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Microbiome infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340588/antimicrobial-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carriage-and-infection-in-specialized-geriatric-care-wards-linked-to-acquisition-in-the-referring-hospital
#1
Claire L Gorrie, Mirjana Mirceta, Ryan R Wick, Louise M Judd, Kelly L Wyres, Nicholas R Thomson, Richard A Strugnell, Nigel F Pratt, Jill S Garlick, Kerrie M Watson, Peter C Hunter, Steve A McGloughlin, Denis W Spelman, Adam W J Jenney, Kathryn E Holt
Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a leading cause of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing hospital-associated infections, for which elderly patients are at increased risk. Methods: We conducted a 1-year prospective cohort study, in which a third of patients admitted to two geriatric wards in a specialized hospital were recruited and screened for carriage of K. pneumoniae by microbiological culture. Clinical isolates were monitored via the hospital laboratory...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330010/nasopharyngeal-lactobacillus-is-associated-with-childhood-wheezing-illnesses-following-acute-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-infancy
#2
Christian Rosas-Salazar, Meghan H Shilts, Andrey Tovchigrechko, Seth Schobel, James D Chappell, Emma K Larkin, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Rebecca A Halpin, Karen E Nelson, Martin L Moore, Larry J Anderson, R Stokes Peebles, Suman R Das, Tina V Hartert
BACKGROUND: Early-life acute respiratory infection (ARI) with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been strongly associated with the development of childhood wheezing illnesses, but the pathways underlying this association are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of the nasopharyngeal microbiome in the development of childhood wheezing illnesses following RSV ARI in infancy. METHODS: We conducted a nested cohort study of 118 previously healthy, term infants with confirmed RSV ARI by RT-PCR...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329700/-a-listeria-breast-abscess-in-a-man
#3
E Marsaudon, J Berthy, S Mamoune, A Deniel, S Ksiyer, D Tiuca
INTRODUCTION: Listeriosis is a food-borne illness leading to bacteriemia or central nervous system infection especially in pregnant women or high-risk patients. It is rarely a localized infection. Breast contamination has rarely been reported in lactating women. We report a breast abscess in man. CASE REPORT: A 80 year old man, hypertensive and arrhythmic, was explored for weakness and dehydration. Type 2 diabetes and chronic lymphocytic leukemia were diagnosed...
January 9, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329346/evaluation-of-bloodstream-infections-clostridium-difficile-infections-and-gut-microbiota-in-pediatric-oncology-patients
#4
Bryan T Nycz, Samuel R Dominguez, Deborah Friedman, Joanne M Hilden, Diana Ir, Charles E Robertson, Daniel N Frank
Bloodstream infections (BSI) and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in pediatric oncology/hematology/bone marrow transplant (BMT) populations are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to explore possible associations between altered microbiome composition and the occurrence of BSI and CDI in a cohort of pediatric oncology patients. Stool samples were collected from all patients admitted to the pediatric oncology floor from Oct.-Dec. 2012. Bacterial profiles from patient stools were determined by bacterial 16S rRNA gene profiling...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325581/haemophilus-is-overrepresented-in-the-nasopharynx-of-infants-hospitalized-with-rsv-infection-and-associated-with-increased-viral-load-and-enhanced-mucosal-cxcl8-responses
#5
Thomas H A Ederveen, Gerben Ferwerda, Inge M Ahout, Marloes Vissers, Ronald de Groot, Jos Boekhorst, Harro M Timmerman, Martijn A Huynen, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Marien I de Jonge
BACKGROUND: While almost all infants are infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) before the age of 2 years, only a small percentage develops severe disease. Previous studies suggest that the nasopharyngeal microbiome affects disease development. We therefore studied the effect of the nasopharyngeal microbiome on viral load and mucosal cytokine responses, two important factors influencing the pathophysiology of RSV disease. To determine the relation between (i) the microbiome of the upper respiratory tract, (ii) viral load, and (iii) host mucosal inflammation during an RSV infection, nasopharyngeal microbiota profiles of RSV infected infants (< 6 months) with different levels of disease severity and age-matched healthy controls were determined by 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing...
