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Skin microbiome

Stefanie Eyerich, Kilian Eyerich, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Tilo Biedermann
The skin is the outermost barrier of the organism that ensures protection from external harm. Lately, our view of the skin has evolved from an inert mechanical barrier to an active organ that can sense danger signals and mount perfectly adapted defense measures in response to invading pathogens. This Review highlights the different levels of the cutaneous barrier (the microbiome, chemical, physical, and immune barriers), their characteristics, and functional, highly interconnected network of cells and mediators that allow balanced defense measures to protect the body and maintain barrier integrity...
March 15, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Jacob B Hall, Zhaoyuan Cong, Yuka Imamura-Kawasawa, Brian A Kidd, Joel T Dudley, Diane M Thiboutot, Amanda M Nelson
Our understanding of the microbiome and the role of P. acnes in skin homeostasis and acne pathogenesis is evolving. Multiple methods for sampling and identifying the skin's microbiome exist and understanding the differences between the abilities of various methods to characterize the microbial landscape is warranted. This study compared the microbial diversity of samples obtained from the cheeks of twenty volunteers, collected by surface swab, pore strips, and cyanoacrylate glue follicular biopsy, all sequenced with 16S rRNA sequencing (V1-V3) and whole-genome metagenomic sequencing (WGS)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Tonya L Ward, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Tim Heisel, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
With the advent of next-generation sequencing and microbial community characterization, we are beginning to understand the key factors that shape early-life microbial colonization and associated health outcomes. Studies characterizing infant microbial colonization have focused mostly on bacteria in the microbiome and have largely neglected fungi (the mycobiome), despite their relevance to mucosal infections in healthy infants. In this pilot study, we characterized the skin, oral, and anal mycobiomes of infants over the first month of life ( n = 17) and the anal and vaginal mycobiomes of mothers ( n = 16) by internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) amplicon sequencing...
May 2018: MSystems
Bart Theelen, Claudia Cafarchia, Georgios Gaitanis, Ioannis Dimitrios Bassukas, Teun Boekhout, Thomas L Dawson
Malassezia are lipid dependent basidiomycetous yeasts that inhabit the skin and mucosa of humans and other warm-blooded animals, and are a major component of the skin microbiome. They occur as skin commensals, but are also associated with various skin disorders and bloodstream infections. The genus currently comprises 17 species and has recently been assigned its own class, Malasseziomycetes. Importantly, multiple Malassezia species and/or genotypes may cause unique or similar pathologies and vary in their antifungal susceptibility...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Shikha Sharma, Vasvi Chaudhry, Sanjeet Kumar, Prabhu B Patil
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prominent commensal member of human skin microbiome and an emerging nosocomial pathogen, making it a good model organism to provide genomic insights, correlating its transition between commensalism and pathogenicity. While there are numerous studies to understand differences in commensal and pathogenic isolates, systematic efforts to understand variation and evolutionary pattern in multiple strains isolated from healthy individuals are lacking. In the present study, using whole genome sequencing and analysis, we report presence of diverse lineages of S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hye-Jin Kim, Hanbyul Kim, Jin Ju Kim, Nu Ri Myeong, Taeyune Kim, Taehun Park, Eunjoo Kim, Ji-Yei Choi, Johnhwan Lee, Susun An, Woo Jun Sul
Given the higher incidence of skin diseases in more urbanized populations and its association with the skin microbiome, we questioned how the skin microbiome differed depending on the degree of urbanization. Skin microbiomes of 231 healthy subjects in five large cities in China varied mainly with environment and socioeconomic status of the cities in question. The differences among microbiomes could be explained by the predominantly niche-based assembly of microbial communities, which was supported by a dominance test, β-null deviation, and edge-length abundance distribution...
March 2018: Science Advances
Lorenzo Cecchi, Gennaro D'Amato, Isabella Annesi-Maesano
Allergies are complex diseases that result from interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors. However, the increase in allergies observed in the past decades is explained exclusively by environmental changes occurring in the same period. Presently, the exposome, the totality of specific and nonspecific external environmental exposures (external exposome) to which a subject is exposed from preconception onward and their consequences at the organ and cell levels (internal exposome), is being considered to explain the inception, development, and exacerbations of allergic diseases...
