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Skin microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147769/skin-barrier-and-microbiome-in-acne
#1
REVIEW
M A Rocha, E Bagatin
Acne is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease. Although several factors are involved in its pathophysiology, this process is not completely understood. Androgen hormone activity increases sebum production inside the pilosebaceous follicle, adjusting the environment for the development of Propionibacterium acnes which triggers inflammation. Knowing how others factors such as the skin barrier and microbiome are involved in acne, can help in understanding more about the disease and may help to conduct a better treatment...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147568/environmental-influences-on-the-skin-microbiome-of-humans-and-cattle-in-rural-madagascar
#2
Melissa B Manus, James J Yu, Lawrence P Park, Olaf Mueller, Sarah C Windsor, Julie E Horvath, Charles L Nunn
Background and objectives: The skin harbors a dynamic community of microorganisms, where contact with humans, other animals and the environment can alter microbial communities. Most research on the human skin microbiome features Western populations living in hygienic conditions, yet these populations have vastly different patterns of environmental contact than the majority of people on Earth, including those living in developing countries. Methodology: We studied skin microbial communities of humans and cattle (zebu) in rural Madagascar to investigate how zebu ownership affects microbial composition of the human skin, and to characterize non-Western human and zebu skin communities more generally...
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145569/immune-system-an-emerging-player-in-mediating-effects-of-endocrine-disruptors-on-metabolic-health
#3
Amita Bansal, Jorge Henao Mejia, Rebecca A Simmons
The incidence of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes and obesity continue to increase. In addition to the well-known contributors such as food intake and sedentary lifestyle, recent research in the exposure science discipline provides new evidence that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals like bisphenol A and phthalates via multiple routes (food, drink and skin contact) also contribute to the increased risk of metabolic disorders. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can disrupt any aspect of hormone action...
November 14, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138298/first-insights-into-the-diverse-human-archaeome-specific-detection-of-archaea-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-lung-and-nose-and-on-skin
#4
Kaisa Koskinen, Manuela R Pausan, Alexandra K Perras, Michael Beck, Corinna Bang, Maximilian Mora, Anke Schilhabel, Ruth Schmitz, Christine Moissl-Eichinger
Human-associated archaea remain understudied in the field of microbiome research, although in particular methanogenic archaea were found to be regular commensals of the human gut, where they represent keystone species in metabolic processes. Knowledge on the abundance and diversity of human-associated archaea is extremely limited, and little is known about their function(s), their overall role in human health, or their association with parts of the human body other than the gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134436/common-cutaneous-bacteria-isolated-from-snakes-inhibit-growth-of-ophidiomyces-ophiodiicola
#5
Aubree J Hill, Jacob E Leys, Danny Bryan, Fantasia M Erdman, Katherine S Malone, Gabrielle N Russell, Roger D Applegate, Heather Fenton, Kevin Niedringhaus, Andrew N Miller, Matthew C Allender, Donald M Walker
There is increasing concern regarding potential impacts of snake fungal disease (SFD), caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo), on free-ranging snake populations in the eastern USA. The snake cutaneous microbiome likely serves as the first line of defense against Oo and other pathogens; however, little is known about microbial associations in snakes. The objective of this study was to better define the composition and immune function of the snake cutaneous microbiome. Eight timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and four black racers (Coluber constrictor) were captured in Arkansas and Tennessee, with some snakes exhibiting signs of SFD...
