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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156635/is-school-type-associated-with-objectively-measured-physical-activity-in-15-year-olds
#1
Lovro Štefan, Maroje Sorić, Antonela Devrnja, Hrvoje Podnar, Marjeta Mišigoj-Duraković
The main aims of this study were: (1) to determine the objectively assessed physical activity (PA) patterns in urban 15-year-old male and female adolescents according to school type and (2) to assess the differences in PA between school days and weekend days. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 187 secondary-school male and female adolescents (61.4% females) attending grammar and vocational schools. Patterns of PA were objectively evaluated using a multi-sensor body monitor for 5 consecutive days...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156432/the-effects-of-human-drugs-in-corbicula-fluminea-assessment-of-neurotoxicity-inflammation-gametogenic-activity-and-energy-status
#2
G V Aguirre-Martínez, C André, F Gagné, L M Martín-Díaz
The constant release of pharmaceuticals products to aquatic environment even at low concentrations (ng L(-1) to µg L(-1)) could lead to unknown chronic effects to non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate neurotoxic responses, inflammation, gametogenic activity and energy status on the fresh water clam C. fluminea after exposure to different concentrations of caffeine (CAF), ibuprofen (IBU), carbamazepine (CBZ), novobiocin (NOV) and tamoxifen (TMX) for 21 days under laboratory conditions...
November 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156054/hospice-care-cancer-directed-therapy-and-medicare-expenditures-among-older-patients-dying-with-malignant-brain-tumors
#3
Laura L Dover, Caleb R Dulaney, Courtney P Williams, John B Fiveash, Bradford E Jackson, Paula P Warren, Elizabeth A Kvale, D Hunter Boggs, Gabrielle B Rocque
Background: End-of-life care for older adults with malignant brain tumors is poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to quantify end-of-life utilization of hospice care, cancer-directed therapy, and associated Medicare expenditures among older adults with malignant brain tumors. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included deceased Medicare beneficiaries age ≥65 with primary (PMBT) or secondary (SMBT) malignant brain tumor receiving care within a Southeastern cancer community network including academic and community hospitals from 2012-2015...
November 15, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155990/a-systematic-review-of-interventions-and-performance-measures-for-antifungal-stewardship-programmes
#4
A L Bienvenu, L Argaud, F Aubrun, J L Fellahi, C Guerin, E Javouhey, V Piriou, T Rimmele, C Chidiac, G Leboucher
Objectives: Antifungal resistance is a significant and emerging threat. Stewardship programmes (SPs) have been proposed as an opportunity to optimize antifungal use. While examples of antifungal SP implementation have been recently described, there is yet to be an overview of interventions and their impacts on performance measures. Methods: We systematically reviewed published articles using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses check-list 2009...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155839/performance-of-thigh-mounted-triaxial-accelerometer-algorithms-in-objective-quantification-of-sedentary-behaviour-and-physical-activity-in-older-adults
#5
Jorgen A Wullems, Sabine M P Verschueren, Hans Degens, Christopher I Morse, Gladys L Onambélé
Accurate monitoring of sedentary behaviour and physical activity is key to investigate their exact role in healthy ageing. To date, accelerometers using cut-off point models are most preferred for this, however, machine learning seems a highly promising future alternative. Hence, the current study compared between cut-off point and machine learning algorithms, for optimal quantification of sedentary behaviour and physical activity intensities in the elderly. Thus, in a heterogeneous sample of forty participants (aged ≥60 years, 50% female) energy expenditure during laboratory-based activities (ranging from sedentary behaviour through to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) was estimated by indirect calorimetry, whilst wearing triaxial thigh-mounted accelerometers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155288/investigation-of-the-practices-legislation-supply-chain-and-regulation-of-opioids-for-clinical-pain-management-in-southern-africa-a-multi-sectoral-cross-national-mixed-methods-study
#6
Eve Namisango, Matthew J Allsop, Richard A Powell, Stefan J Friedrichsdorf, Emmanuel Bk Luyirika, Fatia Kiyange, Edward Mukooza, Chris Ntege, Eunice Garanganga, Mavis Ntombifuthi Ginindza-Mdluli, Faith Mwangi-Powell, Lidia Justino Mondlane, Richard Harding
CONTEXT: Sub-Saharan Africa faces an increasing incidence and prevalence of life-limiting and life-threatening conditions. These conditions are associated with a significant burden of pain linked to high morbidity and disability that is poorly assessed and undertreated. Barriers to effective pain management partly relate to lack of access to opioid analgesia and challenges in their administration. OBJECTIVES: To identify country-specific and broader regional barriers to access, as well as the administration of opioids, and generate recommendations for advancing pain management in Southern Africa...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155136/adipose-tissue-and-reproductive-health
#7
REVIEW
Hannah Mathew, V Daniel Castracane, Christos Mantzoros
The understanding of adipose tissue role has evolved from that of a depot energy storage organ to a dynamic endocrine organ. While genetics, sexual phenotype and sex steroids can impact the mass and distribution of adipose tissue, there is a counter-influence of white adipocytes on reproduction. This primarily occurs via the secretion of adipokines, the most studied of which- leptin and adiponectin- are highlighted in this article. Leptin, the "satiety hormone" primarily acts on the hypothalamus via pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) NPY neurons to translate acute changes in nutrition and energy expenditure, as well as chronic adipose accumulation into changes in appetite and potentially mediate insulin resistance via shared pathway and notably impacting reproductive health via influence on GnRH secreting neurons...
