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Skin microbiome

Melody Maarouf, Vivian Y Shi
Individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD) have used bleach baths to treat superinfections, although their mechanism of action is not well understood. The, National Eczema Association, and PubMed databases were searched for studies that investigate the role bleach plays in modulating AD. Fifteen studies were included in this review. Bleach bath improves clinical symptoms of AD and restores surface microbiome by eradicating bacteria, most notably Staphylococcus aureus. Many studies have noted that this antimicrobial effect has reduced the need for topical corticosteroids or topical antibiotics...
May 2018: Dermatitis
T H Zhu, T R Zhu, K A Tran, R K Sivamani, V Y Shi
Atopic dermatitis is a systemic disorder characterized by abnormal barrier function across multiple organ sites. Initial disruption in the skin epidermal barrier permits allergen sensitization and colonization by pathogens. This induces TH 2 inflammatory response and a thymic stromal lymphopoietin mediated pathway that further promotes barrier breakdown at distant sites including the intestinal and respiratory tract. Clinically, atopic dermatitis can progress from skin disease to food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and later asthma, a phenomenon commonly known as the atopic march...
May 15, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Adam J SanMiguel, Jacquelyn S Meisel, Joseph Horwinski, Qi Zheng, Charles W Bradley, Elizabeth A Grice
Despite critical functions in cutaneous health and disease, it is unclear how resident skin microbial communities are altered by topical antimicrobial interventions commonly used in personal and clinical settings. Here we show that acute exposure to antiseptic treatments elicits rapid but short-term depletion of microbial community diversity and membership. Thirteen subjects were enrolled in a longitudinal treatment study to analyze the effects of topical treatments (ethanol, povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine, water) on the skin microbiome at two skin sites of disparate microenvironment: forearm and back...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Sami Remes, Petri Kulmala
AIM: A number of studies have clarified the tolerance mechanisms and risk factors for food allergies. Our aim was to explore food allergy symptoms by target organs, together with the risk factors and how to prevent food allergies and induce tolerance. METHODS: We carried out a thorough review of studies on paediatric food allergies published in the last decade. RESULTS: Food allergy symptoms may affect the skin, nasal and oral mucosa, conjunctivae, gastrointestinal tract, or, in severe cases, the respiratory tract and cardiovascular organs...
May 11, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Marcus Shaker, Robert G P Murray, Julianne A Mann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The skin barrier is a dynamic innate immune organ. This review summarizes the current understanding of how deficiencies associated with atopic dermatitis invite other atopic disorders of the allergic march. RECENT FINDINGS: Atopic dermatitis is characterized by skin barrier defects (such as mutations in filaggrin), intrinsic proallergic T-helper cell 2 immune dysregulation, and skin microbiome alterations. These factors promote the development of food allergy and asthma...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Biao Jiang, Yan Jia, Congfen He
Traditional skincare involves the subjective classification of skin into 4 categories (oily, dry, mixed, and neutral) prior to skin treatment. Following the development of noninvasive methods in skin and skin imaging technology, scientists have developed efficacy-based skincare products based on the physiological characteristics of skin under different conditions. Currently, the emergence of skinomics and systems biology has facilitated the development of precision skincare. In this article, the evolution of skincare based on the physiological states of the skin (from traditional skincare and efficacy-based skincare to precision skincare) is described...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Balakrishnan N V Premkrishnan, Ana Carolina M Junqueira, Akira Uchida, Rikky W Purbojati, James N I Houghton, Caroline Chénard, Anthony Wong, Sandra Kolundžija, Megan E Clare, Kavita K Kushwaha, Deepa Panicker, Alexander Putra, Nicolas E Gaultier, Cassie E Heinle, Vineeth Kodengil Vettath, Daniela I Drautz-Moses, Stephan C Schuster
Staphylococcus haemolyticus is a coagulase-negative staphylococcal species that is part of the skin microbiome and an opportunistic human pathogen. The strain SGAir0252 was isolated from tropical air samples collected in Singapore, and its complete genome comprises one chromosome of 2.63 Mb and one plasmid of 41.6 kb.
May 10, 2018: Genome Announcements
Krista A McCoy, Ariane L Peralta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Helen Williams, Laura Campbell, Rachel A Crompton, Gurdeep Singh, Brian J McHugh, Donald J Davidson, Andrew J McBain, Sheena M Cruickshank, Matthew J Hardman
Chronic wounds cause significant patient morbidity and mortality. A key factor in their etiology is microbial infection, yet skin host-microbiota interactions during wound repair remain poorly understood. Microbiome profiles of non-infected human chronic wounds are associated with subsequent healing outcome. Furthermore, poor clinical healing outcome was associated with increased local expression of the pattern recognition receptor NOD2. To investigate NOD2 function in the context of cutaneous healing, we treated mice with the NOD2 ligand muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and analyzed wound repair parameters and expression of anti-microbial peptides...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Ian A Myles, Noah J Earland, Erik D Anderson, Ian N Moore, Mark D Kieh, Kelli W Williams, Arhum Saleem, Natalia M Fontecilla, Pamela A Welch, Dirk A Darnell, Lisa A Barnhart, Ashleigh A Sun, Gulbu Uzel, Sandip K Datta
The underlying pathology of atopic dermatitis (AD) includes impaired skin barrier function, susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus skin infection, immune dysregulation, and cutaneous dysbiosis. Our recent investigation into the potential role of Gram-negative skin bacteria in AD revealed that isolates of one particular commensal, Roseomonas mucosa, collected from healthy volunteers (HVs) improved outcomes in mouse and cell culture models of AD. In contrast, isolates of R. mucosa from patients with AD worsened outcomes in these models...
