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Microbiome catheters

Liliana Simões-Silva, Ricardo Araujo, Manuel Pestana, Isabel Soares-Silva, Benedita Sampaio-Maia
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an imbalanced human microbiome due not only to CKD-associated factors such as uremia, increased inflammation and immunosuppression, but also to pharmacological therapies and dietary restrictions. End-stage renal disease patients require renal replacement therapies commonly in the form of hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). HD implies the existence of a vascular access, such as an arteriovenous fistula/graft or a venous catheter, whereas PD implies a long-term peritoneal catheter and the constant inflow of peritoneal dialysate...
April 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Todd A Linsenmeyer
This review is based on the author's Donald Munro Lecture given at the annual conference of the Academy of Spinal Cord Injury Professionals in New Orleans, LA. Indwelling catheters play an important role in bladder management following SCI for many individuals with neurogenic bladders. There is an increased risk of UTI compared to other types of bladder management with indwelling urethral catheters but not SP catheters. To minimize the risk of symptomatic UTI, the following steps are essential: prevent bladder wall distention and resulting ischemia, maintain colonization with "good" bacteria, and prevent bladder stones...
March 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Laetitia Bossa, Kimberly Kline, Diane McDougald, Bonsan Bonne Lee, Scott A Rice
The use of long-term catheterisation to manage insensate bladders, often associated with spinal cord injury (SCI), increases the risk of microbial colonisation and infection of the urinary tract. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is typically diagnosed and treated based on the culturing of organisms from the urine, although this approach overlooks low titer, slow growing and non-traditional pathogens. Here, we present an investigation of the urinary tract microbiome in catheterised SCI individuals, using T-RFLP and metagenomic sequencing of the microbial community...
2017: PloS One
Christopher Duncan, Gregory J Nadolski, Terence Gade, Stephen Hunt
INTRODUCTION: Lung parenchymal abscesses represent an uncommon pathology with high mortality if untreated. Although most respond well to antibiotics, the optimal therapy for persistent abscesses is unknown. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of percutaneous lung parenchymal abscess catheter drainage after broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy failure and correlate with patient microbiologic samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of patients who underwent percutaneous lung abscess drainage at a tertiary hospital system from 2005 to 2015 was performed...
June 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Andreia S Azevedo, Carina Almeida, Luís F Melo, Nuno F Azevedo
Recent reports have demonstrated that most biofilms involved in catheter-associated urinary tract infections are polymicrobial communities, with pathogenic microorganisms (e.g. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and uncommon microorganisms (e.g. Delftia tsuruhatensis, Achromobacter xylosoxidans) frequently co-inhabiting the same urinary catheter. However, little is known about the interactions that occur between different microorganisms and how they impact biofilm formation and infection outcome...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Lisa Karstens, Mark Asquith, Sean Davin, Patrick Stauffer, Damien Fair, W Thomas Gregory, James T Rosenbaum, Shannon K McWeeney, Rahel Nardos
OBJECTIVES: Traditionally, the urinary tract has been thought to be sterile in the absence of a clinically identifiable infection. However, recent evidence suggests that the urinary tract harbors a variety of bacterial species, known collectively as the urinary microbiome, even when clinical cultures are negative. Whether these bacteria promote urinary health or contribute to urinary tract disease remains unknown. Emerging evidence indicates that a shift in the urinary microbiome may play an important role in urgency urinary incontinence (UUI)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Christos Rammos, Ulrike B Hendgen-Cotta, Matthias Totzeck, Julia Pohl, Peter Lüdike, Ulrich Flögel, René Deenen, Karl Köhrer, Brent A French, Axel Gödecke, Malte Kelm, Tienush Rassaf
AIMS: Diastolic dysfunction is highly prevalent, and ageing is the main contributor due to impairments in active cardiac relaxation, ventriculo-vascular stiffening, and endothelial dysfunction. Nitric oxide (NO) affects cardiovascular functions, and NO bioavailability is critically reduced with ageing. Whether replenishment of NO deficiency with dietary inorganic nitrate would offer a novel approach to reverse age-related cardiovascular alterations was not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: A dietary nitrate supplementation was applied to young (6 month) and old (20 month) wild-type mice for 8 weeks and compared with controls...
June 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
J M Franasiak, M D Werner, C R Juneau, X Tao, J Landis, Y Zhan, N R Treff, R T Scott
PURPOSE: Characterization of the human microbiome has become more precise with the application of powerful molecular tools utilizing the unique 16S ribosomal subunit's hypervariable regions to greatly increase sensitivity. The microbiome of the lower genital tract can prognosticate obstetrical outcome while the upper reproductive tract remains poorly characterized. Here, the endometrial microbiome at the time of single embryo transfer (SET) is characterized by reproductive outcome. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing euploid, SET was included in the analysis...
January 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Laurent Kaiser, Stéphane Emonet, Angela Huttner, Pauline Vetter, Laurence Toutous Trellu, Pablo Uriel Valladares Bickel, Thanh Lecompte
Chikungunya's phenomenal dissemination imposes now infection suspicion when returning from endemic areas. Colorectal cancer screening may be dependent of the microbiome. Even a small amount of E. coli in catheter sampled urine is predictive for a urinary infection. Prevention of pharyngitis suppurated late complications doesn't justify systematic antimicrobial therapy. A bitherapy is probably better for severe community acquired pneumonias. Due to epidemiology and resistances, management of gonorrhoea has changed...