November 16, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155135/exercise-induced-browning-of-adipose-tissues
#8
REVIEW
Peter Aldiss, James Betts, Craig Sale, Mark Pope, Michael E Symonds
Global rates of obesity continue to rise and are necessarily the consequence of a long-term imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. This is the result of an expansion of adipose tissue due to both the hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and hyperplasia of adipocyte pre-cursors. Exercise elicits numerous physiological benefits on adipose tissue, which are likely to contribute to the associated cardiometabolic benefits. More recently it has been demonstrated that exercise, through a range of mechanisms, induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue from energy storing white adipocytes to thermogenic beige adipocytes...
November 16, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154182/impact-of-ill-health-on-household-consumption-in-sri-lanka-evidence-from-household-survey-data
#9
Ajantha Sisira Kumara, Ramanie Samaratunge
With significant increases in chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in recent years, Sri Lanka has witnessed a growing trend of increased out-of-pocket payments for healthcare, imposing a severe burden on household budgets. This is exacerbated by limited government health funding and inadequate financial security from formal social security. We examine the association of NCD-prevalence and healthcare utilization with household consumption, using the most recent Sri Lanka Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2012/2013...
November 11, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153170/a-100-year-review-stress-physiology-including-heat-stress
#10
R J Collier, B J Renquist, Y Xiao
Stress is an external event or condition that places a strain on a biological system. The animal response to a stress involves the expenditure of energy to remove or reduce the impact of the stress. This increases maintenance requirements of the animal and results in loss of production. The biological response to stress is divided into acute and chronic phases, with the acute phase lasting hours to a few days and the chronic phase lasting several days to weeks. The acute response is driven by homeostatic regulators of the nervous and endocrine systems and the chronic phase by homeorhetic regulators of the endocrine system...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153120/medical-expenditures-associated-with-diabetes-in-myocardial-infarction-and-ischemic-stroke-patients
#11
Xilin Zhou, Sundar S Shrestha, Elizabeth Luman, Guijing Wang, Ping Zhang
INTRODUCTION: The coexistence of diabetes among people with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is common. However, little is known about the extent of excess medical expenditures associated with having diabetes among AMI and AIS patients. METHODS: Data on 3,307 AMI patients and 2,460 AIS patients aged ≥18 years from the 2008 to 2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were analyzed. Per capita annual medical expenditures associated with diabetes were separately estimated by healthcare components with generalized linear models and two-part models...
December 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153119/annual-total-medical-expenditures-associated-with-hypertension-by-diabetes-status-in-u-s-adults
#12
Guijing Wang, Xilin Zhou, Xiaohui Zhuo, Ping Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension and diabetes, both independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease, often coexist. The hypertension-increased medical expenditures by diabetes status is unclear, however. This study estimated annual total medical expenditures in U.S. adults by hypertension and diabetes status. METHODS: The study population consisted of 40,746 civilian, non-institutionalized adults aged ≥18 years who participated in the 2013 or 2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey...
December 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153118/comorbidity-status-and-annual-total-medical-expenditures-in-u-s-hypertensive-adults
#13
Chanhyun Park, Jing Fang, Nikki A Hawkins, Guijing Wang
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to investigate comorbidity status and its impact on total medical expenditures in non-institutionalized hypertensive adults in the U.S. METHODS: Data from the 2011-2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were used. Patients were included if they had a diagnosis code for hypertension, were aged ≥18 years, and were not pregnant during the study period (N=26,049). The Elixhauser Comorbidity Index was modified to add hypertension-related comorbidities...
