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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446381/ketamine-blocks-bursting-in-the-lateral-habenula-to-rapidly-relieve-depression
#1
Yan Yang, Yihui Cui, Kangning Sang, Yiyan Dong, Zheyi Ni, Shuangshuang Ma, Hailan Hu
The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine has attracted enormous interest in mental health research owing to its rapid antidepressant actions, but its mechanism of action has remained elusive. Here we show that blockade of NMDAR-dependent bursting activity in the 'anti-reward center', the lateral habenula (LHb), mediates the rapid antidepressant actions of ketamine in rat and mouse models of depression. LHb neurons show a significant increase in burst activity and theta-band synchronization in depressive-like animals, which is reversed by ketamine...
February 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446379/astroglial-kir4-1-in-the-lateral-habenula-drives-neuronal-bursts-in-depression
#2
Yihui Cui, Yan Yang, Zheyi Ni, Yiyan Dong, Guohong Cai, Alexandre Foncelle, Shuangshuang Ma, Kangning Sang, Siyang Tang, Yuezhou Li, Ying Shen, Hugues Berry, Shengxi Wu, Hailan Hu
Enhanced bursting activity of neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) is essential in driving depression-like behaviours, but the cause of this increase has been unknown. Here, using a high-throughput quantitative proteomic screen, we show that an astroglial potassium channel (Kir4.1) is upregulated in the LHb in rat models of depression. Kir4.1 in the LHb shows a distinct pattern of expression on astrocytic membrane processes that wrap tightly around the neuronal soma. Electrophysiology and modelling data show that the level of Kir4...
February 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430396/arthroscopic-biceps-tenodesis-using-interference-screw-fixation-in-the-bicipital-groove
#3
Thomas Amouyel, Yves-Pierre Le Moulec, Nicolas Tarissi, Mo Saffarini, Olivier Courage
Arthroscopic repair of the long head of the biceps (LHB) is performed to treat various biceps pathologies yet the choice between tenotomy or tenodesis remains controversial. Although tenotomy is simpler and quicker, tenodesis results in fewer complications, and there are several techniques available using various fixation devices and sites. This Technical Note describes an all-arthroscopic, suprapectoral tenodesis technique using a bioresorbable interference screw, without motorized devices to create the humeral tunnel in the bicipital groove...
October 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421265/the-tail-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area-in-behavioral-processes-and-in-the-effect-of-psychostimulants-and-drugs-of-abuse
#4
REVIEW
Marc Fakhoury
The tail of the ventral tegmental area (tVTA) is a recently identified structure that exerts a major inhibitory drive onto midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Also referred to as the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), the tVTA is a cluster of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons that starts within the posterior end of the VTA, where it is restricted dorsolateral to the caudal part of the interpeduncular nucleus, and extends into the pons. First identified in the rat, the tVTA has been described in many species, including mice and monkeys, as a region exhibiting similar anatomical and behavioral properties; it receives strong excitatory inputs from the lateral habenula (LHb), conveys negative reward-related information, and inhibits midbrain DA neuron activity...
February 5, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416978/arthroscopic-transfer-of-the-long-head-of-the-biceps-brachii-for-anterior-shoulder-instability
#5
Jin Tang, Jinzhong Zhao
In the treatment of anterior shoulder instability, there are various conditions in which a sling effect is needed to enhance anterior stability. The traditional Latarjet procedure provides a sling effect but destroys the coracoacromial arch, which may result in superior instability. To preserve the coracoacromial arch and create a sling to enhance the anterior-inferior side of the shoulder, we introduce an arthroscopic technique to transfer the long head of the biceps (LHB) brachii. Indications of LHB transfer are patients younger than 45 years of age who participate in competitive sports, require forceful external rotation and abduction movement of the shoulder, and/or have capsule-ligament insufficiency, as well as patients 45 years o or older who have combined SLAP lesions (type II or IV)...
October 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408589/identification-of-stria-medullaris-fibers-in-the-massa-intermedia-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#6
Ryan B Kochanski, Robert Dawe, Mehmet Kocak, Sepehr Sani
BACKGROUND: The massa intermedia (MI) or interthalamic adhesion is an inconsistent band spanning between bilateral medial thalami that is absent in up to 20-30% of individuals. Little is known of its significance, especially in regards to functional pathways. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has recently been used to seed the lateral habenula (LHb) and define its afferent white matter pathway, the stria medullaris thalami (SM). We sought to determine if the MI serves as a conduit for crossing of limbic fibers such as the SM...
