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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432009/the-lateral-hypothalamus-to-lateral-habenula-projection-but-not-the-ventral-pallidum-to-lateral-habenula-projection-regulates-voluntary-ethanol-consumption
#1
Chandni Sheth, Teri M Furlong, Kristen A Keefe, Sharif A Taha
The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain region implicated in aversive processing via negative modulation of midbrain dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) systems. Given the role of the LHb in inhibiting DA and 5-HT systems, it is thought to be involved in various psychiatric pathologies, including drug addiction. In support, it has been shown that LHb plays a critical role in cocaine- and ethanol-related behaviors, most likely by mediating drug-induced aversive conditioning. In our previous work, we showed that LHb lesions increased voluntary ethanol consumption and operant ethanol self-administration and blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol self-administration...
April 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430864/the-gnih-lpxrfa-system-s-regulation-of-reproduction-in-the-brain-pituitary-axis-of-the-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#2
Olivia Smith Spicer, Nilli Zmora, Ten-Tsao Wong, Matan Golan, Berta Levavi-Sivan, Yoav Gothilf, Yonathan Zohar
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GNIH) was discovered in quail with the ability to reduce gonadotropin expression/secretion in the pituitary. There have been few studies on GNIH orthologs in teleosts (Lpxrfa peptides), which have provided inconsistent results. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the roles and modes of action by which Lpxrfa exerts its functions in the brain-pituitary axis of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We localized Lpxrfa soma to the ventral hypothalamus, with fibers extending throughout the brain and to the pituitary...
April 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387223/ethanol-withdrawal-drives-anxiety-related-behaviors-by-reducing-m-type-potassium-channel-activity-in-the-lateral-habenula
#3
Seungwoo Kang, Jing Li, Wanhong Zuo, Rao Fu, Danielle Gregor, Kresimir Krnjevic, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and anxiety disorders (ADs) are often seen concurrently, but their underlying cellular basis is unclear. For unclear reasons, the lateral habenula (LHb), a key brain region involved in the pathophysiology of ADs, becomes hyperactive after ethanol withdrawal. M-type K(+) channels (M-channels), important regulators of neuronal activity, are abundant in the LHb, yet little is known about their role in AUDs and associated ADs. We report here that in rats at 24 h withdrawal from systemic ethanol administration (either by intraperitoneal injection, 2 g/kg, twice/day, for 7 days; or intermittent drinking 20% ethanol in a two-bottle free choice protocol for 8 weeks), the basal firing rate and the excitability of LHb neurons in brain slices was higher, whereas the amplitude of medium afterhyperpolarization and M-type K(+) currents were smaller, when compared to ethanol naïve rats...
April 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385888/modeling-and-high-throughput-experimental-data-uncover-the-mechanisms-underlying-fshb-gene-sensitivity-to-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-pulse-frequency
#4
Estee Stern, Frederique Ruf-Zamojski, Lisa Zalepa-King, Hanna Pincas, Soon Gang Choi, Charles S Peskin, Hayot Fernand, Judith L Turgeon, Stuart C Sealfon
Neuroendocrine control of reproduction by brain-secreted pulses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) represents a longstanding puzzle about extracellular signal decoding mechanisms. GnRH regulates the pituitary gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), both of which are heterodimers specified by unique β subunits (FSHβ/LHβ). Contrary to Lhb, Fshb gene induction has a preference for low frequency GnRH pulses. To clarify the underlying regulatory mechanisms, we developed three biologically anchored mathematical models: 1) parallel activation of Fshb inhibitory factors (e...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384468/genetically-distinct-parallel-pathways-in-the-entopeduncular-nucleus-for-limbic-and-sensorimotor-output-of-the-basal-ganglia
#5
Michael L Wallace, Arpiar Saunders, Kee Wui Huang, Adrienne C Philson, Melissa Goldman, Evan Z Macosko, Steven A McCarroll, Bernardo L Sabatini
The basal ganglia (BG) integrate inputs from diverse sensorimotor, limbic, and associative regions to guide action-selection and goal-directed behaviors. The entopeduncular nucleus (EP) is a major BG output nucleus and has been suggested to channel signals from distinct BG nuclei to target regions involved in diverse functions. Here we use single-cell transcriptional and molecular analyses to demonstrate that the EP contains at least three classes of projection neurons-glutamate/GABA co-releasing somatostatin neurons, glutamatergic parvalbumin neurons, and GABAergic parvalbumin neurons...
