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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210006/triiodothyronine-differentially-modulates-the-lh-and-fsh-synthesis-and-secretion-in-male-rats
#1
Renata Marino Romano, Paula Bargi-Souza, Erika Lia Brunetto, Francemilson Goulart-Silva, Renato M Salgado, Telma Maria Tenorio Zorn, Maria Tereza Nunes
Hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis produce adverse effects in male reproduction by unknown mechanisms. We investigated whether triiodothyronine (T3) modulates luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) synthesis/secretion, by inducing different thyroid states. In hypothyroidism, the content of Lhb and Fshb mRNAs was increased, while their association to ribosomes and the protein content were reduced and the serum LH and FSH concentrations were augmented and decreased, respectively. Thyrotoxicosis reduced Lhb mRNA and LH serum concentration, and increased Lhb mRNA translational rate...
December 5, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175713/lateral-habenula-in-the-pathophysiology-of-depression
#2
REVIEW
Yan Yang, Hao Wang, Ji Hu, Hailan Hu
Depression is a devastating disorder with a combination of diverse symptoms such as low self-esteem, lack of motivation, anhedonia, loss of appetite, low energy, and discomfort without a clear cause. Depression has been suggested to be the result of maladaptive changes in specific brain circuits. Recently, the lateral habenula (LHb) has emerged as a key brain region in the pathophysiology of depression. Increasing evidence from rodent, non-human primate and human studies indicates that the aberrant activity of the LHb is associated with depressive symptoms such as helplessness, anhedonia, and excessive negative focus...
November 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157108/morphological-classification-of-anatomical-variants-of-the-intra-articular-portion-of-the-long-head-of-the-biceps-brachii-tendon-and-analysis-of-the-incidence-and-the-relationship-with-shoulder-disease-for-each-subtype
#3
Jeung Yeol Jeong, Seung Min Park, Young Eun Park, Jae Chul Yoo
PURPOSE: Although several cases of anatomical variants of the proximal portion of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon have been reported, most are case reports on single patients; few studies have investigated the classification and incidence of this phenomenon. We aimed to classify the variants of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon by their morphology and characterize them in regard to incidence, demography, and the relationship with biceps tendon or other shoulder diseases...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141211/lateral-preoptic-control-of-the-lateral-habenula-through-convergent-glutamate-and-gaba-transmission
#4
David J Barker, Jorge Miranda-Barrientos, Shiliang Zhang, David H Root, Hui-Ling Wang, Bing Liu, Erin S Calipari, Marisela Morales
The lateral habenula (LHb) is a brain structure that participates in cognitive and emotional processing and has been implicated in several mental disorders. Although one of the largest inputs to the LHb originates in the lateral preoptic area (LPO), little is known about how the LPO participates in the regulation of LHb function. Here, we provide evidence that the LPO exerts bivalent control over the LHb through the convergent transmission of LPO glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) onto single LHb neurons...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139213/heterogeneous-neuronal-activity-in-the-lateral-habenula-after-short-and-long-term-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#5
Ping Gao, Henk J Groenewegen, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Pieter Voorn
Cocaine addiction is thought to be the result of drug-induced functional changes in a neural network implicated in emotions, learning, and cognitive control. Recent studies have implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) in drug-directed behavior, especially its aversive aspects. Limited cocaine exposure has been shown to alter neuronal activity in the LHb, but the impact of long-term drug exposure on habenula function has not been determined. Therefore, using c-fos as a marker, we here examined neuronal activity in LHb in rats that self-administered cocaine for either 10 or 60 days...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128307/rescue-of-glutamate-transport-in-the-lateral-habenula-alleviates-depression-and-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-ethanol-withdrawn-rats
#6
Seungwoo Kang, Jing Li, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Alcoholism and psychiatric disorders like depression and anxiety are often comorbid. Although the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are unclear, emerging evidence suggests that maladaptation of the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1 may play a role. Findings from animal and human studies have linked aversive states, including those related to drugs of abuse and depression, to aberrant activity in the lateral habenula (LHb). The relationship between GLT-1 maladaptation, LHb activity, and abnormal behaviors related to alcohol withdrawal, however, remains unknown...