January 14, 2015: Revue Médicale Suisse
Meghan M Pearce, Evann E Hilt, Amy B Rosenfeld, Michael J Zilliox, Krystal Thomas-White, Cynthia Fok, Stephanie Kliethermes, Paul C Schreckenberger, Linda Brubaker, Xiaowu Gai, Alan J Wolfe
Bacterial DNA and live bacteria have been detected in human urine in the absence of clinical infection, challenging the prevailing dogma that urine is normally sterile. Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is a poorly understood urinary condition characterized by symptoms that overlap urinary infection, including urinary urgency and increased frequency with urinary incontinence. The recent discovery of the urinary microbiome warrants investigation into whether bacteria contribute to UUI. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to classify bacterial DNA and expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) techniques to isolate live bacteria in urine collected by using a transurethral catheter from women with UUI and, in comparison, a cohort without UUI...
July 8, 2014: MBio
Tamaki Cho, Jun-Ichi Nagao, Rieko Imayoshi, Yoshihiko Tanaka
Taking advantage of high-throughput technologies, deep sequencing of the human microbiome has revealed commensal bacteria independent of the ability to culture them. The composition of the commensal microbiome is dependent on bacterial diversity and the state of the host regulated by the immune system. Candida species are well known as components of the commensal oral microbiota. Candida species frequently colonize and develop biofilms on medical devices like dentures and catheters. Therefore, Candida biofilm on dentures leads to a decrease in the bacterial diversity and then to a change in the composition of the oral microbiota...
2014: International Journal of Dentistry
Stig Bengmark
About 25 million individuals undergo high risk surgery each year. Of these about 3 million will never return home from hospital, and the quality of life for many of those who return is often significantly impaired. Furthermore, many of those who manage to leave hospital have undergone severe life-threatening complications, mostly infections/sepsis. The development is strongly associated with the level of systemic inflammation in the body, which again is entirely a result of malfunctioning GI microbiota, a condition called dysbiosis, with deranged composition and function of the gastrointestinal microbiota from the mouth to the anus and impaired ability to maintain intact mucosal membrane functions and prevent leakage of toxins-bacterial endotoxins and whole or debris of bacteria, but also foods containing proteotoxins gluten, casein and zein and heat-induced molecules such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs)...
December 2012: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
Ido Sirota, Shvetha M Zarek, James H Segars
Although an altered vaginal microbiota has been demonstrated to affect parturition, its role in assisted reproductive technologies is uncertain. Nevertheless, the effect of known pathogens such as Mycoplasma tuberculosis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is clear, causing subclinical changes thought to be risk factors in subfertility. The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) has allowed for metagenomic studies to aid in characterizing normal vaginal flora. Recent findings from the HMP demonstrate that many different species of Lactobacillus are present in the vaginal tract, with a few that predominate...
January 2014: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Elizabeth Perez, Margaret Williams, Jesse T Jacob, Mary Dent Reyes, Sheri Chernetsky Tejedor, James P Steinberg, Lori Rowe, Satishkumar Ranganathan Ganakammal, Shankar Changayil, M Ryan Weil, Rodney M Donlan
Microorganisms may colonize needleless connectors (NCs) on intravascular catheters, forming biofilms and predisposing patients to catheter-associated infection (CAI). Standard and silver-coated NCs were collected from catheterized intensive care unit patients to characterize biofilm formation using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods and to investigate the associations between NC usage and biofilm characteristics. Viable microorganisms were detected by plate counts from 46% of standard NCs and 59% of silver-coated NCs (P=0...
March 2014: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Diane O Inglis, Gavin Sherlock
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause disseminated infection in patients with indwelling catheters or other implanted medical devices. A common resident of the human microbiome, C. albicans responds to environmental signals, such as cell contact with catheter materials and exposure to serum or CO2, by triggering the expression of a variety of traits, some of which are known to contribute to its pathogenic lifestyle. Such traits include adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, white-to-opaque (W-O) switching, and two recently described phenotypes, finger and tentacle formation...
October 2013: Eukaryotic Cell
Kristi L Frank, Pascale S Guiton, Aaron M T Barnes, Dawn A Manias, Olivia N Chuang-Smith, Petra L Kohler, Adam R Spaulding, Scott J Hultgren, Patrick M Schlievert, Gary M Dunny
Enterococcus faecalis is part of the human intestinal microbiome and is a prominent cause of health care-associated infections. The pathogenesis of many E. faecalis infections, including endocarditis and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), is related to the ability of clinical isolates to form biofilms. To identify chromosomal genetic determinants responsible for E. faecalis biofilm-mediated infection, we used a rabbit model of endocarditis to test strains with transposon insertions or in-frame deletions in biofilm-associated loci: ahrC, argR, atlA, opuBC, pyrC, recN, and sepF...
May 2013: Infection and Immunity
Stig Bengmark
Health care-induced diseases constitute a fast-increasing problem. Just one type of these health care-associated infections (HCAI) constitutes the fourth leading cause of death in Western countries. About 25 million individuals worldwide are estimated each year to undergo major surgery, of which approximately 3 million will never return home from the hospital. Furthermore, the quality of life is reported to be significantly impaired for the rest of the lives of those who, during their hospital stay, suffered life-threatening infections/sepsis...
January 2013: Nutrients
Derrick E Fouts, Rembert Pieper, Sebastian Szpakowski, Hans Pohl, Susan Knoblach, Moo-Jin Suh, Shih-Ting Huang, Inger Ljungberg, Bruce M Sprague, Sarah K Lucas, Manolito Torralba, Karen E Nelson, Suzanne L Groah
BACKGROUND: Clinical dogma is that healthy urine is sterile and the presence of bacteria with an inflammatory response is indicative of urinary tract infection (UTI). Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) represents the state in which bacteria are present but the inflammatory response is negligible. Differentiating ABU from UTI is diagnostically challenging, but critical because overtreatment of ABU can perpetuate antimicrobial resistance while undertreatment of UTI can result in increased morbidity and mortality...
2012: Journal of Translational Medicine
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