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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792526/phages-antibiotic-resistance-are-the-most-abundant-entities-on-earth-ready-for-a-comeback
#1
Colin Hill, Susan Mills, Reynolds P Ross
Bacteriophages, which lost out to antibiotic therapy in the past, may be poised to make a comeback. Once discarded because of their narrow activity spectrum, it can now be viewed as a major advantage that these intracellular, self-replicating entities can exert their killing effect with minimal damage to the commensal microbiome. In eastern Europe, phages continue to be used both prophylactically and therapeutically to treat infections. More recently, much needed regulated clinical trials are underway with a view to restoring phage therapy as a tool for mainstream medicine, although current regulations may impede their full potential...
May 24, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792385/an-organotypic-reconstructed-human-urethra-to-study-c-trachomatis-infection
#2
Bart Versteeg, Lenie J van den Broek, Sylvia Bruisten, Margriet Mullender, Henry J C de Vries, Susan Gibbs
Organotypic models to investigate host-microbiome interactions are still a challenge for the field of tissue engineering. This is particularly the case for organs such as the urethra. Several cell line, animal and tissue models are available to study C. trachomatis infections, but none fully reflect natural infection in native human tissue. Therefore, we developed an organotypic reconstructed human urethral model (RhU) to study invasive and non-invasive strains of C. trachomatis. Primary urethra cells were used to reconstruct epithelium on a fibroblast populated collagen-fibrin hydrogel, yielding a RhU...
May 24, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790240/understanding-mucosal-and-microbial-functionality-of-the-female-reproductive-tract-by-metaproteomics-implications-for-hiv-transmission
#3
Alicia R Berard, Michelle Perner, Sarah Mutch, Christina Farr Zuend, Peter McQueen, Adam D Burgener
The mucosal surface of the female genital tract contains physiological, immunological, and microbial components that collectively comprise a functioning "mucosal system" that is critical for reproductive health. Alterations or imbalances to any of these components can have significant consequences for susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections, such as HIV. In recent years the advent of advanced systems biology technologies, such as metaproteomics, has provided new toolsets to studying mucosal systems...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789574/helicobacter-pylori-infected-c57bl-6-mice-with-different-gastrointestinal-microbiota-have-contrasting-gastric-pathology-microbial-and-host-immune-responses
#4
Zhongming Ge, Alexander Sheh, Yan Feng, Sureshkumar Muthupalani, Lili Ge, Chuanwu Wang, Susanna Kurnick, Anthony Mannion, Mark T Whary, James G Fox
C57BL/6 (B6) mice from Taconic Sciences (Tac) and the Jackson Laboratory (Jax) were infected with H. pylori PMSS1 (Hp) for 16 week; there was no significant difference in the gastric histologic activity index between Hp infected Tac and Jax B6. However, the degree of gastric mucous metaplasia and Th1-associated IgG2c levels in response to Hp infection were increased in Tac mice over Jax mice, whereas the colonization levels of gastric Hp were higher by 8-fold in Jax B6 compared with Tac B6. Additionally, mRNA expression of gastric Il-1β, Il-17A and RegIIIγ were significantly lower in the infected Tac compared to the infected Jax mice...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788934/the-lung-microbiome-in-children-with-hiv-bronchiectasis-a-cross-sectional-pilot-study
#5
Refiloe Masekela, Solize Vosloo, Stephanus N Venter, Wilhelm Z de Beer, Robin J Green
BACKGROUND: Data on the lung microbiome in HIV-infected children is limited. The current study sought to determine the lung microbiome in HIV-associated bronchiectasis and to assess its association with pulmonary exacerbations. METHODS: A cross-sectional pilot study of 22 children (68% male; mean age 10.8 years) with HIV-associated bronchiectasis and a control group of 5 children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Thirty-one samples were collected, with 11 during exacerbations...