November 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117187/the-green-tea-modulates-large-intestinal-microbiome-and-exo-endogenous-metabolome-altered-through-chronic-uvb-exposure
#6
Eun Sung Jung, Hye Min Park, Seung Min Hyun, Jong Cheol Shon, Digar Singh, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Tae Woong Whon, Jin-Woo Bae, Jae Sung Hwang, Choong Hwan Lee
The attenuating effects of green tea supplements (GTS) against the ultraviolet (UV) radiation induced skin damages are distinguished. However, the concomitant effects of GTS on the large intestinal microbiomes and associated metabolomes are largely unclear. Herein, we performed an integrated microbiome-metabolome analysis to uncover the esoteric links between gut microbiome and exo/endogenous metabolome maneuvered in the large intestine of UVB-exposed mice subjected to dietary GTS. In UVB-exposed mice groups (UVB), class Bacilli and order Bifidobacteriales were observed as discriminant taxa with decreased lysophospholipid levels compared to the unexposed mice groups subjected to normal diet (NOR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107046/pharmacological-efficacy-toxicity-of-drugs-a-comprehensive-update-about-the-dynamic-interplay-of-microbes
#7
REVIEW
J A Gimenez-Bastida, L Martinez, A Moya-Pérez, J M Laparra
Oral ingestion is a common, easy to access, route for therapeutic drugs to be delivered. The conception of the gastrointestinal tract as a passive physiological compartment has evolved towards a dynamic perspective of the same. Thus, microbiota plays an important role in contributing with additional metabolic capacities to its host as well as to its phenotypic heterogeneity. These adaptations in turn influence the efficacy and toxicity of a broad range of drugs. Notwithstanding, xenobiotics and therapeutic drugs affecting the microbiome's activity also significantly impact metabolism affecting different organs and tissues, and thereby drugs' toxicity/efficacy effects...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104567/the-skin-mucus-microbial-community-of-farmed-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#8
Giusi Minniti, Live Heldal Hagen, Davide Porcellato, Sven Martin Jørgensen, Phillip B Pope, Gustav Vaaje-Kolstad
The skin of the teleost is a flexible and scaled structure that protects the fish toward the external environment. The outermost surface of the skin is coated with mucus, which is believed to be colonized by a diverse bacterial community (commensal and/or opportunistic). Little is known about such communities and their role in fish welfare. In aquaculture, fish seem to be more susceptible to pathogens compared to wild fish. Indeed common fish farming practices may play important roles in promoting their vulnerability, possibly by causing changes to their microbiomes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101193/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-sequence-type-st-5-isolates-from-health-care-and-agricultural-sources-adhere-equivalently-to-human-keratinocytes
#9
Samantha J Hau, Steven Kellner, Kirsten C Eberle, Ursula Waack, Susan L Brockmeier, Jisun S Haan, Peter R Davies, Timothy Frana, Tracy L Nicholson
Staphylococcus aureus is part of the nasal microbiome of many humans and has become a significant public health burden due to infections with antibiotic resistant strains, including methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Several lineages of S. aureus including MRSA are found in livestock species and can be acquired by humans through contact with animals. These livestock associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) isolates raise public health concerns because of the potential for livestock to act as reservoirs for MRSA outside of the hospital setting...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071712/the-role-of-the-microbiome-in-psoriasis-moving-from-disease-description-to-treatment-prediction
#10
REVIEW
E A Langan, C E M Griffiths, W Solbach, J K Knobloch, D Zillikens, D Thaçi
With several million microbes per cm(2) of skin, the task of mapping the physiological cutaneous microbiome is enormous. Indeed, the reliance on bacterial culture to identify cutaneous bacterial communities has led to a systematic under-appreciation of cutaneous microbial diversity, potentially limiting our understanding of common inflammatory skin diseases including psoriasis. However, based heavily on developments in molecular biology and bioinformatics, including next generation sequencing, the last decade has witnessed a marked increase in our understanding of the extent and composition of the cutaneous microbiome...
October 26, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066552/fkbp12-dependent-inhibition-of-calcineurin-mediates-immunosuppressive-antifungal-drug-action-in-malassezia
#11
Giuseppe Ianiri, Shelly Applen Clancey, Soo Chan Lee, Joseph Heitman
The genus Malassezia includes yeasts that are commonly found on the skin or hair of animals and humans as commensals and are associated with a number of skin disorders. We have previously developed an Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system effective for both targeted gene deletion and insertional mutagenesis in Malassezia furfur and M. sympodialis In the present study, these molecular resources were applied to characterize the immunophilin FKBP12 as the target of tacrolimus (FK506), ascomycin, and pimecrolimus, which are calcineurin inhibitors that are used as alternatives to corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders such as those associated with Malassezia species...
October 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065388/targeted-sequencing-of-clade-specific-markers-from-skin-microbiomes-for-forensic-human-identification
#12
Sarah E Schmedes, August E Woerner, Nicole M M Novroski, Frank R Wendt, Jonathan L King, Kathryn M Stephens, Bruce Budowle
The human skin microbiome is comprised of diverse communities of bacterial, eukaryotic, and viral taxa and contributes millions of additional genes to the repertoire of human genes, affecting human metabolism and immune response. Numerous genetic and environmental factors influence the microbiome composition and as such contribute to individual-specific microbial signatures which may be exploited for forensic applications. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential to associate skin microbial profiles collected from touched items to their individual owner, mainly using unsupervised methods from samples collected over short time intervals...
October 18, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062070/new-opportunities-for-managing-acute-and-chronic-lung-infections
#13
REVIEW
William O C M Cookson, Michael J Cox, Miriam F Moffatt
Lung diseases caused by microbial infections affect hundreds of millions of children and adults throughout the world. In Western populations, the treatment of lung infections is a primary driver of antibiotic resistance. Traditional therapeutic strategies have been based on the premise that the healthy lung is sterile and that infections grow in a pristine environment. As a consequence, rapid advances in our understanding of the composition of the microbiota of the skin and bowel have not yet been matched by studies of the respiratory tree...
