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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660439/activation-of-5-ht-1b-receptors-in-the-lateral-habenula-attenuates-the-anxiogenic-effects-of-cocaine
#1
Adam K Klein, Erin M Purvis, Kathy Ayala, Lisette Collins, Jacob T Krug, Matthew S Mayes, Aaron Ettenberg
Recent work has implicated the Lateral Habenula (LHb) in the production of anxiogenic and aversive states. It is innervated by all the major monoamine neurotransmitter systems and has projections that have been shown to modulate the activity of both dopaminergic and serotonergic brain regions. Cocaine is a stimulant drug of abuse that potentiates neurotransmission in these monoamine systems and recent research suggests that the drug's behavioral effects may be related in part to its actions within the LHb. The present research was therefore devised to test the hypothesis that alterations in serotonin (5-HT) function within the LHb can affect the behavioral response to cocaine...
April 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581421/lateral-habenula-perturbation-reduces-default-mode-network-connectivity-in-a-rat-model-of-depression
#2
Christian Clemm von Hohenberg, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr, Philipp Lebhardt, Namasivayam Ravi, Urs Braun, Natalia Gass, Robert Becker, Markus Sack, Alejandro Cosa Linan, Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Jonathan Rochus Reinwald, Lars-Lennart Oettl, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Barbara Vollmayr, Wolfgang Kelsch, Alexander Sartorius
Hyperconnectivity of the default-mode network (DMN) is one of the most widely replicated neuroimaging findings in major depressive disorder (MDD). Further, there is growing evidence for a central role of the lateral habenula (LHb) in the pathophysiology of MDD. There is preliminary neuroimaging evidence linking LHb and the DMN, but no causal relationship has been shown to date. We combined optogenetics and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to establish a causal relationship, using an animal model of treatment-resistant depression, namely Negative Cognitive State rats...
March 27, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564612/superior-capsular-reconstruction-of-the-shoulder-the-abc-arthroscopic-biceps-chillemi-technique
#3
Claudio Chillemi, Matteo Mantovani, Antonio Gigante
Superior capsular reconstruction (SCR) demonstrated its efficacy as a treatment option available in patients affected with irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears without any signs of arthritis. Originally, the fascia lata autograft was fixed medially to the glenoid (with two or more anchors) and laterally to the greater tuberosity (with a compression double-row technique using four anchors or three transosseous tunnels). Additionally, side-to-side sutures were used to anteriorly and posteriorly connect the graft to the native residual rotator cuff tissue...
March 21, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552513/state-of-the-art-review-on-the-renal-and-visceral-protection-during-open-thoracoabdominal-aortic-aneurysm-repair
#4
REVIEW
Karl Waked, Marc Schepens
During open thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair (OTAAAR), there is an inevitable organ ischemic period that occurs when the abdominal arteries are being reattached to the aortic graft. Despite various protective techniques, the incidence of renal and visceral complications remains substantial. This state-of-the-art review gives an overview of the current and most evidence-based organ protection methods during OTAAAR, based on the most recent publications and personal experience. An electronic search was performed in four medical databases, using the following MeSH terms: thoracoabdominal aneurysm, TAAAR, visceral protection, renal protection, kidney, perfusion, and intestines...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548325/clinical-outcome-of-arthroscopic-capsular-release-for-frozen-shoulder-essential-technical-points-in-255-patients
#5
Katsuaki Kanbe
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term clinical outcome and its related factors regarding the severity of adhesion of CH ligament over long head of biceps (LHB) after shoulder arthroscopic capsular release for frozen shoulder with technical points in 255 patients. METHODS: We performed arthroscopic capsular release for frozen shoulder in 267 shoulders of 255 patients, 112 males and 143 females, with mean age of 56.39 years, mean disease duration periods of 0...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540825/arterial-path-length-estimation-for-heart-to-brachium-pulse-wave-velocity
#6
Jun Sugawara, Tsubasa Tomoto, Hirofumi Tanaka
As an initial step to better define heart-brachial pulse wave velocity (hbPWV), a novel measure of proximal aortic stiffness, we proposed and validated a simple formula to estimate the arterial path length (Lhb) for hbPWV. In 190 patients aged 19-79 years, the reference Lhb was measured by a three-dimensional MRI. Using multiple regression analysis and fivefold cross-validation, estimation formulae were created using age, sex, and height. hbPWV was calculated as Lhb divided by the time interval from the second heart sound to the dicrotic notch on the brachial pressure wave...
