrafish of both sexes were exposed to 2, 20 and 200 μg/L azoxystrobin for 21 days, egg production, the fertilization rate, the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and hepatosomatic index (HSI), 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations, and histological alterations in the gonads and livers were measured...
December 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561202/evaluation-of-in%C3%A2-vivo-bioactivities-of-recombinant-hypo-fsh-21-18-and-fully-fsh-24-glycosylated-human-fsh-glycoforms-in-fshb-null-mice
#12
Huizhen Wang, Jacob May, Viktor Butnev, Bin Shuai, Jeffrey V May, George R Bousfield, T Rajendra Kumar
The hormone - specific FSHβ subunit of the human FSH heterodimer consists of N-linked glycans at Asn(7) and Asn(24) residues that are co-translationally attached early during subunit biosynthesis. Differences in the number of N-glycans (none, one or two) on the human FSHβ subunit contribute to macroheterogeneity in the FSH heterodimer. The resulting FSH glycoforms are termed hypo-glycosylated (FSH(21/18), missing either an Asn(24) or Asn(7) N-glycan chain on the β - subunit, respectively) or fully glycosylated (FSH(24), possessing of both Asn(7) and Asn(24) N-linked glycans on the β - subunit) FSH...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509137/the-luteinizing-hormone-testosterone-pathway-regulates-mouse-spermatogonial-stem-cell-self-renewal-by-suppressing-wnt5a-expression-in-sertoli-cells
#13
Takashi Tanaka, Mito Kanatsu-Shinohara, Zhenmin Lei, C V Rao, Takashi Shinohara
Spermatogenesis originates from self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Previous studies have reported conflicting roles of gonadotropic pituitary hormones in SSC self-renewal. Here, we explored the role of hormonal regulation of SSCs using Fshb and Lhcgr knockout (KO) mice. Although follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is thought to promote self-renewal by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), no abnormalities were found in SSCs and their microenvironment. In contrast, SSCs were enriched in Lhcgr-deficient mice...
August 9, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507676/pregnenolone-sulfate-regulates-prolactin-production-in-the-rat-pituitary
#14
Eun-Jin Kang, So-Hye Hong, Jae-Eon Lee, Seung Chul Kim, Hoe-Saeng Yang, Pyong In Yi, Sang-Myeong Lee, Beum-Soo An
Pregnenolone sulfate (PS) is a neuroactive steroid hormone produced in the brain. In this study, the effects of PS on synthesis and secretion of rat pituitary prolactin (PRL) were examined. To accomplish this, GH3 rat pituitary adenoma cells were treated with PS, which showed significantly increased mRNA and protein levels of PRL compared with the control. The mechanism of action responsible for the effects of PS on PRL synthesis and secretion was investigated by pretreating cells with inhibitors of traditional PRL- or the PS-related signaling pathway...
September 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475653/wastewater-treatment-plant-effluent-alters-pituitary-gland-gonadotropin-mrna-levels-in-juvenile-coho-salmon-oncorhynchus-kisutch
#15
Louisa B Harding, Irvin R Schultz, Denis A M da Silva, Gina M Ylitalo, Dave Ragsdale, Stephanie I Harris, Stephanie Bailey, Barry V Pepich, Penny Swanson
It is well known that endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) present in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents interfere with reproduction in fish, including altered gonad development and induction of vitellogenin (Vtg), a female-specific egg yolk protein precursor produced in the liver. As a result, studies have focused on the effects of EDC exposure on the gonad and liver. However, impacts of environmental EDC exposure at higher levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis are less well understood...
September 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406421/two-snps-associated-with-spontaneous-dizygotic-twinning-effect-sizes-and-how-we-communicate-them
#16
Hamdi Mbarek, Conor V Dolan, Dorret I Boomsma
In a recent GWAS of spontaneous dizygotic twinning, Mbarek et al. (The American Journal of Human Genetics, 2016, Vol 98, pp. 898-908) identified two SNPs, rs11031006 (near FSHB) and rs17293443 (in SMAD3). In the present note, we address the question how to present the results in terms of effect sizes in a manner that is comprehensible to the general audience (e.g., mothers of twins, readership of newspapers). We propose to avoid the standard effect sizes such as odds ratios and relative risk as these require some knowledge of probability theory...