January 11, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323625/catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-in-persons-with-neurogenic-bladders
#6
Todd A Linsenmeyer
This review is based on the author's Donald Munro Lecture given at the annual conference of the Academy of Spinal Cord Injury Professionals in New Orleans, LA. Indwelling catheters play an important role in bladder management following SCI for many individuals with neurogenic bladders. There is an increased risk of UTI compared to other types of bladder management with indwelling urethral catheters but not SP catheters. To minimize the risk of symptomatic UTI, the following steps are essential: prevent bladder wall distention and resulting ischemia, maintain colonization with "good" bacteria, and prevent bladder stones...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321635/pan-genome-analysis-of-the-genus-finegoldia-identifies-two-distinct-clades-strain-specific-heterogeneity-and-putative-virulence-factors
#7
Holger Brüggemann, Anders Jensen, Seven Nazipi, Hüsnü Aslan, Rikke Louise Meyer, Anja Poehlein, Elzbieta Brzuszkiewicz, Munir A Al-Zeer, Volker Brinkmann, Bo Söderquist
Finegoldia magna, a Gram-positive anaerobic coccus, is an opportunistic pathogen, associated with medical device-related infections. F. magna is the only described species of the genus Finegoldia. We report the analysis of 17 genomes of Finegoldia isolates. Phylogenomic analyses showed that the Finegoldia population can be divided into two distinct clades, with an average nucleotide identity of 90.7%. One clade contains strains of F. magna, whereas the other clade includes more heterogeneous strains, hereafter tentatively named "Finegoldia nericia"...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316555/intestinal-dysbiosis-secondary-to-proton-pump-inhibitor-use
#8
Yuji Naito, Kaori Kashiwagi, Tomohisa Takagi, Akira Andoh, Ryo Inoue
BACKGROUND: Gut dysbiosis associated with the use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been found to lead to the occurrence of infectious and inflammatory adverse events. A longitudinal observational cohort study has demonstrated the heightened risk of death associated with PPI use. SUMMARY: We evaluated meta-analyses to determine the association between PPI use and infectious and inflammatory diseases. Meta-analyses showed that PPI use is a potential risk for the development of enteric infections caused by Clostridium difficile, as well as small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, community-acquired pneumonia, hepatic encephalopathy, and adverse outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease...
January 6, 2018: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312814/on-revealing-the-gene-targets-of-ebola-virus-micrornas-involved-in-the-human-skin-microbiome
#9
Pei-Chun Hsu, Bin-Hao Chiou, Chun-Ming Huang
Ebola virus, a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus, causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever and has a high mortality rate. Histopathological and immunopathological analyses of Ebola virus have revealed that histopathological changes in skin tissue are associated with various degrees of endothelial cell swelling and necrosis. The interactions of microbes within or on a host are a crucial for the skin immune shield. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) in Ebola virus implies that immune escape, endothelial cell rupture, and tissue dissolution during Ebola virus infection are a result of the effects of Ebola virus miRNAs...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310696/methods-for-detecting-gemmata-spp-bacteremia-in-the-microbiology-laboratory
#10
Jacques-Robert Christen, Edwin Edmond, Michel Drancourt
OBJECTIVE: Gemmata bacteria are fastidious, Gram-negative and aerobic. The only representatives are Gemmata obscuriglobus and Gemmata massiliana. These Planctomycetes appear to be a part of human digestive tract microbiome, and G. massiliana has been isolated from water. Further specific detection in the blood of two patients with febrile neutropenia suggests that Gemmata bacteremia may remain under-documented. The objective of this study was to develop an effective protocol to document Gemmata spp...
January 8, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297702/group-b-wolbachia-strain-dependent-inhibition-of-arboviruses
#11
Michaela J Schultz, John H Connor, Horacio M Frydman
Mosquito-borne viruses, including Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV), are global threats that continue to infect millions annually. Historically, efforts to combat the spread of these diseases have sought to eradicate the mosquito population. This has had limited success. Recent efforts to combat the spread of these diseases have targeted the mosquito population and the mosquito's ability to transmit viruses by altering the mosquito's microbiome. The introduction of particular strains of Wolbachia bacteria into mosquitos suppresses viral growth and blocks disease transmission...
January 3, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290328/human-intestinal-microbiota-interaction-between-parasites-and-the-host-immune-response
#12
REVIEW
Oswaldo Partida-Rodríguez, Angélica Serrano-Vázquez, Miriam E Nieves-Ramírez, Patricia Moran, Liliana Rojas, Tobias Portillo, Enrique González, Eric Hernández, B Brett Finlay, Cecilia Ximenez
The human gut is a highly complex ecosystem with an extensive microbial community, and the influence of the intestinal microbiota reaches the entire host organism. For example, the microbiome regulates fat storage, stimulates or renews epithelial cells, and influences the development and maturation of the brain and the immune system. Intestinal microbes can protect against infection by pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Hence, the maintenance of homeostasis between the gut microbiota and the rest of the body is crucial for health, with dysbiosis affecting disease...
December 28, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282153/under-control-how-a-dietary-additive-can-restore-the-gut-microbiome-and-proteomic-profile-and-improve-disease-resilience-in-a-marine-teleostean-fish-fed-vegetable-diets
#13
María Carla Piazzon, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Belén Fouz, Itziar Estensoro, Paula Simó-Mirabet, Mónica Puyalto, Vasileios Karalazos, Oswaldo Palenzuela, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: The constant increase of aquaculture production and wealthy seafood consumption has forced the industry to explore alternative and more sustainable raw aquafeed materials, and plant ingredients have been used to replace marine feedstuffs in many farmed fish. The objective of the present study was to assess whether plant-based diets can induce changes in the intestinal mucus proteome, gut autochthonous microbiota and disease susceptibility of fish, and whether these changes could be reversed by the addition of sodium butyrate to the diets...