April 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374091/suprapectoral-biceps-tenodesis-using-a-suture-plate-clinical-results-after-2-years
#6
Christian Schoch, Michael Geyer, Björn Drews
PURPOSE: Several techniques for performing a tenodesis of the long head of biceps (LHB) are described. Only few outcome studies are published. This note describes a unicortical fixation via a suture plate-comparable to a distal biceps refixation-performed arthroscopically or mini-open via standard suprapectoral approach. The aim of this study is to show the clinical outcome after 6, 12, and 24 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of 50 (35 male, 15 female) patients at the mean age of 49 years (range 23-75) who underwent tenodesis of the LHB were followed for 2 years...
April 3, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372985/outcomes-of-left-heart-bypass-versus-circulatory-arrest-in-elective-open-surgical-descending-and-thoraco-abdominal-aortic-repair
#7
C-M Wahlgren, L Blohmé, A Günther, L Nilsson, C Olsson
OBJECTIVES: To compare early (30 day mortality and major complications) and midterm (survival) outcomes in elective open surgical descending and thoraco-abdominal aortic repair using left heart bypass (LHB) versus hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) for organ protection, hypothesising non-inferiority of HCA management. METHOD: This was a retrospective clinical cohort study with cross sectional follow-up. All elective (n = 90) descending or thoraco-abdominal aortic repairs performed between 2004 and 2015 using either LHB (n = 57) or HCA (n = 33) were included...
March 31, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359698/refuting-the-lipstick-sign
#8
Jason A Grassbaugh, Betsey R Bean, Alyssa R Greenhouse, Henry H Yu, Edward D Arrington, Richard J Friedman, Josef K Eichinger
BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic examination of the tendon has been described as the "gold standard" for diagnosis of tendinitis of the long head of the biceps (LHB). An arthroscopic finding of an inflamed and hyperemic LHB within the bicipital groove has been described as the "lipstick sign." Studies evaluating direct visualization in diagnosis of LHB tendinitis are lacking. METHODS: During a 1-year period, 363 arthroscopic shoulder procedures were performed, with 16 and 39 patients prospectively selected as positive cases and negative controls, respectively...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340505/afferent-and-efferent-connections-of-the-interpeduncular-nucleus-with-special-reference-to-circuits-involving-the-habenula-and-raphe-nuclei
#9
Leandro B Lima, Debora Bueno, Fernanda Leite, Stefani Souza, Luciano Gonçalves, Isadora C Furigo, Jose Donato, Martin Metzger
The habenula is an epithalamic structure differentiated into two nuclear complexes, medial (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb). Recently, MHb together with its primary target, the interpeduncular nucleus (IP), have been identified as major players in mediating the aversive effects of nicotine. However, structures downstream of the MHb-IP axis, including the median (MnR) and caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC), may contribute to the behavioral effects of nicotine. The afferent and efferent connections of the IP have hitherto not been systematically investigated with sensitive tracers...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334072/the-lateral-habenula-as-a-relay-of-cortical-information-to-process-working-memory
#10
Victor Mathis, Alexandra Barbelivien, Monique Majchrzak, Chantal Mathis, Jean-Christophe Cassel, Lucas Lecourtier
Working memory is a cognitive ability allowing the temporary storage of information to solve problems or adjust behavior. While working memory is known to mainly depend on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), very few is known about how cortical information are relayed subcortically. By its connectivity, the lateral habenula (lHb) might act as a subcortical relay for cortical information. Indeed, the lHb receives inputs from several mPFC subregions, and recent findings suggest a role for the lHb in online processing of spatial information, a fundamental aspect of working memory...