October 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402603/epigenetic-regulation-of-alternative-promoters-and-enhancers-in-progenitor-immature-and-mature-gonadotrope-cell-lines
#17
Jean-Noël Laverrière, David L'Hôte, Laure Tabouy, Anne-Laure Schang, Bruno Quérat, Joëlle Cohen-Tannoudji
Gonadotrope cell identity genes emerge in a stepwise process during mouse pituitary development. Cga, encoding for the α-subunit of TSH, LH, and FSH, is initially detected at E11.5 followed by Gnrhr and steroidogenic factor Sf1 at E13.5, specifying cells engaged in a gonadotrope cell fate. Lhb and Fshb appear at E16.5 and 17.5, respectively, typifying differentiated gonadotrope cells. Using the αT1-1, αT3-1 and LβT2 cell lines recapitulating these stages of gonadotrope differentiation, DNA methylation at Gnrhr and Sf1 was investigated...
October 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355207/targeted-mutagenesis-of-the-hypophysiotropic-gnrh3-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-reveals-no-effects-on-reproductive-performance
#18
Olivia Smith Spicer, Ten-Tsao Wong, Nilli Zmora, Yonathan Zohar
Gnrh is the major neuropeptide regulator of vertebrate reproduction, triggering a cascade of events in the pituitary-gonadal axis that result in reproductive competence. Previous research in mice and humans has demonstrated that Gnrh/GNRH null mutations result in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and infertility. The goal of this study was to eliminate gnrh3 (the hypophysiotropic Gnrh form) function in zebrafish (Danio rerio) to determine how ontogeny and reproductive performance are affected, as well as factors downstream of Gnrh3 along the reproductive axis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329968/treatment-with-human-recombinant-fsh-improves-sperm-dna-fragmentation-in-idiopathic-infertile-men-depending-on-the-fsh-receptor-polymorphism-p-n680s-a-pharmacogenetic-study
#19
Manuela Simoni, Daniele Santi, Luciano Negri, Ivan Hoffmann, Monica Muratori, Elisabetta Baldi, Marta Cambi, Marios Marcou, Thomas Greither, Enrica Baraldi, Simonetta Tagliavini, Daniela Carra, Francesco Lombardo, Loredana Gandini, Francesco Pallotti, Csilla Krausz, Giulia Rastrelli, Alberto Ferlin, Massimo Menegazzo, Elisa Pignatti, Francesca Linari, Marco Marino, Renzo Benaglia, Paolo E Levi-Setti, Hermann M Behre
STUDY QUESTION: Does the sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) improve depending on the FSH receptor (FSHR) genotype as assessed by the nonsynonymous polymorphisms rs6166 (p.N680S) after 3 months of recombinant FSH treatment in men with idiopathic infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: FSH treatment significantly improves sperm DFI only in idiopathic infertile men with the p.N680S homozygous N FSHR. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: FSH, fundamental for spermatogenesis, is empirically used to treat male idiopathic infertility and several studies suggest that DFI could be a candidate predictor of response to FSH treatment, in terms of probability to conceive...
September 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27270476/genetic-variations-in-fsh-action-affect-sex-hormone-levels-and-breast-tissue-size-in-infant-girls-a-pilot-study
#20
Louise Scheutz Henriksen, Casper P Hagen, Maria Assens, Alexander S Busch, Niels E Skakkebæk, Kristian Almstrup, Katharina M Main
CONTEXT: Single nucleotide polymorphisms altering FSH action (FSHB -211G>T, FSHR -29G>A, and FSHR 2039A>G) are associated with peripubertal and adult levels of reproductive hormones and age at pubertal onset in girls. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether genetic polymorphisms altering FSH action affect serum levels of female reproductive hormones and breast development as early as during minipuberty. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: Population-based cohort study...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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