December 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153117/medical-expenditures-associated-with-hypertension-in-the-u-s-2000-2013
#14
Donglan Zhang, Guijing Wang, Ping Zhang, Jing Fang, Carma Ayala
INTRODUCTION: Trends of prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension have been documented in the U.S., but changes in medical expenditures associated with hypertension over time have not been evaluated. This study analyzed these expenditures during 2000-2013 among U.S. adults. METHODS: Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were analyzed in 2016. The study population was non-institutionalized men and non-pregnant women aged ≥18 years. Hypertension was defined as ever been diagnosed with hypertension or currently taking antihypertensive medications...
December 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152884/economic-impacts-of-avian-influenza-outbreaks-in-kerala-india
#15
G Govindaraj, R Sridevi, S N Nandakumar, R Vineet, P Rajeev, M K Binu, V Balamurugan, H Rahman
This study assessed the short-run impact to poultry farmers, duck hatcheries, control costs, compensation paid to stakeholders (transfer payments) and market reactions on own and substitute product prices and backwater tourism (boat operators) due to avian influenza (AI) outbreaks in Kuttanad region of Kerala, India, during 2014. The primary data from 91 poultry farms (duck farms, broiler chicken and backyard poultry), four hatcheries and 90 backwater boat owners were collected through pre-tested schedules...
November 19, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152551/bladder-cancer-recovery-pathways-a-systematic-review
#16
Ian Maloney, Daniel C Parker, Michael S Cookson, Sanjay Patel
Background: Enhanced recovery pathways, also known as fast-track protocols, have been adopted since the early 2000s by various surgical specialties with the goal of improving patient outcomes and reducing the cost burden of major surgery on the health care system. Objective: To review the scientific literature on the origin of enhanced recovery pathways, track the contemporary utilization of such practices for patients undergoing radical cystectomy, and analyze the available data regarding their effect on morbidity, mortality, and treatment cost...
October 27, 2017: Bladder Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152137/emodin-and-rhein-decrease-levels-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-in-human-pancreatic-cancer-cells-and-attenuate-cancer-cachexia-in-athymic-mice-carrying-these-cells
#17
Lijuan Hu, Rui Cui, Hongyi Liu, Feng Wang
The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) consists of oxygen-sensitive HIF-1α and constitutive HIF-1β. HIF-1α is undetectable in normal cells, but cancer cells frequently express HIF-1α to support their growth, angiogenesis, and high glycolysis (also known as the Warburg effect). The Warburg effect in cancer cells increases energy expenditure and thus participates in cancer-induced metabolic disorder, cancer cachexia. In the present study, we investigated whether two components of Rheum palmatum, emodin and rhein, inhibited HIF-1α expression in human pancreatic cancer cells and whether the inhibiting effect, if any, attenuated cancer cachexia...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151980/synbiotic-effects-of-%C3%AE-glucans-from-cauliflower-mushroom-and-lactobacillus-fermentum-on-metabolic-changes-and-gut-microbiome-in-estrogen-deficient-rats
#18
Seong-Yeop Jeong, Suna Kang, Cao Shi Hua, Zhang Ting, Sunmin Park
Background: We investigated whether the long-term consumption of a symbiotic formulation with Lactobacillus fermentum (probiotic) and β-glucan from cauliflower mushroom (prebiotic) would delay the progression of post-menopausal symptoms in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and explored their mechanisms of action, including changes in gut microbiota. Methods: OVX rats were fed with high-fat diets containing 1% dextrin (control), 1% lyophilized cauliflower mushroom extract (CFM), 0...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151667/searching-for-the-golden-model-of-education-cross-national-analysis-of-math-achievement
#19
Katerina Bodovski, Soo-Yong Byun, Volha Chykina, Hee Jin Chung
We utilized four waves of TIMSS data in addition to the information we have collected on countries' educational systems to examine whether different degrees of standardization, differentiation, proportion of students in private schools and governmental spending on education influence students' math achievement, its variation and socioeconomic status (SES) gaps in math achievement. Findings: A higher level of standardization of educational systems was associated with higher average math achievement. Greater expenditure on education (as % of total government expenditure) was associated with a lower level of dispersion of math achievement and smaller SES gaps in math achievement...
2017: Compare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151427/-precision-nutrition-for-intensive-care-patients
#20
Guizhen Xiao, Jun Li, Lei Su
Nutritional treatment of intensive care patients may require an accurate, effective and personalized approach in the future. Using nutritional risk assessment to guide nutritional treatment, factors including timing, energy expenditure and goal, pathway and dosage should be considered. Through testing the individual nutritional molecular markers, the benefits and risks can be evaluated. So nutritional therapy can enhance the nutritional and metabolic status of intensive care patients, and improve clinical outcomes...
November 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
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