May 22, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788932/geographic-variation-in-the-aetiology-epidemiology-and-microbiology-of-bronchiectasis
#6
REVIEW
Ravishankar Chandrasekaran, Micheál Mac Aogáin, James D Chalmers, Stuart J Elborn, Sanjay H Chotirmall
Bronchiectasis is a disease associated with chronic progressive and irreversible dilatation of the bronchi and is characterised by chronic infection and associated inflammation. The prevalence of bronchiectasis is age-related and there is some geographical variation in incidence, prevalence and clinical features. Most bronchiectasis is reported to be idiopathic however post-infectious aetiologies dominate across Asia especially secondary to tuberculosis. Most focus to date has been on the study of airway bacteria, both as colonisers and causes of exacerbations...
May 22, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787888/understanding-the-microbiome-of-diabetic-foot-osteomyelitis-insights-from-molecular-and-microscopic-approaches
#7
Khalid Johani, Blain G Fritz, T Bjarnsholt, Benjamin A Lipsky, Slade O Jensen, Mark Yang, Anastasia Dean, H Hu, Karen Vickery, Matthew Malone
OBJECTIVES: Rigorous visual evidence on whether or not biofilms are involved in diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) is lacking. We employed a suite of molecular and microscopic approaches to investigate the microbiome, and phenotypic state of microorganisms involved in DFO. METHODS: In 20 consecutive subjects with suspected DFO, we collected intraoperative bone specimens. To explore the microbial diversity present in infected bone we performed next-generation DNA sequencing...
May 19, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786766/bacterial-dna-detected-on-pathologically-changed-heart-valves-using-16s-rrna-gene-amplification
#8
Miroslava Chalupova, Anna Skalova, Tomas Hajek, Lenka Geigerova, Dana Kralova, Pavel Liska, Hana Hecova, Jiri Molacek, Jaroslav Hrabak
Nowadays, dental diseases are one of the most common illnesses in the world. Some of them can lead to translocation of oral bacteria to the bloodstream causing intermittent bacteraemia. Therefore, a potential association between oral infection and cardiovascular diseases has been discussed in recent years as a result of adhesion of oral microbes to the heart valves. The aim of this study was to detect oral bacteria on pathologically changed heart valves not caused by infective endocarditis. In the study, patients with pathologically changed heart valves were involved...
May 22, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786169/bangladeshi-children-with-acute-diarrhea-show-fecal-microbiomes-with-increased-streptococcus-abundance-irrespective-of-diarrhea-etiology
#9
Silas Kieser, Shafiqul A Sarker, Olga Sakwinska, Francis Foata, Shamima Sultana, Zeenat Khan, Shoheb Islam, Nadine Porta, Séverine Combremont, Bertrand Betrisey, Coralie Fournier, Aline Charpagne, Patrick Descombes, Annick Mercenier, Bernard Berger, Harald Brüssow
We report streptococcal dysbiosis in acute diarrhea irrespective of etiology. Compared to 20 healthy local controls, 71 Bangladeshi children hospitalized with acute diarrhea (AD) of viral, mixed viral/bacterial, bacterial and unknown etiology showed a significantly decreased bacterial diversity with loss of pathways characteristic for the healthy distal colon microbiome (mannan degradation, methylerythritol phosphate and thiamin biosynthesis), an increased proportion of fecal streptococci belonging to the Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius species complexes, and an increased level of E...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781815/lymph-node-fibrosis-a-structural-barrier-to-unleashing-effective-vaccine-immunity
#10
Boris Julg, Galit Alter
