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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528174/prenatal-exposure-to-di-n-butyl-phthalate-disrupts-the-development-of-adult-leydig-cells-in-male-rats-during-puberty
#1
Xiaomin Chen, Linxi Li, Huitao Li, Hongguo Guan, Yaoyao Dong, Xiaoheng Li, Qiufan Wang, Qingquan Lian, Guoxin Hu, Ren-Shan Ge
Fetal exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) causes the adult disease such as lower testosterone production and infertility. However, the mechanism is still unknown. The objective of the present study is to determine how DBP affects the involution of fetal Leydig cells during the neonatal period and how this event causes the delayed development of the adult Leydig cells during puberty. The pregnant Sprague Dawley dams were randomly divided into 3 groups and were gavaged with 0 (corn oil, the vehicle control), 100 or 500mg/kg DBP from gestational day 12 (G12) to G21...
May 17, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528079/the-lateral-habenula-and-the-serotonergic-system
#2
REVIEW
Martin Metzger, Debora Bueno, Leandro B Lima
The habenula (Hb) is an epithalamic structure differentiated into two nuclear complexes, medial (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb). After decades of relative neglect, interest in the Hb resurged when it was demonstrated that LHb neurons play a key role in encoding disappointments and expectation of punishments. Consistent with such a role, the LHb has been implicated in a broad array of functions and pathologic conditions, notably in mechanisms of stress and pain, as well as in the pathophysiology of mood disorders...
May 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527717/inhibition-of-the-lateral-habenular-camk%C3%A2-abolishes-naloxone-precipitated-conditioned-place-aversion-in-morphine-dependent-mice
#3
Jing Wang, Min Li, Ping Wang, Yunhong Zha, Zhi He, Zicheng Li
Addictive substances mediate positive and negative states promoting compulsive drug use. However, substrates for aversive effects of drugs are not fully understood. We found that inactivation of the lateral habenula (LHb) by microinjection of tetrodotoxin (TTX) abolished naloxone-precipitated conditioned place aversion (CPA) in morphine-dependent mice. We also found that lateral habenular administration of KN-62, a specific inhibitor for calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), abolished naloxone-precipitated CPA in morphine-dependent mice...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507317/elevation-of-p11-in-lateral-habenula-mediates-depression-like-behavior
#4
J-S Seo, P Zhong, A Liu, Z Yan, P Greengard
The lateral habenula (LHb) is a key brain region involved in the pathophysiology of depression. It is activated by stimuli associated with negative experiences and is involved in encoding aversive signals. Hyperactivity of LHb is found in both rodent models of depression and human patients with depression. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here we show that in LHb neurons, p11, a multifunctional protein implicated in depression, is significantly upregulated by chronic restraint stress...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499809/an-emerging-role-for-the-lateral-habenula-in-aggressive-behavior
#5
REVIEW
Meghan Flanigan, Hossein Aleyasin, Aki Takahashi, Sam A Golden, Scott J Russo
Inter-male aggression is an essential component of social behavior in organisms from insects to humans. However, when expressed inappropriately, aggression poses significant threats to the mental and physical health of both the aggressor and the target. Inappropriate aggression is a common feature of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders in humans and has been hypothesized to result from the atypical activation of reward circuitry in response to social targets. The lateral habenula (LHb) has recently been identified as a major node of the classical reward circuitry and inhibits the release of dopamine from the midbrain to signal negative valence...
May 9, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479256/a-practical-evidence-based-comprehensive-pec-physical-examination-for-diagnosing-pathology-of-the-long-head-of-the-biceps
#6
REVIEW
Samuel Rosas, Michael K Krill, Kelms Amoo-Achampong, KiHyun Kwon, Benedict U Nwachukwu, Frank McCormick
BACKGROUND: Clinical examination of the shoulder joint has gained attention as clinicians aim to use an evidence-based examination of the biceps tendon, with the desire for a proper diagnosis while minimizing costly imaging procedures. The purpose of this study is to create a decision tree analysis that enables the development of a clinical algorithm for diagnosing long head of biceps (LHB) pathology. METHODS: A literature review of Level I and II diagnostic studies was conducted to extract characteristics of clinical tests for LHB pathology through a systematic review of PubMed, Medline, Ovid, and Cochrane Review databases...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470374/cataclysm-no-more-new-views-on-the-timing-and-delivery-of-lunar-impactors
#7
Nicolle E B Zellner
If properly interpreted, the impact record of the Moon, Earth's nearest neighbour, can be used to gain insights into how the Earth has been influenced by impacting events since its formation ~4.5 billion years (Ga) ago. However, the nature and timing of the lunar impactors - and indeed the lunar impact record itself - are not well understood. Of particular interest are the ages of lunar impact basins and what they tell us about the proposed "lunar cataclysm" and/or the late heavy bombardment (LHB), and how this impact episode may have affected early life on Earth or other planets...