March 14, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526789/lateral-habenular-norepinephrine-contributes-to-states-of-arousal-and-anxiety-in-male-rats
#7
Erin M Purvis, Adam K Klein, Aaron Ettenberg
Recent research has identified the lateral habenula (LHb) as a brain region playing an important role in the production of stressful and anxiogenic states. Additionally, norepinephrine (NE) has long been known to be involved in arousal, stress and anxiety, and NE projections to the LHb have been identified emanating from the locus coeruleus (LC). The current research was devised to test the hypothesis that NE release within the LHb contributes to the occurrence of anxiogenic behaviors. Male rats were implanted with bilateral guide cannula aimed at the LHb and subsequently treated with intracranial (IC) infusions of the selective α2 adrenergic autoreceptor agonist, dexmedetomidine (DEX) (0, 0...
March 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511121/a-role-for-corticotropin-releasing-factor-signaling-in-the-lateral-habenula-and-its-modulation-by-early-life-stress
#8
Michael E Authement, Ludovic D Langlois, Ryan D Shepard, Caroline A Browne, Irwin Lucki, Haifa Kassis, Fereshteh S Nugent
Centrally released corticotropin-releasing factor or hormone (extrahypothalamic CRF or CRH) in the brain is involved in the behavioral and emotional responses to stress. The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain region involved in value-based decision-making and stress evasion. Through its inhibition of dopamine-mediated reward circuitry, the increased activity of the LHb is associated with addiction, depression, schizophrenia, and behavioral disorders. We found that extrahypothalamic CRF neurotransmission increased neuronal excitability in the LHb...
March 6, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507350/use-of-ultrasonic-device-in-cervical-and-thoracic-laminectomy-a-retrospective-comparative-study-and-technical-note
#9
Yu Chen, Zhengqi Chang, Xiuchun Yu, Ruoxian Song, Weimin Huang
Multilevel severe compressive myelopathy is a challenging disorder for the surgeons, the aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of a newly designed ultrasonic burr as an assistant tool to the ultrasonic scalpel in laminectomy for this disease. This is a retrospective comparative study, the included subjects were patients who received cervical and thoracic laminectomy using ultrasonic device (LUD, n = 9, 10 surgeries) and controls with the high-speed burr (LHB, n = 16). Fifteen patients (60...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500072/anatomic-landmarks-for-arthroscopic-suprapectoral-biceps-tenodesis-a-cadaveric-study
#10
Andrew S Neviaser, Diana C Patterson, Paul J Cagle, Bradford O Parsons, Evan L Flatow
BACKGROUND: Biceps tenodesis reduces the incidence of Popeye deformity occurring with tenotomy, but pain may occur with tenodesis superior to or within the bicipital groove. Arthroscopic suprapectoral tenodesis is an attractive alternative. The purpose of this study was to establish landmarks for arthroscopic suprapectoral tenodesis and determine the appropriate fixation point to optimize muscle tension. METHODS: Twelve fresh cadaveric shoulders were dissected. Urethane polymer was injected into the axillary artery...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496550/seasonal-variation-of-pituitary-gonadotropin-subunit-brain-type-aromatase-and-sex-steroid-receptor-mrnas-and-plasma-steroids-during-gametogenesis-in-wild-sablefish
#11
José M Guzmán, J Adam Luckenbach, Denis A M da Silva, Edward S Hayman, Gina M Ylitalo, Frederick W Goetz, Penny Swanson
Pituitary-hormone signaling plays critical roles in the onset and progression of gametogenesis in vertebrates. This study characterized expression patterns of pituitary gonadotropin beta-subunits (fshb and lhb), brain-type aromatase (cyp19a1b), androgen (ar1, ar2) and estrogen receptors (esr1, esr2a, esr2b), and changes in plasma steroid levels by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry in wild sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria, order Scorpaeniformes) during a complete reproductive cycle. Transcripts for fshb increased during early gametogenesis and peaked in late vitellogenic females and late recrudescent males, while expression of lhb reached maximum levels in periovulatory and spermiating fish...