October 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061041/proteomic-and-metaproteomic-approaches-to-understand-host-microbe-interactions
#14
Amanda E Starr, Shelley A Deeke, Leyuan Li, Xu Zhang, Rachid Daoud, James Ryan, Zhibin Ning, Kai Cheng, Linh V H Nguyen, Elias Abou-Samra, Mathieu Lavallée-Adam, Daniel Figeys
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056930/high-altitude-living-shapes-the-skin-microbiome-in-humans-and-pigs
#15
Bo Zeng, Jiangchao Zhao, Wei Guo, Siyuan Zhang, Yutong Hua, Jingsi Tang, Fanli Kong, Xuewu Yang, Lizhi Fu, Kun Liao, Xianqiong Yu, Guohong Chen, Long Jin, Surong Shuai, Jiandong Yang, Xiaohui Si, Ruihong Ning, Sudhanshu Mishra, Ying Li
While the skin microbiome has been shown to play important roles in health and disease in several species, the effects of altitude on the skin microbiome and how high-altitude skin microbiomes may be associated with health and disease states remains largely unknown. Using 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing, we characterized the skin microbiomes of people from two racial groups (the Tibetans and the Hans) and of three local pig breeds (Tibetan pig, Rongchang pig, and Qingyu pig) at high and low altitudes. The skin microbial communities of low-altitude pigs and humans were distinct from those of high-altitude pigs and humans, with five bacterial taxa (Arthrobacter, Paenibacillus, Carnobacterium, and two unclassified genera in families Cellulomonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae) consistently enriched in both pigs and humans at high altitude...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055411/early-life-gut-dysbiosis-a-driver-of%C3%A2-later-life-fibrosis
#16
Karen J Ho, John Varga
Using a novel mouse model of scleroderma induced by immunization with topoisomerase-I peptide-loaded dendritic cells, Mehta et al. found that early-life antibiotic exposure resulted in increased later-life fibrosis in the skin and lungs. These observations advance the novel concept that gut microbiome alterations caused by early-life exposures may contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis, and warrant in-depth characterization and validation in complementary disease models.
November 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052452/what-is-the-role-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-herpes-virus-infections-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atopic-dermatitis
#17
Simone Saintive, Eliane Abad, Dennis de C Ferreira, Mayra Stambovsky, Fernanda S Cavalcante, Lucio S Gonçalves, Fabio Vidal, Katia Rn Dos Santos
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing disease. Genetic, environmental and immunological factors are involved in its pathophysiology. Individuals with AD have an increased predisposition to colonization and/or infection of the skin by various pathogens, especially Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simplex virus. The composition of their skin microbiome is also different, and changes during flares. The disease severity can be related to the degree of colonization by S. aureus. In addition, the presence of this bacterial species can predispose the host to more severe and disseminated viral infections...
October 20, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050443/microbial-endocrinology-why-the-intersection-of-microbiology-and-neurobiology-matters-to-poultry-health
#18
Daniel N Villageliu, Mark Lyte
The union of microbiology and neurobiology has led to a revolution in the way we view the microbiome. Now recognized as important symbionts, the microorganisms which inhabit multiple niches in mammalian and avian (chicken) hosts, such as the intestinal tract and skin, serve and influence many important physiological functions. The realization that the gut microbiome serves as a kind of "microbial organ" has important implications for many areas of biology. In this paper advances in the field of microbial endocrinology which may hold relevance for the poultry industry are examined...
August 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049057/the-postpartum-maternal-and-newborn-microbiomes
#19
Abby D Mutic, Sheila Jordan, Sara M Edwards, Erin P Ferranti, Taylor A Thul, Irene Yang
Biological and environmental changes to maternal and newborn microbiomes in the postnatal period can affect health outcomes for the mother-baby dyad. Postpartum sleep deprivation and unmet dietary needs can alter commensal bacteria within the body and disrupt gut-brain communication. Perineal injury and breast infections also change microbial community composition, potentiating an environment favoring pathogen growth. The gut microbiome refers to the collection of microorganisms working in harmony. Disruptions within the gut microbiome and gut-brain communication may lead to postpartum depression, a potentially devastating sequela...
November 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044786/unique-profile-of-antimicrobial-peptides-expression-in-polymorphic-light-eruption-lesions-compared-to-healthy-skin-atopic-dermatitis-and-psoriasis
#20
VijayKumar Patra, Gerlinde Mayer, Alexandra Gruber-Wackernagel, Michael Horn, Serena Lembo, Peter Wolf
BACKGROUND: Polymorphic light eruption (PLE) has been attributed to type IV, most likely delayed-type hypersensitivity response (adaptive immunity) but little is known on innate immunity, especially antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the disease. Abnormalities in AMP expression have been linked to pathological skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis. METHODS: AMP profiling was done in PLE skin samples (n,12) compared with that of healthy (n,13), atopic (n,6) and psoriatic skin (n,6)...
October 16, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
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