November 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122422/comparison-of-open-surgical-techniques-for-repair-of-types-iii-and-iv-thoracoabdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#7
Muhammad A Rana, Peter Gloviczki, Audra A Duncan, Manju Kalra, Kevin L Greason, Gustavo S Oderich, Stephen S Cha, Thomas C Bower
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare outcomes after repair of type III and type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) by three different open surgical techniques at a tertiary care institution. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent elective repair of type III and type IV TAAAs at our institution between 1999 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups according to surgical technique: clamp and sew (CS), left-sided heart bypass (LHB), and visceral branching (VB) followed by aortic reconstruction...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074844/limiting-habenular-hyperactivity-ameliorates-maternal-separation-driven-depressive-like-symptoms
#8
Anna Tchenio, Salvatore Lecca, Kristina Valentinova, Manuel Mameli
Early-life stress, including maternal separation (MS), increases the vulnerability to develop mood disorders later in life, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We report that MS promotes depressive-like symptoms in mice at a mature stage of life. Along with this behavioral phenotype, MS drives reduction of GABAB-GIRK signaling and the subsequent lateral habenula (LHb) hyperexcitability-an anatomical substrate devoted to aversive encoding. Attenuating LHb hyperactivity using chemogenetic tools and deep-brain stimulation ameliorates MS depressive-like symptoms...
October 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073627/gene-expression-and-apoptosis-levels-in-cumulus-cells-of-patients-with-polymorphisms-of-fshr-and-lhb-undergoing-in-vitro-fertilization-program
#9
Liana Bosco, Giovanni Ruvolo, Claudio Luparello, Stefania Ferrari, Domenico Valerio, Daniele Santi, Paola Piomboni, Elena Sarcina, Monica Lispi, Maria Carmela Roccheri
BACKGROUND/AIMS: FSH receptor (FSHR) Ala307Thr and Asn680Ser and LHβ chain (LHB) Trp28Arg and Ile35Thr polymorphisms affect the response to pharmacological ovarian stimulation with r-FSH in women undergoing assisted reproductive treatment (ART). Here, we evaluated the expression level of selected genes involved in follicle maturation and the possible onset of apoptosis in cumulus cells of patients with single and double FSHR and LHB polymorphisms, as potential markers of oocyte competence...
October 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065928/chromatin-status-and-transcription-factor-binding-to-gonadotropin-promoters-in-gonadotrope-cell-lines
#10
Huimin Xie, Hanne M Hoffmann, Anita K Iyer, Melissa J Brayman, Cindy Ngo, Mary Jean Sunshine, Pamela L Mellon
BACKGROUND: Proper expression of key reproductive hormones from gonadotrope cells of the pituitary is required for pubertal onset and reproduction. To further our understanding of the molecular events taking place during embryonic development, leading to expression of the glycoproteins luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), we characterized chromatin structure changes, imparted mainly by histone modifications, in model gonadotrope cell lines. METHODS: We evaluated chromatin status and gene expression profiles by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, DNase sensitivity assay, and RNA sequencing in three developmentally staged gonadotrope cell lines, αT1-1 (progenitor, expressing Cga), αT3-1 (immature, expressing Cga and Gnrhr), and LβT2 (mature, expressing Cga, Gnrhr, Lhb, and Fshb), to assess changes in chromatin status and transcription factor access of gonadotrope-specific genes...
