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Laura Wallard, Sophie Boulet, Olivier Cornu, Jean-Emile Dubuc, Philippe Mahaudens, Didier Postlethwaite, Maïté Van Cauter, Christine Detrembleur
BACKGROUND: The gait mechanism requires an efficient intersegmental coordination in order to ensure the displacement of the body while simultaneously maintaining the postural stability. However, intersegmental coordination may be disrupted by neurological or orthopaedic involvement, this increasing the metabolic cost associated with excessive or prolonged muscle co-contraction. RESEARCH QUESTION: Our aim was to evaluate and to understand how hip OA affects lower limbs coordination during gait by using the kinematic segmental covariation law method and predict the energy expenditure...
March 7, 2018: Gait & Posture
M Martínez-García, J Vargas-Barrón, F Bañuelos-Téllez, H González-Pacheco, C Fresno, E Hernández-Lemus, M A Martínez-Ríos, M Vallejo
OBJECTIVE: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has an important economic burden that poised the urgent need to evaluate its catastrophic medical expense. This study evaluates the first 5 years of the national health initiative called Popular Insurance (PI) at the National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective data analysis. METHODS: STEMI patients with (n=317) and without (n=260) PI were selected. Analysed variables included socio-economical context, management care, cost evaluation and three outcomes (mortality, hospital readmission and therapeutic adherence)...
March 13, 2018: Public Health
Yongjian Xu, Jie Ma, Na Wu, Xiaojing Fan, Tao Zhang, Zhongliang Zhou, Jianmin Gao, Jianping Ren, Gang Chen
INTRODUCTION: In 2009, China officially launched the New Health Care Reform (NHCR). One important purpose of the reform was to reduce financial burden of health care through health insurance expansion and health care provider regulations. This study aimed to provide evidence on the effect of the NHCR reform on catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) by comparing the occurrence and inequality of CHE among households with chronic diseases patients before and after the reform. METHODS: This study used the subset of data from the 2008 and 2013 National Health Services Survey conducted in Shaanxi Province...
2018: PloS One
Rebecca L Hagedorn, Melissa D Olfert
In order to investigate the impact of food insecurity on college students in a highly health disparate region we (1) assessed the prevalence of food insecurity among young adults at a large, rural university in Appalachia, and (2) investigated the relationship between food insecurity and behavioral characteristics including academic performance, coping strategies, and money expenditure. A cross-sectional design was used to capture a representative sample of young adults attending a large, central Appalachian university in Fall 2016...
March 16, 2018: Nutrients
Tiago V Barreira, John M Schuna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
David A Watters, Glenn D Guest, Viliami Tangi, Mark G Shrime, John G Meara
Progress in achieving "universal access to safe, affordable surgery, and anesthesia care when needed" is dependent on consensus not only about the key messages but also on what metrics should be used to set goals and measure progress. The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery not only achieved consensus on key messages but also recommended 6 key metrics to inform national surgical plans and monitor scale-up toward 2030. These metrics measure access to surgery, as well as its timeliness, safety, and affordability: (1) Two-hour access to the 3 Bellwether procedures (cesarean delivery, emergency laparotomy, and management of an open fracture); (2) Surgeon, Anesthetist, and Obstetrician workforce >20/100,000; (3) Surgical volume of 5000 procedures/100,000; (4) Reporting of perioperative mortality rate; and (5 and 6) Risk rates of catastrophic expenditure and impoverishment when requiring surgery...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Robin P Shook, Gregory A Hand, Daniel P O'Connor, Diana M Thomas, Thomas G Hurley, James R Hébert, Clemens Drenowatz, Gregory J Welk, Alicia L Carriquiry, Steven N Blair
Background: Assessments of energy intake (EI) are frequently affected by measurement error. Recently, a simple equation was developed and validated to estimate EI on the basis of the energy balance equation [EI = changed body energy stores + energy expenditure (EE)]. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare multiple estimates of EI, including 2 calculated from the energy balance equation by using doubly labeled water (DLW) or activity monitors, in free-living adults...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Xiaoyan Lei, Yan Shen, James P Smith, Guangsu Zhou
This research uses nationally representative data to study how economic resources and inequalities are associated with life satisfaction of Chinese residents. We construct economic resource and inequality measures from expenditure rather than from income, after confirming that expenditure inequality is a better measure in the Chinese context. We find that economic inequalities in general are negatively associated with life satisfaction, and that this association is larger for inequalities in the lower half of the distribution than those in the upper half of the distribution...