December 28, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282143/azithromycin-versus-placebo-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-associated-chronic-lung-disease-in-children-and-adolescents-breathe-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Carmen Gonzalez-Martinez, Katharina Kranzer, Grace McHugh, Elizabeth L Corbett, Hilda Mujuru, Mark P Nicol, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Andrea M Rehman, Tore J Gutteberg, Trond Flaegstad, Jon O Odland, Rashida A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related chronic lung disease (CLD) among children is associated with substantial morbidity, despite antiretroviral therapy. This may be a consequence of repeated respiratory tract infections and/or dysregulated immune activation that accompanies HIV infection. Macrolides have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, and we hypothesised that azithromycin would reduce decline in lung function and morbidity through preventing respiratory tract infections and controlling systemic inflammation...
December 28, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281632/the-vaginal-microbiome-and-sexually-transmitted-infections-are-interlinked-consequences-for-treatment-and-prevention
#15
Janneke H H M van de Wijgert
In a Perspective for our Collection on STI research, Janneke van de Wijgert discusses the latest on how the vaginal microbiota predisposes women to acquisition of STIs and discusses future potential for clinical intervention.
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280095/the-efficacy-of-tetrasodium-edta-on-biofilms
#16
S L Percival, A-M Salisbury
The aetiology of delayed wound healing characteristic of a chronic wound is relatively unknown but is thought to be due to a combination of the patient's underlying pathophysiology and external factors including infection and biofilm formation. The invasion of the wound by the hosts' resident microbiome and exogenous microorganisms can lead to biofilm formation. Biofilms have increased tolerance to antimicrobial interventions and constitute a concern to chronic wound healing. Consequently, anti-biofilm technologies with proven efficacy in areas outside of wound care need evaluation to determine whether their efficacy could be relevant to the control of biofilms in wounds...
December 27, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279185/mechanistic-insights-into-the-protective-impact-of-zinc-on-sepsis
#17
REVIEW
Jolien Souffriau, Claude Libert
Sepsis, a systemic inflammation as a response to a bacterial infection, is a huge unmet medical need. Data accumulated over the last decade suggest that the nutritional status of patients as well as composition of their gut microbiome, are strongly linked with the risk to develop sepsis, the severity of the disease and prognosis. In particular, the essential micronutrient zinc is essential in the resistance against sepsis and has shown to be protective in animal models as well as in human patients. The potential mechanisms by which zinc protects in sepsis are discussed in this review paper: we will focus on the inflammatory response, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, immune response, oxidative stress and modulation of the microbiome...
December 22, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276774/effect-of-environmental-factors-and-an-emerging-parasitic-disease-on-gut-microbiome-of-wild-salmonid-fish
#18
Anti Vasemägi, Marko Visse, Veljo Kisand
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of fish supports a dynamic microbial ecosystem that is intimately linked to host nutrient acquisition, epithelial development, immune system priming, and disease prevention, and we are far from understanding the complex interactions among parasites, symbiotic gut bacteria, and host fitness. Here, we analyzed the effects of environmental factors and parasitic burdens on the microbial composition and diversity within the GIT of the brown trout (Salmo trutta). We focused on the emerging dangerous salmonid myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which causes proliferative kidney disease in salmonid fish, to demonstrate the potential role of GIT micobiomes in the modulation of host-parasite relationships...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276734/stress-the-gut-brain-axis-regulation-by-the-microbiome
#19
REVIEW
Jane A Foster, Linda Rinaman, John F Cryan
The importance of the gut-brain axis in regulating stress-related responses has long been appreciated. More recently, the microbiota has emerged as a key player in the control of this axis, especially during conditions of stress provoked by real or perceived homeostatic challenge. Diet is one of the most important modifying factors of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are slowly being unravelled, and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signaling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism, and microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273643/plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-protect-from-viral-bronchiolitis-and-asthma-through-semaphorin-4a-mediated-t-reg-expansion
#20
Jason P Lynch, Rhiannon B Werder, Zhixuan Loh, Md Al Amin Sikder, Bodie Curren, Vivian Zhang, Matthew J Rogers, Katie Lane, Jennifer Simpson, Stuart B Mazzone, Kirsten Spann, John Hayball, Kerrilyn Diener, Mark L Everard, Christopher C Blyth, Christian Forstner, Paul G Dennis, Nida Murtaza, Mark Morrison, Páraic Ó Cuív, Ping Zhang, Ashraful Haque, Geoffrey R Hill, Peter D Sly, John W Upham, Simon Phipps
Respiratory syncytial virus-bronchiolitis is a major independent risk factor for subsequent asthma, but the causal mechanisms remain obscure. We identified that transient plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) depletion during primary Pneumovirus infection alone predisposed to severe bronchiolitis in early life and subsequent asthma in later life after reinfection. pDC depletion ablated interferon production and increased viral load; however, the heightened immunopathology and susceptibility to subsequent asthma stemmed from a failure to expand functional neuropilin-1+ regulatory T (T reg) cells in the absence of pDC-derived semaphorin 4a (Sema4a)...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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