October 24, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055862/juvenile-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-promotes-ovarian-differentiation-but-suppresses-its-growth-potential-involvement-of-pituitary-follicle-stimulating-hormone
#11
Weiting Chen, Shuk-Wa Lau, Yuqin Fan, Rudolf S S Wu, Wei Ge
Bisphenol A (BPA), a plastic monomer and plasticizer, is commonly used in plastics industry, and it has been well documented to be an estrogenic endocrine disrupter. In the present study, we investigated the effect of early (juvenile) exposure to BPA on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis in the zebrafish. Estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) were also included as positive and negative controls respectively. Juvenile zebrafish were exposed to BPA (1 and 10μM), E2 (10nM) and T (10nM) from 20 to 40 dpf (days post-fertilization), the period of sex/gonadal differentiation, followed by histological and expression analyses at 40 dpf...
October 14, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054431/lesions-of-the-lateral-habenula-improve-working-memory-performance-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#12
Cheng Xue Du, Jian Liu, Yuan Guo, Li Zhang, Qiao Jun Zhang
The lateral habenula (LHb) is an important structure involved in various brain functions, because it controls the activity of dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in the midbrain. The impairment of working memory commonly occurs in Parkinson's disease; however, it is not clear whether the LHb involves in the regulation of working memory in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). In this study, we found that the MFB lesions in rats decreased choice accuracy as measured by the T-maze rewarded alternation test compared to control rats, indicating the induction of working memory impairment, and decreased dopamine (DA) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus and amygdala...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986462/the-lateral-habenula-and-its-input-to-the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus-mediates-outcome-specific-conditioned-inhibition
#13
Vincent Laurent, Felix L Wong, Bernard W Balleine
Animals can readily learn that stimuli predict the absence of specific appetitive outcomes; however, the neural substrates underlying such outcome-specific conditioned inhibition remain largely unexplored. Here, we examined the involvement of the lateral habenula (LHb) and of its inputs onto the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) in inhibitory learning using female and male rats as subjects. In these experiments, we used backward conditioning and contingency reversal to establish outcome-specific conditioned inhibitors for two distinct appetitive outcomes, and then assessed the effects of manipulations of the LHb and the LHb-RMTg pathway on that inhibitory encoding using the Pavlovian-instrumental transfer paradigm...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983764/effect-of-patient-age-on-accuracy-of-primary-mri-signs-of-long-head-of-biceps-tearing-and-instability-in-the-shoulder-an-mri-arthroscopy-correlation-study
#14
Camilo G Borrero, Joanna Costello, Marnie Bertolet, Dharmesh Vyas
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of patient age on the accuracy of primary MRI signs of long head of biceps (LHB) tendon tearing and instability in the shoulder using arthroscopy as a reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects with MRI studies and subsequent arthroscopy documenting LHB tendon pathology were identified and organized into three age groups (18-40, 41-60, 61-87). Normal and tendinopathic tendons were labeled grade 0, partial tears grade 1 and full tears grade 2...
October 6, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974703/sex-steroid-production-associated-with-puberty-is-absent-in-germ-cell-free-salmon
#15
Lene Kleppe, Eva Andersson, Kai Ove Skaftnesmo, Rolf B Edvardsen, Per Gunnar Fjelldal, Birgitta Norberg, Jan Bogerd, Rüdiger W Schulz, Anna Wargelius
In all vertebrates studied so far, germ cells are not required for pubertal maturation of the gonadal steroidogenic system, subsequent development of secondary sex characteristics and reproductive behavior. To explore if the absence of germ cells affects puberty or growth in Atlantic salmon, germ cell-free (GCF), dnd knockout and wild type (WT) postsmolts were stimulated to enter puberty. No GCF fish entered puberty, whereas 66.7% (males) and 30% (females) WT fish completed or entered puberty, respectively...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972919/reproductive-effects-of-synthetic-progestin-norgestrel-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#16
Yan-Qiu Liang, Guo-Yong Huang, Zhong Lin, Jin Li, Jie-Wen Yang, Lai-Yuan Zhong, Guang-Guo Ying
The aim of this study was to assess the adverse effects of synthetic progestin norgestrel (NGT) on the reproduction of zebrafish by measuring the egg production, histology and transcriptional expression profiles along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in adult zebrafish. After a pre-exposure period of 7 days, adult zebrafish were exposed to 6, 29 and 69 ng L(-1) NGT for 21 days. The results showed that exposure to 69 ng L(-1) NGT led to a significant up-regulation of follicle stimulating hormone, beta polypeptide (fshb), luteinizing hormone, beta polypeptide (lhb), progesterone receptor (pgr), estrogen receptor 1 (esr1) and androgen receptor (ar) genes in the brains, as well as significant up-regulation of hydroxysteroid 20-beta dehydrogenase (hsd20b) and hydroxysteroid 11-beta dehydrogenase 2 (hsd11b2) genes and down-regulation of 11-beta-hydroxylase (cyp11b) gene in the ovaries of females...