March 2018: Review of Economics of the Household
Jonathan G Shaw, Monica Farid, Claire Noel-Miller, Neesha Joseph, Ari Houser, Steven M Asch, Jay Bhattacharya, Lynda Flowers
Objectives: Evaluate objective isolation and loneliness' impact on Medicare spending and outcomes. Methods: We linked Health and Retirement Study data to Medicare claims to analyze objective isolation (scaled composite of social contacts and network) and loneliness (positive response to 3-item loneliness scale) as predictors of subsequent Medicare spending. In multivariable regression adjusting for health and demographics, we determined marginal differences in Medicare expenditures...
October 2017: Journal of Aging and Health
Chien Wen Su, Chih-Yu Chen, Yali Li, Shao Rong Long, William Massey, Deepak Vijaya Kumar, W Allan Walker, Hai Ning Shi
Epidemiological studies indicate an inverse correlation between the prevalence of the so-called western diseases, such as obesity and metabolic syndrome, and the exposure to helminths. Obesity, a key risk factor for many chronic health problems, is rising globally and is accompanied by low-grade inflammation in adipose tissues. The precise mechanism by which helminths modulate metabolic syndrome and obesity is not fully understood. We infected high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice with the intestinal nematode parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus and observed that helminth infection resulted in significantly attenuated obesity...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ignacio Aznar-Lou, Anton Pottegård, Ana Fernández, María Teresa Peñarrubia-María, Antoni Serrano-Blanco, Ramón Sabés-Figuera, Montserrat Gil-Girbau, Marta Fajó-Pascual, Patricia Moreno-Peral, Maria Rubio-Valera
OBJECTIVE: Copayment policies aim to reduce the burden of medication expenditure but may affect adherence and generate inequities in access to healthcare. The objective was to evaluate the impact of two copayment measures on initial medication non-adherence (IMNA) in several medication groups and by income level. DESIGN: A population-based study was conducted using real-world evidence. SETTING: Primary care in Catalonia (Spain) where two separate copayment measures (fixed copayment and coinsurance) were introduced between 2011 and 2013...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Sudha S Shankar, R Ravi Shankar, Lori A Mixson, Deborah L Miller, Barnali Pramanik, Amy K O'Dowd, Donna M Williams, Clay B Frederick, Chan R Beals, S Aubrey Stoch, Helmut O Steinberg, David E Kelley
Oxyntomodulin (OXM), an enteroendocrine hormone, causes appetite suppression, increased energy expenditure, and weight loss in obese humans via activation of GLP-1 and glucagon receptors. However, the effects of OXM on glucose homeostasis remain ill-defined. To address this gap, we evaluated the effects of an intravenous (IV) infusion of native OXM on insulin secretory rates (ISR) and glycemic excursion in a graded glucose infusion (GGI) procedure in two separate randomized, placebo-controlled, single dose crossover trials in 12 overweight and obese subjects without diabetes, and in 12 obese subjects with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) respectively, using the GLP-1 analog, liraglutide as a comparator in the T2DM...
March 15, 2018: Diabetes
Neil Walker, Yaling Yang, Vasiliki Kiparoglou, Subhash Pokhrel, Hayley Robinson, Hugo van Woerden
BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation services provide support to smokers who desire to quit. Published studies to date have looked at the cost and benefit of service provision but typically focus on clinical trial data. Using routinely collected observational data, this study examined the costs involved in providing a service in terms of average health care expenditure per successful quit attempt in addition to population - level cost-effectiveness measures. METHODS: Data were analysed from Quit-51 smoking cessation service across five English regions between March 2013 and March 2016 (n = 9116)...