October 13, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330973/neurokinin-b-regulates-reproduction-via-inhibition-of-kisspeptin-in-a-teleost-the-striped-bass
#11
Nilli Zmora, Ten Tsao Wong, John David Stubblefield, Berta Levavi-Sivan, Yonathan Zohar
Kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) are neuropeptides co-expressed in the mammalian hypothalamus and coordinately control GnRH signaling. We have found that Nkb and kisspeptin neurons are distinct in the teleost, striped bass (stb), and capitalized on this phenomenon to study the mode of action of Nkb and its related neuropeptide-F (Nkf), both of which are encoded by the tac3 gene. In vitro brain slices and in vivo administration studies revealed that Nkb/f consistently down-regulated kiss2, while antagonist (AntD) administration restored this effect...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329910/nucleosome-mobility-and-the-regulation-of-gene-expression-insights-from-single-molecule-studies
#12
REVIEW
Sergei Rudnizky, Omri Malik, Adaiah Bavly, Lilach Pnueli, Philippa Melamed, Ariel Kaplan
Nucleosomes at the promoters of genes regulate the accessibility of the transcription machinery to DNA, and function as a basic layer in the complex regulation of gene expression. Our understanding of the role of the nucleosome's spontaneous, thermally driven position changes in modulating expression is lacking. This is the result of the paucity of experimental data on these dynamics, at high-resolution, and for DNA sequences that belong to real, transcribed genes. We have developed an assay that uses partial, reversible unzipping of nucleosomes with optical tweezers to repeatedly probe a nucleosome's position over time...
March 22, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295807/interaction-of-melatonin-and-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-on-the-zebrafish-brain-pituitary-reproductive-axis
#13
Thangal Yumnamcha, Zeeshan A Khan, Chongtham Rajiv, Sijagurumayum D Devi, Gopinath Mondal, Haobijam Sanjita Devi, Rupjyoti Bharali, Asamanja Chattoraj
Circadian cycles and photoperiod are known to influence reproductive physiology in several animals. Neuropeptides, such as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GNIH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH), are influenced by melatonin in birds and mammals. The present study demonstrates the role of melatonin in oocyte maturation in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), via the brain-pituitary-reproductive axis, under different photic conditions. Melatonin was significantly higher both in the whole brain and ovary under continuous dark (DD) compared to continuous light (LL) conditions...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295296/anterior-and-posterior-parts-of-the-rat-ventral-tegmental-area-and-the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus-receive-topographically-distinct-afferents-from-the-lateral-habenular-complex
#14
Anja Petzel, René Bernard, Wolfram C Poller, Rüdiger W Veh
That activation of the reward system involves increased activity of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is widely accepted. In contrast, the lateral habenular complex (LHb), which is known as the center of the anti-reward system, directly and indirectly inhibits DA neurons in the VTA. The VTA, however, is not a homogenous entity with major functional differences between its anterior (aVTA) and posterior (pVTA) regions. It is not precisely known, whether habenular input to the aVTA, pVTA, and the newly recognized rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) are similarily or differently organized...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270756/role-of-the-lateral-habenula-in-pain-associated-depression
#15
Yanhui Li, Yumeng Wang, Chengluan Xuan, Yang Li, Lianhua Piao, Jicheng Li, Hua Zhao
Patients with chronic pain have significantly higher incidences of depression and anxiety than the average person. However, the mechanism underlying this link has not been elucidated in terms of how chronic pain causes significant mood changes and further develops into severe anxiety or depression. The serotonergic system in the raphe nuclei is an important component in both pain processing and the pathogenesis of depression. Since the lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) controls the raphe nuclei, it may participate in the regulation of pain-associated depression...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242307/molecular-identification-of-the-dyn-kor-system-and-its-potential-role-in-the-reproductive-axis-of-goldfish
#16
Yali Liu, Shuisheng Li, Qing Wang, Yu Chen, Xin Qi, Yun Liu, Xiaochun Liu, Haoran Lin, Yong Zhang
To ascertain the significance of the dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor (Dyn/Kor) system in fish reproduction, prodynorphin (pdyn) cDNA was cloned from goldfish. Two Dyn peptides (DynA and DynB) are present in the goldfish prodynorphin precursor. Both DynA and DynB are biologically active as they are able to functionally interact with the goldfish Kor expressed in cultured eukaryotic cells to suppress forskolin-induced CRE promoter activity. RT-PCR analysis showed that pdyn is widely expressed in brain regions, with the highest expression in hypothalamus...