There is marked variability in vaccine efficacy among global populations. In particular, individuals in low- to middle-income countries have been shown to be less responsive to vaccines than those from developed nations. Several factors, including endemic infections, nutrition, genetics, and gut microbiome composition, have been proposed to underlie discrepancies in vaccine response. In this issue of the JCI, Kityo et al. evaluated response to yellow fever virus vaccine, inflammation, and lymphatic tissue architecture and fibrosis in three cohorts: two from the U...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780371/comparative-metatranscriptomics-of-wheat-rhizosphere-microbiomes-in-disease-suppressive-and-non-suppressive-soils-for-rhizoctonia-solani-ag8
#11
Helen L Hayden, Keith W Savin, Jenny Wadeson, Vadakattu V S R Gupta, Pauline M Mele
The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG) 8 is a major pathogen of grain crops resulting in substantial production losses. In the absence of resistant cultivars of wheat or barley, a sustainable and enduring method for disease control may lie in the enhancement of biological disease suppression. Evidence of effective biological control of R. solani AG8 through disease suppression has been well documented at our study site in Avon, South Australia. A comparative metatranscriptomic approach was applied to assess the taxonomic and functional characteristics of the rhizosphere microbiome of wheat plants grown in adjacent fields which are suppressive and non-suppressive to the plant pathogen R...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778183/high-genetic-diversity-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-producing-escherichia-coli-in-feces-of-horses
#12
Syndia Sadikalay, Yann Reynaud, Stéphanie Guyomard-Rabenirina, Mélanie Falord, Célia Ducat, Laetitia Fabre, Simon Le Hello, Antoine Talarmin, Séverine Ferdinand
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), especially those of the CTX-M type, represent a major public health problem throughout the world. Although the carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE) in feces of horses is now well recognized, little is known about the diversity of EPE after treatment of horses with antibiotics. We undertook this study to assess and follow the diversity of EP Escherichia coli isolated from horses after antibiotic treatment for an infection. Fecal samples from two horses treated and two that were untreated were tested for the presence of EPE on different days...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777867/antibiotic-exposure-prior-to-respiratory-viral-infection-is-associated-with-progression-to-lower-respiratory-tract-disease-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients
#13
Chikara Ogimi, Elizabeth M Krantz, Jonathan L Golob, Alpana Waghmare, Catherine Liu, Wendy M Leisenring, Christopher R Woodard, Sara Marquis, Jane M Kuypers, Keith R Jerome, Steven A Pergam, David N Fredricks, Mohamed L Sorror, Janet A Englund, Michael Boeckh
INTRODUCTION: Recent publications note an association between antibiotic exposure and respiratory viral infections (RVIs). Antibiotics affect microbiota and impair immune response against RVIs in mice, and low microbiome diversity is associated with pulmonary complications including viral lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. In this study, we examined whether antibiotic exposure was associated with increased risk of disease progression in RVIs post-transplantation...
May 16, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777835/combined-bacteriophages-and-antibiotics-as-an-efficient-therapy-against-vre-enterococcus-faecalis-in-a-mouse-model
#14
Daniel Gelman, Shaul Beyth, Vanda Lerrer, Karen Adler, Ronit Poradosu-Cohen, Shunit Coppenhagen-Glazer, Ronen Hazan
Clinical applications of bacteriophage therapy have been recently gathering significant attention worldwide, used mostly as rescue therapy in cases of near-fatal antibiotic failure. Thus, clinically relevant in-vivo models presenting both short- and long-term implications of phage therapy given as rescue treatment for fulminant infections are of highest importance. In this study, a cocktail consisting of two lytic bacteriophages was used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of phage therapy as a rescue treatment for severe septic peritonitis in a mouse model...