March 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Gunta Laizane, Anda Kivite, Inese Stars, Marita Cikovska, Ilze Grope, Dace Gardovska
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in young children and infants worldwide, representing a heavy public health burden. Limited information is available regarding the impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis on the quality of life of affected children and their families. The objectives of study were to estimate the impact of rotavirus infection on health-related quality of life (HRQL), to assess the social and emotional effects on the families of affected children...
March 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Valentina Camomilla, Elena Bergamini, Silvia Fantozzi, Giuseppe Vannozzi
Recent technological developments have led to the production of inexpensive, non-invasive, miniature magneto-inertial sensors, ideal for obtaining sport performance measures during training or competition. This systematic review evaluates current evidence and the future potential of their use in sport performance evaluation. Articles published in English (April 2017) were searched in Web-of-Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Sport-Discus databases. A keyword search of titles, abstracts and keywords which included studies using accelerometers, gyroscopes and/or magnetometers to analyse sport motor-tasks performed by athletes (excluding risk of injury, physical activity, and energy expenditure) resulted in 2040 papers...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Christiane Scheffler, Louisa-Marie Krützfeldt, Parasmani Dasgupta, Michael Hermanussen
Body height has traditionally been looked upon as a mirror of the condition of society, short height being an indicator of poor nutritional status, poor education, and low social status and income. This view has recently been questioned. We aimed to quantify the effects of nutrition, education, sibship size, and household income, factors that are conventionally considered to be related to child growth, on body height of children and adolescents raised under urban Indian conditions. Sample and methods: We re-analyzed several anthropometric measurements and questionnaires with questions on sibship size, fathers' and mother's education, and monthly family expenditure, from two cross-sectional growth studies performed in Kolkata, India...
March 15, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Ramadhani Kigume, Stephen Maluka, Peter Kamuzora
While decentralisation of health systems has been on the policy agenda in low-income and middle-income countries since the 1970s, many studies have focused on understanding who has more decision-making powers but less attention is paid to understand what those powers encompass. Using the decision space approach, this study aimed to understand the amount of decision-making space transferred from the central government to institutions at the periphery in the decentralised health system in Tanzania. The findings of this study indicated that the decentralisation process in Tanzania has provided authorities with a range of decision-making space...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Martin Dlouhý
The existence of geographic differences in health resources, health expenditures, the utilization of health services, and health outcomes have been documented by a lot of studies from various countries of the world. In a publicly financed health system, equal access is one of the main objectives of the national health policy. That is why inequalities in the geographic allocation of health resources are an important health policy issue. Measures of inequality express the complexity of variation in the observed variable by a single number, and there is a variety of inequality measures available...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Monica Taylor, Elizabeth F Nagle, Fredric L Goss, Elaine N Rubinstein, Andrew Simonson
Monitoring an athlete's energy intake and energy expenditure (EE) is an important consideration of nutritional planning for sport conditioning and peak performance. In order to provide appropriate recommendations regarding nutritional requirements and caloric needs, an accurate determination of energy requirements is necessary. By knowing an individual's EE, a coach, athletic performance staff or trainer can effectively determine training loads and volumes necessary for periodization and seasonal planning for a particular sport...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Jennifer A Bunn, James W Navalta, Charles J Fountaine, Joel D Reece
Wearable physical activity trackers are a popular and useful method to collect biometric information at rest and during exercise. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize recent findings of wearable devices for biometric information related to steps, heart rate, and caloric expenditure for several devices that hold a large portion of the market share. Searches were conducted in both PubMed and SPORTdiscus. Filters included: humans, within the last 5 years, English, full-text, and adult 19+ years...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
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