February 24, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217562/no-holes-transpectoral-tenodesis-technique-vs-tenotomy-of-the-long-head-of-the-biceps-brachii
#17
Enrico Gervasi, Enrico Sebastiani, Enrico Cautero
BACKGROUND: There is no univocal consensus regarding Long Head of the Biceps (LHB) best treatment between tenotomy and tenodesis. There is no consensus regarding the best location to perform the tenodesis. The LHB tenodesis performed by the proximal tendon excision as first step can miss the proper tension to the muscle belly. Fixations proximal to the pectoralis major can lead to groove pain. This study aims to test the efficacy of a new LHB tenodesis technique by comparing its results with the tenotomy...
October 2016: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197776/effects-of-melanocortin-4-receptor-agonists-and-antagonists-on-expression-of-genes-related-to-reproduction-in-spotted-scat-scatophagus-argus
#18
Dong-Neng Jiang, Jian-Tao Li, Ya-Xiong Tao, Hua-Pu Chen, Si-Ping Deng, Chun-Hua Zhu, Guang-Li Li
Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r) function related to reproduction in fish has not been extensively investigated. Here, we report on gene expression changes by real-time PCR following treatment with Mc4r agonists and antagonists in the spotted scat (Scatophagus argus). Using in vitro incubated hypothalamus, the Mc4r nonselective agonist NDP-MSH ([Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-α-melanocyte stimulating hormone; 10(-6) M) and selective agonist THIQ (N-[(3R)-1, 2, 3, 4-Tetrahydroisoquinolinium-3-ylcarbonyl]- (1R)-1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2-[4-cyclohexyl-4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl) piperidin-1-yl]-2-oxoethylamine; 10(-7) M) significantly increased the expression of gnrh (Gonadotropin releasing hormone), while the Mc4r nonselective antagonist SHU9119 (Ac-Nle-[Asp-His-DPhe/DNal(2')-Arg-Trp-Lys]-NH2; 10(-6) M) and selective antagonist Ipsen 5i (compound 5i synthesized in Ipsen Research Laboratories; 10(-6) M) significantly inhibited gnrh expression after 3 h of incubation...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166603/electroacupuncture-attenuates-hyperalgesia-in-rats-withdrawn-from-chronic-alcohol-drinking-via-habenular-mu-opioid-receptors
#19
Jing Li, Caihong Fu, Hongwei Liu, Rao Fu, Wanhong Zuo, Seungwoo Kang, Pei Chen, Danielle Gregor, Rose Paulose, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
BACKGROUND: Hyperalgesia or increased sensitivity to pain is often found in alcoholics during alcohol withdrawal and may contribute to relapse drinking. Alternative therapies such as acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA), through mechanisms involving opioid receptors, may reduce pain and substance dependence and withdrawal syndromes. The lateral habenula (LHb), an epithalamic structure rich in mu opioid receptors (MORs), is a critical target for both drugs of abuse and pain. We previously observed hyperalgesia in rats withdrawn from chronic ethanol (EtOH) drinking and found that EA at the acupoint Zusanli (ST36) reduced EtOH intake...
March 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146397/a-prospective-randomized-study-comparing-the-interference-screw-and-suture-anchor-techniques-for-biceps-tenodesis
#20
Ji Soon Park, Sae Hoon Kim, Ho Jin Jung, Ye Hyun Lee, Joo Han Oh
BACKGROUND: Several methods are used to perform biceps tenodesis in patients with superior labrum-biceps complex (SLBC) lesions accompanied by a rotator cuff tear. However, limited clinical data are available regarding the best technique in terms of clinical and anatomic outcomes. PURPOSE: To compare the clinical and anatomic outcomes of the interference screw (IS) and suture anchor (SA) fixation techniques for biceps tenodesis performed along with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair...
February 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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