May 3, 2018: JCI Insight
Sarah E Kwan, Richard J Shaughnessy, Bridget Hegarty, Ulla Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Jordan Peccia
AIMS: The goal of this study was to quantify the indoor microbiome dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities on school desk surfaces during a cleaning intervention. METHODS AND RESULTS: Quantitative PCR and DNA sequenced-based approaches were employed to describe microbial community dynamics on ten desk surfaces, spread across three schools, located in the Northeast region of the U.S. Six samples were taken from each desk, one pre-cleaning, and five post-cleaning at 30 minutes, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, and 21 days...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Matthew M Ippolito, Joshua E Denny, Charles Langelier, Cynthia L Sears, Nathan W Schmidt
Background: The microbiome influences malaria parasite fitness and transmission efficiency in mosquitoes, and appears to affect malaria dynamics in mammalian hosts as well. Nascent research examining the interrelationship of malaria and the mammalian host microbiome has yielded interesting insights inviting further study. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature examining associations between the microbiome and malaria in mammalian hosts. An electronic search algorithm was adapted to PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science, and reference lists of relevant sources were manually searched...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Joyce E Yu, Anu Mallapaty, Rachel L Miller
The dramatic rise in the prevalence of food allergy and food allergy-associated anaphylaxis in the past few decades has fueled investigative interest into understanding this puzzling trend. Here, we review the question as to whether important external environmental determinants beyond dietary habits and exposure to food allergens are involved. This review will summarize our current understanding of these environment determinants, derived from the latest experimental and epidemiological research. Specifically, we will review the role of exposures that affect skin barrier function, development of a diverse microbiome, and food processing...
April 21, 2018: Environmental Research
Giuseppe Ianiri, Joseph Heitman, Annika Scheynius
Malassezia are abundant, lipid-dependent, commensal yeasts in the skin microbiome that also have a pathogenic lifestyle associated with several common skin disorders. Malassezia genomes encode myriad lipases and proteases thought to mediate lipid utilization and pathogenesis. Li et al. report the biochemical characterization of a unique secreted aspartyl protease produced by Malassezia globosa, MgSAP1, and demonstrate its active role in hindering biofilm formation of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Because biofilms are an established virulence attribute of S...
May 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Vitória H M Mottin, Edna S Suyenaga
Acne and Atopic Dermatitis (AD) are chronic inflammatory skin conditions with severe impact on a patient's life. Current treatments are related to adverse effects and do not represent a definitive cure. The present paper reviews the alterations in skin microbiome, specifically in acne and AD, and aims in searching for potential treatments based on benefic microorganisms, called probiotics. The review was made through bibliographic search of the main databases (Science Direct, PubMed, Scielo, Medline) between September 2015 and June 2016...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Byung Eui Kim, Donald Y M Leung
The epidermis contains epithelial cells, immune cells, and microbes which provides a physical and functional barrier to the protection of human skin. It plays critical roles in preventing environmental allergen penetration into the human body and responsing to microbial pathogens. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common, complex chronic inflammatory skin disease. Skin barrier dysfunction is the initial step in the development of AD. Multiple factors, including immune dysregulation, filaggrin mutations, deficiency of antimicrobial peptides, and skin dysbiosis contribute to skin barrier defects...
May 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Martin Laurence, Mark Asquith, James T Rosenbaum
Spondyloarthritis is a common type of arthritis which affects mostly adults. It consists of idiopathic chronic inflammation of the spine, joints, eyes, skin, gut, and prostate. Inflammation is often asymptomatic, especially in the gut and prostate. The HLA-B*27 allele group, which presents intracellular peptides to CD8+ T cells, is by far the strongest risk factor for spondyloarthritis. The precise mechanisms and antigens remain unknown. In 1959, Catterall and King advanced a novel hypothesis explaining the etiology of spondyloarthritis: an as-yet-unrecognized sexually acquired microbe would be causing all spondyloarthritis types, including acute anterior uveitis...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Kazumasa Iwamoto, Tim J Stroisch, Susanne Koch, Nadine Herrmann, Nicole Leib, Thomas Bieber
BACKGROUND: The skin of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients presents a significant dysbalance of the microbiome with a high colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) which positively correlates with the severity of the disease. OBJECTIVE: Understanding the role of epidermal dendritic cells as link between the innate and the adaptive immune systems in AD. METHODS: Comparative phenotypic and functional analysis of TLR2 on Langerhans cells (LC) and inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells (IDEC) in organotypic models as well as freshly isolated cells from healthy and AD skin...
April 19, 2018: Allergy
Marlena Maziarz, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Yunhu Wan, Mitchell H Gail
Motivation: Comparisons of microbiome communities across populations are often based on pairwise distance measures (beta-diversity). Standard analyses (principal coordinate plots, permutation tests, kernel methods) require access to primary data if another investigator wants to add or compare independent data.We propose using standard reference measurements to simplify microbiome beta-diversity analyses, to make them more transparent, and to facilitate independent validation and comparisons across studies...
April 12, 2018: Bioinformatics
Geoffrey D Hannigan, Melissa B Duhaime, Danai Koutra, Patrick D Schloss
Viruses and bacteria are critical components of the human microbiome and play important roles in health and disease. Most previous work has relied on studying bacteria and viruses independently, thereby reducing them to two separate communities. Such approaches are unable to capture how these microbial communities interact, such as through processes that maintain community robustness or allow phage-host populations to co-evolve. We implemented a network-based analytical approach to describe phage-bacteria network diversity throughout the human body...
April 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
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