March 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Teruaki Nakatsuji, Tiffany H Chen, Anna M Butcher, Lynnie L Trzoss, Sang-Jip Nam, Karina T Shirakawa, Wei Zhou, Julia Oh, Michael Otto, William Fenical, Richard L Gallo
We report the discovery that strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis produce 6- N -hydroxyaminopurine (6-HAP), a molecule that inhibits DNA polymerase activity. In culture, 6-HAP selectively inhibited proliferation of tumor lines but did not inhibit primary keratinocytes. Resistance to 6-HAP was associated with the expression of mitochondrial amidoxime reducing components, enzymes that were not observed in cells sensitive to this compound. Intravenous injection of 6-HAP in mice suppressed the growth of B16F10 melanoma without evidence of systemic toxicity...
February 2018: Science Advances
Prem Prashant Chaudhary, Patricia Lynne Conway, Jørgen Schlundt
Methanogens are anaerobic prokaryotes from the domain archaea that utilize hydrogen to reduce carbon dioxide, acetate, and a variety of methyl compounds into methane. Earlier believed to inhabit only the extreme environments, these organisms are now reported to be found in various environments including mesophilic habitats and the human body. The biological significance of methanogens for humans has been re-evaluated in the last few decades. Their contribution towards pathogenicity has received much less attention than their bacterial counterparts...
March 1, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Francisco M Codoñer, Ana Ramírez-Bosca, Eric Climent, Miguel Carrión-Gutierrez, Mariano Guerrero, Jose Manuel Pérez-Orquín, José Horga de la Parte, Salvador Genovés, Daniel Ramón, Vicente Navarro-López, Empar Chenoll
Since the last 5-10 years the relevance of the gut microbiome on different intestinal illnesses has been revealed. Recent findings indicate the effect of gut microbiome on certain dermatological diseases such as atopic dermatitis. However, data on other skin diseases such as psoriasis are limited. This is the first time attempting to reveal the gut microbiome composition of psoriatic patients with a prospective study including a group of patients with plaque psoriasis, analyzing their gut microbiome and the relationship between the microbiome composition and bacterial translocation...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
A M Okba, S M Saber, A S Abdel-Rehim, M M Amin, D A Mohamed
Background. Studies proposed a link between gut microbiota and airway tract. Objective. Study the diversity and density of gut microbiota in healthy and asthmatic patients. Method. Semi-quantitative stool cultures were performed from fecal samples collected from 80 adult asthmatic patients and 40 healthy individuals. Data on gender, age, dietetic history, clinical examination and investigations as skin prick test and pulmonary function testing were also collected. Results. Lactobacilli were found to be higher among patient group than control group...
January 15, 2018: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Aeriel Belk, Zhenjiang Zech Xu, David O Carter, Aaron Lynne, Sibyl Bucheli, Rob Knight, Jessica L Metcalf
Death investigations often include an effort to establish the postmortem interval (PMI) in cases in which the time of death is uncertain. The postmortem interval can lead to the identification of the deceased and the validation of witness statements and suspect alibis. Recent research has demonstrated that microbes provide an accurate clock that starts at death and relies on ecological change in the microbial communities that normally inhabit a body and its surrounding environment. Here, we explore how to build the most robust Random Forest regression models for prediction of PMI by testing models built on different sample types (gravesoil, skin of the torso, skin of the head), gene markers (16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS)), and taxonomic levels (sequence variants, species, genus, etc...
February 16, 2018: Genes
M Köberle, T Biedermann
Atopic dermatitis affects roughly 20% of children and 3% of adults in Germany and other industrial countries, with an increasing prevalence. Its causality has still not been conclusively clarified but a type‑2 T‑helper cell mediated immunity reaction (type 2 immunity) dominates cutaneous inflammation. In the quest for the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and the development of improved prevention and treatment options, attention is also increasingly being paid to the influence of microbial colonization...