May 16, 2018: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776928/enrichment-of-clinically-relevant-organisms-in-spontaneous-preterm-delivered-placenta-and-reagent-contamination-across-all-clinical-groups-in-a-large-uk-pregnancy-cohort
#15
Lydia J Leon, Ronan Doyle, Ernest Diez-Benavente, Taane G Clark, Nigel Klein, Philip Stanier, Gudrun E Moore
In this study differences in the placental microbiota of term and preterm deliveries from a large UK pregnancy cohort were studied using 16S targeted amplicon sequencing. The impact of contamination from DNA extraction, PCR reagents, as well as those from delivery itself were also examined. A total of 400 placental samples from 256 singleton pregnancies were analysed and differences investigated between spontaneous preterm, non-spontaneous preterm, and term delivered placenta. DNA from recently delivered placenta was extracted, and screening for bacterial DNA was carried out using targeted sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773876/early-salmonella-typhimurium-infection-in-pigs-disrupts-microbiome-composition-and-functionality-principally-at-the-ileum-mucosa
#16
Héctor Argüello, Jordi Estellé, Sara Zaldívar-López, Ángeles Jiménez-Marín, Ana Carvajal, Mª Asunción López-Bascón, Fiona Crispie, Orla O'Sullivan, Paul D Cotter, Feliciano Priego-Capote, Luis Morera, Juan J Garrido
Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen which successfully infects animal species for human consumption such as swine. The pathogen has a battery of virulence factors which it uses to colonise and persist within the host. The host microbiota may play a role in resistance to, and may also be indirectly responsible from some of the consequences of, Salmonella infection. To investigate this, we used 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing to determine the changes in the gut microbiota of pigs in response to infection by Salmonella Typhimurium at three locations: ileum mucosa, ileum content and faeces...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767396/are-lactoferrin-receptors-in-gram-negative-bacteria-viable-vaccine-targets
#17
Clement Chan, Vahid F Andisi, Dixon Ng, Nick Ostan, Warren K Yunker, Anthony B Schryvers
A number of important Gram-negative pathogens that reside exclusively in the upper respiratory or genitourinary tract of their mammalian host rely on surface receptors that specifically bind host transferrin and lactoferrin as a source of iron for growth. The transferrin receptors have been targeted for vaccine development due to their critical role in acquiring iron during invasive infection and for survival on the mucosal surface. In this study, we focus on the lactoferrin receptors, determining their prevalence in pathogenic bacteria and comparing their prevalence in commensal Neisseria to other surface antigens targeted for vaccines; addressing the issue of a reservoir for vaccine escape and impact of vaccination on the microbiome...
May 16, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767340/speculation-as-to-why-the-frequency-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-is-increasing
#18
REVIEW
Stuart Jon Spechler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The frequency of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an immune/antigen-mediated disorder first described in 1993, has been increasing rapidly. The purpose of this review is to consider hypotheses proposed to explain this increase and to speculate on their validity. RECENT FINDINGS: The hygiene hypothesis attributes the rise of EoE to modern hygienic conditions resulting in fewer childhood infections with microbes that might have protected against allergy development...
May 16, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765642/glucocorticoids-modulate-gastrointestinal-microbiome-in-a-wild-bird
#19
José C Noguera, Manuel Aira, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Jorge Domínguez, Alberto Velando
It has recently been hypothesized that stress exposure (e.g. via glucocorticoid secretion) may dysregulate the bacterial gut microbiome, a crucial 'organ' in animal health. However, whether stress exposure (e.g. via glucocorticoid secretion) affects the bacterial gut microbiome of natural populations is unknown. We have experimentally altered the basal glucocorticoid level (corticosterone implants) in a wild avian species, the yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis , to assess its effects on the gastrointestinal microbiota...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761046/low-bacterial-community-diversity-in-two-introduced-aphid-pests-revealed-with-16s-rrna-amplicon-sequencing
#20
Francisca Zepeda-Paulo, Sebastían Ortiz-Martínez, Andrea X Silva, Blas Lavandero
Bacterial endosymbionts that produce important phenotypic effects on their hosts are common among plant sap-sucking insects. Aphids have become a model system of insect-symbiont interactions. However, endosymbiont research has focused on a few aphid species, making it necessary to make greater efforts to other aphid species through different regions, in order to have a better understanding of the role of endosymbionts in aphids as a group. Aphid endosymbionts have frequently been studied by PCR-based techniques, using species-specific primers, nevertheless this approach may omit other non-target bacteria cohabiting a particular host species...
2018: PeerJ
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