May 3, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432009/the-lateral-hypothalamus-to-lateral-habenula-projection-but-not-the-ventral-pallidum-to-lateral-habenula-projection-regulates-voluntary-ethanol-consumption
#8
Chandni Sheth, Teri M Furlong, Kristen A Keefe, Sharif A Taha
The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain region implicated in aversive processing via negative modulation of midbrain dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) systems. Given the role of the LHb in inhibiting DA and 5-HT systems, it is thought to be involved in various psychiatric pathologies, including drug addiction. In support, it has been shown that LHb plays a critical role in cocaine- and ethanol-related behaviors, most likely by mediating drug-induced aversive conditioning. In our previous work, we showed that LHb lesions increased voluntary ethanol consumption and operant ethanol self-administration and blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol self-administration...
April 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430864/the-gnih-lpxrfa-system-s-regulation-of-reproduction-in-the-brain-pituitary-axis-of-the-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#9
Olivia Smith Spicer, Nilli Zmora, Ten-Tsao Wong, Matan Golan, Berta Levavi-Sivan, Yoav Gothilf, Yonathan Zohar
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GNIH) was discovered in quail with the ability to reduce gonadotropin expression/secretion in the pituitary. There have been few studies on GNIH orthologs in teleosts (Lpxrfa peptides), which have provided inconsistent results. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the roles and modes of action by which Lpxrfa exerts its functions in the brain-pituitary axis of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We localized Lpxrfa soma to the ventral hypothalamus, with fibers extending throughout the brain and to the pituitary...
April 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387223/ethanol-withdrawal-drives-anxiety-related-behaviors-by-reducing-m-type-potassium-channel-activity-in-the-lateral-habenula
#10
Seungwoo Kang, Jing Li, Wanhong Zuo, Rao Fu, Danielle Gregor, Kresimir Krnjevic, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and anxiety disorders (ADs) are often seen concurrently, but their underlying cellular basis is unclear. For unclear reasons, the lateral habenula (LHb), a key brain region involved in the pathophysiology of ADs, becomes hyperactive after ethanol withdrawal. M-type K(+) channels (M-channels), important regulators of neuronal activity, are abundant in the LHb, yet little is known about their role in AUDs and associated ADs. We report here that in rats at 24 h withdrawal from systemic ethanol administration (either by intraperitoneal injection, 2 g/kg, twice/day, for 7 days; or intermittent drinking 20% ethanol in a two-bottle free choice protocol for 8 weeks), the basal firing rate and the excitability of LHb neurons in brain slices was higher, whereas the amplitude of medium afterhyperpolarization and M-type K(+) currents were smaller, when compared to ethanol naïve rats...
April 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385888/modeling-and-high-throughput-experimental-data-uncover-the-mechanisms-underlying-fshb-gene-sensitivity-to-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-pulse-frequency
#11
Estee Stern, Frederique Ruf-Zamojski, Lisa Zalepa-King, Hanna Pincas, Soon Gang Choi, Charles S Peskin, Fernand Hayot, Judith L Turgeon, Stuart C Sealfon
Neuroendocrine control of reproduction by brain-secreted pulses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) represents a longstanding puzzle about extracellular signal decoding mechanisms. GnRH regulates the pituitary gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), both of which are heterodimers specified by unique β subunits (FSHβ/LHβ). Contrary to Lhb, Fshb gene induction has a preference for low frequency GnRH pulses. To clarify the underlying regulatory mechanisms, we developed three biologically anchored mathematical models: 1) parallel activation of Fshb inhibitory factors (e...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384468/genetically-distinct-parallel-pathways-in-the-entopeduncular-nucleus-for-limbic-and-sensorimotor-output-of-the-basal-ganglia
#12
Michael L Wallace, Arpiar Saunders, Kee Wui Huang, Adrienne C Philson, Melissa Goldman, Evan Z Macosko, Steven A McCarroll, Bernardo L Sabatini
The basal ganglia (BG) integrate inputs from diverse sensorimotor, limbic, and associative regions to guide action-selection and goal-directed behaviors. The entopeduncular nucleus (EP) is a major BG output nucleus and has been suggested to channel signals from distinct BG nuclei to target regions involved in diverse functions. Here we use single-cell transcriptional and molecular analyses to demonstrate that the EP contains at least three classes of projection neurons-glutamate/GABA co-releasing somatostatin neurons, glutamatergic parvalbumin neurons, and GABAergic parvalbumin neurons...
April 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374091/suprapectoral-biceps-tenodesis-using-a-suture-plate-clinical-results-after-2-years
#13
Christian Schoch, Michael Geyer, Björn Drews
PURPOSE: Several techniques for performing a tenodesis of the long head of biceps (LHB) are described. Only few outcome studies are published. This note describes a unicortical fixation via a suture plate-comparable to a distal biceps refixation-performed arthroscopically or mini-open via standard suprapectoral approach. The aim of this study is to show the clinical outcome after 6, 12, and 24 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of 50 (35 male, 15 female) patients at the mean age of 49 years (range 23-75) who underwent tenodesis of the LHB were followed for 2 years...