January 31, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399753/sonography-in-the-instability-of-the-long-head-of-the-biceps-tendon-confronted-with-histopathologic-and-arthroscopic-findings
#7
Jan Zabrzyński, Łukasz Paczesny, Agnieszka Zabrzyńska, Dariusz Grzanka, Łukasz Łapaj
Disorders of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) are a common source of shoulder pain and disability. This tendon can be well visualized using ultrasonography; however, little is known if such examination allows clinicians to predict pathological changes of the tendon structure. In the study described below, we compare preoperative sonographic findings with the data from shoulder arthroscopy and microscopic examination of the excised tendon fragments in 19 consecutive patients with LHB tendinopathy and clinical suspicion of its instability...
February 5, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399446/mini-open-subpectoral-biceps-tenodesis-using-a-suture-anchor
#8
Christopher Arena, Aman Dhawan
The long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon is a potential source of shoulder pain encountered by orthopaedic surgeons. A multitude of approaches to addressing LHB tendinopathy have been described. These include various surgical techniques such as tenodesis versus tenotomy, an arthroscopic versus an open approach, and differing methods of tenodesis fixation. Our preferred approach to addressing LHB tendinopathy is through a mini-open approach using a double-loaded 4.5-mm suture anchor. This Technical Note with accompanying video describes our technique for performing this procedure, as well as supporting clinical evidence and technical pearls...
October 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362977/biceps-tendon-interposition-in-two-part-fracture-of-the-humeral-surgical-neck
#9
Selim Şanel, Yalçın Turhan, Nurullah Ermiş, Korhan Özkan, Ender Uğutmen
OBJECTIVES: Long head of the biceps tendon (LHB) is an obstacle to closed reduction in two-part fracture of the humeral surgical neck if the distal humeral shaft is displaced into the axilla in anteroposterior X-ray examination. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Among 36 proximal humeral fractures, 10 two-part humeral surgical neck fractures which were displaced into the axilla in anteroposterior X-ray views and classified as 11-A3.2 were included in this study. In all of these fractures, closed reduction attempts were unsuccessful...
January 23, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336819/identification-of-a-corticohabenular-circuit-regulating-socially-directed-behavior
#10
Madhurima Benekareddy, Tevye Jason Stachniak, Andreas Bruns, Frederic Knoflach, Markus von Kienlin, Basil Künnecke, Anirvan Ghosh
BACKGROUND: The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of social dysfunction, but the specific circuit partners mediating PFC function in health and disease are unclear. METHODS: The excitatory designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) hM3Dq was used to induce PFC activation during social behavior measured in the three-chamber sociability assay (rats/mice). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was combined with hM3Dq-mediated PFC activation to identify novel nodes in the "social brain" in a hypothesis-free manner...
December 2, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315384/induction-of-stress-signaling-in-vitro-and-suppression-of-gonadotropin-secretion-by-free-fatty-acids-in-female-mouse-gonadotropes
#11
Song Li, Ekaette F Mbong, Denise T John, Tomohiro Terasaka, Danmei Li, Mark A Lawson
An emerging body of evidence supports the concept that the pituitary is a site for integration of multiple physiological and metabolic signals that inform and modulate endocrine pathways. Multiple endocrine mediators of energy balance and adiposity are known to impinge on the neuroendocrine axis regulating reproduction. Observations in humans show that obesity is correlated with decreased gonadotropin secretion, and studies have also suggested that pituitary sensitivity to stimulation by gonadotropin-releasing hormone is decreased in obese individuals...
January 5, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248667/the-lateral-habenula-interacts-with-the-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis-response-upon-stressful-cognitive-demand-in-rats
#12
Victor Mathis, Brigitte Cosquer, Alexandra Barbelivien, Karine Herbeaux, Béatrice Bothorel, Dominique Sage-Ciocca, Vincent-Joseph Poirel, Chantal Mathis, Lucas Lecourtier
The lateral habenula (LHb) is involved in emotional and cognitive behaviors. Recently, we have shown in rats that blockade of excitatory inputs to the LHb not only induced deficits of memory retrieval in the water maze, but also altered swim strategies (i.e., induced excessive thigmotaxis). The latter observation, although consistent with the occurrence of memory deficits, could also possibly be the consequence of an excessive level of stress, further suggesting a role for the LHb in the stress response in our behavioral paradigm...
December 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210006/triiodothyronine-differentially-modulates-the-lh-and-fsh-synthesis-and-secretion-in-male-rats
#13
Renata Marino Romano, Paula Bargi-Souza, Erika Lia Brunetto, Francemilson Goulart-Silva, Renato M Salgado, Telma Maria Tenorio Zorn, Maria Tereza Nunes
Hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis produce adverse effects in male reproduction by unknown mechanisms. We investigated whether triiodothyronine (T3) modulates luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) synthesis/secretion, by inducing different thyroid states. In hypothyroidism, the content of Lhb and Fshb mRNAs was increased, while their association to ribosomes and the protein content were reduced and the serum LH and FSH concentrations were augmented and decreased, respectively. Thyrotoxicosis reduced Lhb mRNA and LH serum concentration, and increased Lhb mRNA translational rate...