February 26, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487567/regulatory-architecture-of-the-l%C3%AE-t2-gonadotrope-cell-underlying-the-response-to-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone
#12
Frederique Ruf-Zamojski, Miguel Fribourg, Yongchao Ge, Venugopalan Nair, Hanna Pincas, Elena Zaslavsky, German Nudelman, Stephanie J Tuminello, Hideo Watanabe, Judith L Turgeon, Stuart C Sealfon
The LβT2 mouse pituitary cell line has many characteristics of a mature gonadotrope and is a widely used model system for studying the developmental processes and the response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The global epigenetic landscape, which contributes to cell-specific gene regulatory mechanisms, and the single-cell transcriptome response variation of LβT2 cells have not been previously investigated. Here, we integrate the transcriptome and genome-wide chromatin accessibility state of LβT2 cells during GnRH stimulation...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486146/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-two-secretogranin-ii-genes-in-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides
#13
Hu Shu, Lidong Yang, Yong Zhang, Xiaochun Liu, Haoran Lin, Shuisheng Li
Secretoneurin (SN) is an important stimulator of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) synthesis and secretion in goldfish. It is unknown whether this neuropeptide performs the same role in other fish species. In this study, the full-length cDNAs encoding Secretogranin IIa (SgIIa) and b (SgIIb) were cloned from the brain of orange-spotted grouper. Sequence analysis showed that a 34-amino acid SN peptide (SNa) is present in SgIIa proprotein, and a 33-amino acid SN peptide (SNb) is present in SgIIb proprotein. The two SN peptides share a low degree of similarity but contain the signature YTPQ-X-LA-X7 -EL sequence...
February 24, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483673/deep-brain-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-depression-an-integrative-review-of-preclinical-and-clinical-findings-and-translational-implications
#14
M P Dandekar, A J Fenoy, A F Carvalho, J C Soares, J Quevedo
Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment choice for Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and movement disorders, its effectiveness for the management of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains unclear. Herein, we conducted an integrative review on major neuroanatomical targets of DBS pursued for the treatment of intractable TRD. The aim of this review article is to provide a critical discussion of possible underlying mechanisms for DBS-generated antidepressant effects identified in preclinical studies and clinical trials, and to determine which brain target(s) elicited the most promising outcomes considering acute and maintenance treatment of TRD...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482858/biomechanical-evaluation-of-a-transtendinous-all-suture-anchor-technique-versus-interference-screw-technique-for-suprapectoral-biceps-tenodesis-in-a-cadaveric-model
#15
Chih-Kai Hong, Kai-Lan Hsu, Fa-Chuan Kuan, Cheng-Li Lin, Ming-Long Yeh, Wei-Ren Su
PURPOSE: To compare the biomechanical properties of an transtendinous all-suture anchor technique with the commonly-accepted interference screw technique in a cadaveric model. METHODS: Sixteen fresh-frozen human cadaveric shoulders (mean age, 67.6 ± 5.8 years) were used and were randomly divided into 2 experimental long head of the biceps brachii (LHB) tenodesis groups (n = 8), namely transtendinous all-suture anchor technique and interference screw technique...