April 3, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372985/outcomes-of-left-heart-bypass-versus-circulatory-arrest-in-elective-open-surgical-descending-and-thoraco-abdominal-aortic-repair
#14
C-M Wahlgren, L Blohmé, A Günther, L Nilsson, C Olsson
OBJECTIVES: To compare early (30 day mortality and major complications) and midterm (survival) outcomes in elective open surgical descending and thoraco-abdominal aortic repair using left heart bypass (LHB) versus hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) for organ protection, hypothesising non-inferiority of HCA management. METHOD: This was a retrospective clinical cohort study with cross sectional follow-up. All elective (n = 90) descending or thoraco-abdominal aortic repairs performed between 2004 and 2015 using either LHB (n = 57) or HCA (n = 33) were included...
March 31, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359698/refuting-the-lipstick-sign
#15
Jason A Grassbaugh, Betsey R Bean, Alyssa R Greenhouse, Henry H Yu, Edward D Arrington, Richard J Friedman, Josef K Eichinger
BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic examination of the tendon has been described as the "gold standard" for diagnosis of tendinitis of the long head of the biceps (LHB). An arthroscopic finding of an inflamed and hyperemic LHB within the bicipital groove has been described as the "lipstick sign." Studies evaluating direct visualization in diagnosis of LHB tendinitis are lacking. METHODS: During a 1-year period, 363 arthroscopic shoulder procedures were performed, with 16 and 39 patients prospectively selected as positive cases and negative controls, respectively...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340505/afferent-and-efferent-connections-of-the-interpeduncular-nucleus-with-special-reference-to-circuits-involving-the-habenula-and-raphe-nuclei
#16
Leandro B Lima, Debora Bueno, Fernanda Leite, Stefani Souza, Luciano Gonçalves, Isadora C Furigo, Jose Donato, Martin Metzger
The habenula is an epithalamic structure differentiated into two nuclear complexes, medial (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb). Recently, MHb together with its primary target, the interpeduncular nucleus (IP), have been identified as major players in mediating the aversive effects of nicotine. However, structures downstream of the MHb-IP axis, including the median (MnR) and caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC), may contribute to the behavioral effects of nicotine. The afferent and efferent connections of the IP have hitherto not been systematically investigated with sensitive tracers...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334072/the-lateral-habenula-as-a-relay-of-cortical-information-to-process-working-memory
#17
Victor Mathis, Alexandra Barbelivien, Monique Majchrzak, Chantal Mathis, Jean-Christophe Cassel, Lucas Lecourtier
Working memory is a cognitive ability allowing the temporary storage of information to solve problems or adjust behavior. While working memory is known to mainly depend on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), very few is known about how cortical information are relayed subcortically. By its connectivity, the lateral habenula (lHb) might act as a subcortical relay for cortical information. Indeed, the lHb receives inputs from several mPFC subregions, and recent findings suggest a role for the lHb in online processing of spatial information, a fundamental aspect of working memory...
October 13, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330973/neurokinin-b-regulates-reproduction-via-inhibition-of-kisspeptin-in-a-teleost-the-striped-bass
#18
Nilli Zmora, Ten Tsao Wong, John David Stubblefield, Berta Levavi-Sivan, Yonathan Zohar
Kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) are neuropeptides co-expressed in the mammalian hypothalamus and coordinately control GnRH signaling. We have found that Nkb and kisspeptin neurons are distinct in the teleost, striped bass (stb), and capitalized on this phenomenon to study the mode of action of Nkb and its related neuropeptide-F (Nkf), both of which are encoded by the tac3 gene. In vitro brain slices and in vivo administration studies revealed that Nkb/f consistently down-regulated kiss2, while antagonist (AntD) administration restored this effect...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329910/nucleosome-mobility-and-the-regulation-of-gene-expression-insights-from-single-molecule-studies
#19
REVIEW
Sergei Rudnizky, Omri Malik, Adaiah Bavly, Lilach Pnueli, Philippa Melamed, Ariel Kaplan
Nucleosomes at the promoters of genes regulate the accessibility of the transcription machinery to DNA, and function as a basic layer in the complex regulation of gene expression. Our understanding of the role of the nucleosome's spontaneous, thermally driven position changes in modulating expression is lacking. This is the result of the paucity of experimental data on these dynamics, at high-resolution, and for DNA sequences that belong to real, transcribed genes. We have developed an assay that uses partial, reversible unzipping of nucleosomes with optical tweezers to repeatedly probe a nucleosome's position over time...
March 22, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295807/interaction-of-melatonin-and-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-on-the-zebrafish-brain-pituitary-reproductive-axis
#20
Thangal Yumnamcha, Zeeshan A Khan, Chongtham Rajiv, Sijagurumayum D Devi, Gopinath Mondal, Haobijam Sanjita Devi, Rupjyoti Bharali, Asamanja Chattoraj
Circadian cycles and photoperiod are known to influence reproductive physiology in several animals. Neuropeptides, such as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GNIH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH), are influenced by melatonin in birds and mammals. The present study demonstrates the role of melatonin in oocyte maturation in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), via the brain-pituitary-reproductive axis, under different photic conditions. Melatonin was significantly higher both in the whole brain and ovary under continuous dark (DD) compared to continuous light (LL) conditions...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
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