September 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970991/long-biceps-subpectoral-tenodesis-with-suspensory-button-and-bicortical-fixation
#17
Nuno Gomes, Manuel Ribeiro da Silva, Helder Pereira, Ricardo Aido, Ricardo Sampaio
Tenodesis of the long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon has long been recognized as a valid alternative to address pathologic conditions of this tendon. However, the location and type of fixation is still a matter of discussion, because common complications associated with this procedure include failure of the repair, persistent pain, reaction to the fixation device, cosmetic deformity, and fracture. The authors describe a method of subpectoral LHB tenodesis that aims to preserve bone stock and allows a strong, easy, and reproducible type of fixation with a minimal approach...
August 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964731/time-and-dose-related-effects-of-a-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-agonist-and-dopamine-antagonist-on-reproduction-in-the-northern-leopard-frog-lithobates-pipiens
#18
Maria Vu, Bradley Weiler, Vance L Trudeau
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates luteinizing hormone release to control ovulation and spermiation in vertebrates. Dopamine (DA) has a clear inhibitory role in the control of reproduction in numerous teleosts, and emerging evidence suggests that similar mechanisms may exist in amphibians. The interactions between GnRH and DA on spawning success and pituitary gene expression in the Northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) were therefore investigated. Frogs were injected during the natural breeding season with a GnRH agonist [GnRH-A; (Des-Gly(10), D-Ala(6), Pro-NHEt(9))-LHRH; 0...
December 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873572/implications-of-hydration-depletion-in-the-in-vitro-starch-digestibility-of-white-bread-crumb-and-crust
#19
Mario M Martínez, Laura Román, Manuel Gómez
The objective of this study was to provide understanding about the efficacy of decreasing dough hydration to slow down starch digestibility in white bread. Breads were made with 45 (low hydration bread, LHB), 60 (intermediate hydration bread, IHB) and 75% (high hydration bread, HHB) water (flour basis). A hydration depletion down to 45%, which is close to the minimum hydration found in commercially available white bread, did not prevent the starch in the crumb from complete gelatinization. However, LHB and IHB crumbs were more resistant to physical breakdown during in vitro digestion than HHB crumbs, resulting in a 96...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871962/aversive-stimuli-drive-hypothalamus-to-habenula-excitation-to-promote-escape-behavior
#20
Salvatore Lecca, Frank Julius Meye, Massimo Trusel, Anna Tchenio, Julia Harris, Martin Karl Schwarz, Denis Burdakov, Francois Georges, Manuel Mameli
A sudden aversive event produces escape behaviors, an innate response essential for survival in virtually all-animal species. Nuclei including the lateral habenula (LHb), the lateral hypothalamus (LH), and the midbrain are not only reciprocally connected, but also respond to negative events contributing to goal-directed behaviors. However, whether aversion encoding requires these neural circuits to ultimately prompt escape behaviors remains unclear. We observe that aversive stimuli, including foot-shocks, excite LHb neurons and promote escape behaviors in mice...
September 5, 2017: ELife
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