February 23, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479825/preferential-modulation-of-the-lateral-habenula-activity-by-serotonin-2a-rather-than-2c-receptors-electrophysiological-and-neuroanatomical-evidence
#16
Francis Delicata, Cristiano Bombardi, Massimo Pierucci, Roberto Di Maio, Philippe De Deurwaerdère, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
AIMS: Serotonergic (5-HT) modulation of the lateral habenula (LHb) activity is central in normal and pathologic conditions such as mood disorders. Among the multiple 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs) involved, the 5-HT2C R seems to play a pivotal role. Yet, the role of 5-HT2A Rs in the control of the LHb neuronal activity is completely unknown. METHODS: Single-cell extracellular recording of the LHb neurons was used in rats to study the effect of the general activation and blockade of the 5-HT2C R and 5-HT2A R with Ro 60-0175 and SB242084, TCB-2 and MDL11939, respectively...
February 25, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479060/a-gabaergic-cell-type-in-the-lateral-habenula-links-hypothalamic-homeostatic-and-midbrain-motivation-circuits-with-sex-steroid-signaling
#17
Limei Zhang, Vito S Hernández, Jerome D Swinny, Anil K Verma, Torsten Giesecke, Andrew C Emery, Kerim Mutig, Luis M Garcia-Segura, Lee E Eiden
The lateral habenula (LHb) has a key role in integrating a variety of neural circuits associated with reward and aversive behaviors. There is limited information about how the different cell types and neuronal circuits within the LHb coordinate physiological and motivational states. Here, we report a cell type in the medial division of the LHb (LHbM) in male rats that is distinguished by: (1) a molecular signature for GABAergic neurotransmission (Slc32a1/VGAT) and estrogen receptor (Esr1/ERα) expression, at both mRNA and protein levels, as well as the mRNA for vesicular glutamate transporter Slc17a6/VGLUT2, which we term the GABAergic estrogen-receptive neuron (GERN); (2) its axonal projection patterns, identified by in vivo juxtacellular labeling, to both local LHb and to midbrain modulatory systems; and (3) its somatic expression of receptors for vasopressin, serotonin and dopamine, and mRNA for orexin receptor 2...
February 26, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476894/sex-differences-in-the-neuroadaptations-of-reward-related-circuits-in-response-to-subchronic-variable-stress
#18
Song Zhang, Hongxing Zhang, Stacy M Ku, Barbara Juarez, Carole Morel, Nikos Tzavaras, Sarah Montgomery, Georgia E Hodes, Anna Brancato, Scott J Russo, Jun-Li Cao, Ming-Hu Han
Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder. However, fewer studies in rodent models of depression have used female animals, leading to a relative lack of understanding of the female brain's response to stress, especially at a neural circuit level. In this study, we utilized a 6-day subchronic variable stress (SCVS) mouse model and measured novelty suppressed feeding as behavioral criteria to evaluate susceptibility to SCVS in male and female mice. First, we showed that SCVS induced a decrease in latency to eat (susceptible phenotype) in female mice, but not in males (resilient phenotype)...
April 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476300/homozygous-nonsense-mutation-trp28x-in-the-lhb-gene-causes-male-hypogonadism
#19
Xiaoyu Yang, H Ochin, Li Shu, Jinyong Liu, Jiandong Shen, Jiayin Liu, Changsong Lin, Yugui Cui
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate a novel mutation in the luteinizing hormone beta-subunit (LHB) gene in one male patient with hypogonadism due to selective luteinizing hormone (LH) deficiency. METHODS: Sanger sequencing of one 28-year-old man born to consanguineous parents was performed. Treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (2000 IU, twice a week) was initiated for 3 months, followed by 5000 IU weekly to date. RESULTS: We identified a novel c...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471436/antiandrogen-treatment-ameliorates-reproductive-and-metabolic-phenotypes-in-the-letrozole-induced-mouse-model-of-pcos
#20
Genevieve E Ryan, Shaddy Malik, Pamela L Mellon
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Although its etiology is unknown, excess androgens are thought to be a critical factor driving the pathology of PCOS. We previously demonstrated that continuous exposure to the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (LET) in mice produces many hallmarks of PCOS, including elevated testosterone (T) and luteinizing hormone, anovulation, and obesity. In the current study, we sought to determine whether androgen receptor (AR) actions are responsible for any of the phenotypes observed in LET mice...
April 1, 2018: Endocrinology
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