February 16, 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Carl J Yeoman, Suzanne L Ishaq, Elena Bichi, Sarah K Olivo, James Lowe, Brian M Aldridge
The impact of maternal microbial influences on the early choreography of the neonatal calf microbiome were investigated. Luminal content and mucosal scraping samples were collected from ten locations in the calf gastrointestinal tract (GIT) over the first 21 days of life, along with postpartum maternal colostrum, udder skin, and vaginal scrapings. Microbiota were found to vary by anatomical location, between the lumen and mucosa at each GIT location, and differentially enriched for maternal vaginal, skin, and colostral microbiota...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
H Pieter J van Veelen, Joana Falcão Salles, B Irene Tieleman
The microbiome is essential for development, health and homeostasis throughout an animal's life. Yet, the origins and transmission processes governing animal microbiomes remain elusive for non-human vertebrates, oviparous vertebrates in particular. Eggs may function as transgenerational carriers of the maternal microbiome, warranting characterisation of egg microbiome assembly. Here, we investigated maternal and environmental contributions to avian eggshell microbiota in wild passerine birds: woodlark Lullula arborea and skylark Alauda arvensis...
February 14, 2018: ISME Journal
Bradley M Hover, Seong-Hwan Kim, Micah Katz, Zachary Charlop-Powers, Jeremy G Owen, Melinda A Ternei, Jeffrey Maniko, Andreia B Estrela, Henrik Molina, Steven Park, David S Perlin, Sean F Brady
Despite the wide availability of antibiotics, infectious diseases remain a leading cause of death worldwide1 . In the absence of new therapies, mortality rates due to untreatable infections are predicted to rise more than tenfold by 2050. Natural products (NPs) made by cultured bacteria have been a major source of clinically useful antibiotics. In spite of decades of productivity, the use of bacteria in the search for new antibiotics was largely abandoned due to high rediscovery rates2,3 . As only a fraction of bacterial diversity is regularly cultivated in the laboratory and just a fraction of the chemistries encoded by cultured bacteria are detected in fermentation experiments, most bacterial NPs remain hidden in the global microbiome...
February 12, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Meenakshi Rajpoot, Anil K Sharma, Anil Sharma, Girish Kumar Gupta
The human body is a home to more than 1 trillion microbes with a diverse variety of commensal microbes that play a crucial role towards the health of the individual. These microbes occupy different habitats such as gut, skin, vagina, oral etc. Not only the types and abundance of microbes are different in different organs, but also these may differ in different individuals. The genome of these microbiota and their ecosystem constitute to form a microbiome. Factors such as diet, environment, host genetics etc...
February 6, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Hansjörg Baurecht, Malte C Rühlemann, Elke Rodríguez, Frederieke Thielking, Inken Harder, Anna-Sophie Erkens, Dora Stölzl, Eva Ellinghaus, Melanie Hotze, Wolfgang Lieb, Sheng Wang, Femke-Anouska Heinsen-Groth, Andre Franke, Stephan Weidinger
BACKGROUND: Genomic approaches have revealed characteristic site specificities of skin bacterial community structures. In addition, in children with atopic dermatitis (AD), characteristic shifts were described at creases and, in particular, during flares, which have been postulated to mirror disturbed skin barrier function, cutaneous inflammation, or both. OBJECTIVE: We sought to comprehensively analyze microbial configurations in patients with AD across body sites and to explore the effect of distinct abnormalities of epidermal barrier function...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Dachao Liang, Ross Ka-Kit Leung, Wenda Guan, William W Au
The commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microbial community which resides inside our body and on our skin (the human microbiome) can perturb host energy metabolism and immunity, and thus significantly influence development of a variety of human diseases. Therefore, the field has attracted unprecedented attention in the last decade. Although a large amount of data has been generated, there are still many unanswered questions and no universal agreements on how microbiome affects human health have been agreed upon...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Wojciech Francuzik, Kristin Franke, Ralf R Schumann, Guido Heine, Margitta Worm
The microbiome may influence disease severity in atopic dermatitis. The skin of atopic dermatitis patients and healthy individuals was sampled in a standardized manner and the microbial composition analysed using next-generation sequencing. Optical density measurements were used to investigate bacterial growth under defined conditions in vitro. Lesional skin from patients with atopic dermatitis had a higher abundance of S. aureus and reduced quantities of Propionibacterium acnes and Lawsonella clevelandensis compared with non-lesional skin...
January 30, 2018: Acta Dermato-venereologica
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