December 5, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175713/lateral-habenula-in-the-pathophysiology-of-depression
#14
REVIEW
Yan Yang, Hao Wang, Ji Hu, Hailan Hu
Depression is a devastating disorder with a combination of diverse symptoms such as low self-esteem, lack of motivation, anhedonia, loss of appetite, low energy, and discomfort without a clear cause. Depression has been suggested to be the result of maladaptive changes in specific brain circuits. Recently, the lateral habenula (LHb) has emerged as a key brain region in the pathophysiology of depression. Increasing evidence from rodent, non-human primate and human studies indicates that the aberrant activity of the LHb is associated with depressive symptoms such as helplessness, anhedonia, and excessive negative focus...
November 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157108/morphological-classification-of-anatomical-variants-of-the-intra-articular-portion-of-the-long-head-of-the-biceps-brachii-tendon-and-analysis-of-the-incidence-and-the-relationship-with-shoulder-disease-for-each-subtype
#15
Jeung Yeol Jeong, Seung Min Park, Young Eun Park, Jae Chul Yoo
PURPOSE: Although several cases of anatomical variants of the proximal portion of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon have been reported, most are case reports on single patients; few studies have investigated the classification and incidence of this phenomenon. We aimed to classify the variants of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon by their morphology and characterize them in regard to incidence, demography, and the relationship with biceps tendon or other shoulder diseases...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141211/lateral-preoptic-control-of-the-lateral-habenula-through-convergent-glutamate-and-gaba-transmission
#16
David J Barker, Jorge Miranda-Barrientos, Shiliang Zhang, David H Root, Hui-Ling Wang, Bing Liu, Erin S Calipari, Marisela Morales
The lateral habenula (LHb) is a brain structure that participates in cognitive and emotional processing and has been implicated in several mental disorders. Although one of the largest inputs to the LHb originates in the lateral preoptic area (LPO), little is known about how the LPO participates in the regulation of LHb function. Here, we provide evidence that the LPO exerts bivalent control over the LHb through the convergent transmission of LPO glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) onto single LHb neurons...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139213/heterogeneous-neuronal-activity-in-the-lateral-habenula-after-short-and-long-term-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#17
Ping Gao, Henk J Groenewegen, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Pieter Voorn
Cocaine addiction is thought to be the result of drug-induced functional changes in a neural network implicated in emotions, learning, and cognitive control. Recent studies have implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) in drug-directed behavior, especially its aversive aspects. Limited cocaine exposure has been shown to alter neuronal activity in the LHb, but the impact of long-term drug exposure on habenula function has not been determined. Therefore, using c-fos as a marker, we here examined neuronal activity in LHb in rats that self-administered cocaine for either 10 or 60 days...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128307/rescue-of-glutamate-transport-in-the-lateral-habenula-alleviates-depression-and-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-ethanol-withdrawn-rats
#18
Seungwoo Kang, Jing Li, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Alcoholism and psychiatric disorders like depression and anxiety are often comorbid. Although the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are unclear, emerging evidence suggests that maladaptation of the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1 may play a role. Findings from animal and human studies have linked aversive states, including those related to drugs of abuse and depression, to aberrant activity in the lateral habenula (LHb). The relationship between GLT-1 maladaptation, LHb activity, and abnormal behaviors related to alcohol withdrawal, however, remains unknown...
November 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122422/comparison-of-open-surgical-techniques-for-repair-of-types-iii-and-iv-thoracoabdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#19
Muhammad A Rana, Peter Gloviczki, Audra A Duncan, Manju Kalra, Kevin L Greason, Gustavo S Oderich, Stephen S Cha, Thomas C Bower
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare outcomes after repair of type III and type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) by three different open surgical techniques at a tertiary care institution. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent elective repair of type III and type IV TAAAs at our institution between 1999 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups according to surgical technique: clamp and sew (CS), left-sided heart bypass (LHB), and visceral branching (VB) followed by aortic reconstruction...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074844/limiting-habenular-hyperactivity-ameliorates-maternal-separation-driven-depressive-like-symptoms
#20
Anna Tchenio, Salvatore Lecca, Kristina Valentinova, Manuel Mameli
Early-life stress, including maternal separation (MS), increases the vulnerability to develop mood disorders later in life, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We report that MS promotes depressive-like symptoms in mice at a mature stage of life. Along with this behavioral phenotype, MS drives reduction of GABAB-GIRK signaling and the subsequent lateral habenula (LHb) hyperexcitability-an anatomical substrate devoted to aversive encoding. Attenuating LHb hyperactivity using chemogenetic tools and deep-brain stimulation ameliorates MS depressive-like symptoms...
October 26, 2017: Nature Communications
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