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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920774/effects-of-tween-80-on-growth-and-biofilm-formation-in-laboratory-media
#1
Christina K Nielsen, Jørgen Kjems, Tina Mygind, Torben Snabe, Rikke L Meyer
Tween 80 is a widely used non-ionic emulsifier that is added to cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and foods. Because of its widespread use we need to understand how it affects bacteria on our skin, in our gut, and in food products. The aim of this study is to investigate how Tween 80 affects the growth and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Pseudomonas fluorescens, which are common causes of spoilage and foodborne illnesses. Addition of 0.1% Tween 80 to laboratory growth media increased the growth rate of planktonic S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909426/deconstructing-the-bat-skin-microbiome-influences-of-the-host-and-the-environment
#2
Christine V Avena, Laura Wegener Parfrey, Jonathan W Leff, Holly M Archer, Winifred F Frick, Kate E Langwig, A Marm Kilpatrick, Karen E Powers, Jeffrey T Foster, Valerie J McKenzie
Bats are geographically widespread and play an important role in many ecosystems, but relatively little is known about the ecology of their associated microbial communities and the role microbial taxa play in bat health, development, and evolution. Moreover, few vertebrate animal skin microbiomes have been comprehensively assessed, and thus characterizing the bat skin microbiome will yield valuable insight into the variability of vertebrate skin microbiomes as a whole. The recent emergence of the skin fungal disease white-nose syndrome highlights the potentially important role bat skin microbial communities could play in bat health...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904880/microbial-community-patterns-associated-with-automated-teller-machine-keypads-in-new-york-city
#3
Holly M Bik, Julia M Maritz, Albert Luong, Hakdong Shin, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Jane M Carlton
In densely populated urban environments, the distribution of microbes and the drivers of microbial community assemblages are not well understood. In sprawling metropolitan habitats, the "urban microbiome" may represent a mix of human-associated and environmental taxa. Here we carried out a baseline study of automated teller machine (ATM) keypads in New York City (NYC). Our goal was to describe the biodiversity and biogeography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in an urban setting while assessing the potential source of microbial assemblages on ATM keypads...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899504/gene-function-analysis-in-the-ubiquitous-human-commensal-and-pathogen-malassezia-genus
#4
Giuseppe Ianiri, Anna F Averette, Joanne M Kingsbury, Joseph Heitman, Alexander Idnurm
: The genus Malassezia includes 14 species that are found on the skin of humans and animals and are associated with a number of diseases. Recent genome sequencing projects have defined the gene content of all 14 species; however, to date, genetic manipulation has not been possible for any species within this genus. Here, we develop and then optimize molecular tools for the transformation of Malassezia furfur and Malassezia sympodialis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens delivery of transfer DNA (T-DNA) molecules...
November 29, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887953/comment-on-skin-microbiome-surveys-are-strongly-influenced-by-experimental-design
#5
Patrick L J M Zeeuwen, Jos Boekhorst, Thomas H A Ederveen, Michiel Kleerebezem, Joost Schalkwijk, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Harro M Timmerman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886912/infectious-complications-in-atopic-dermatitis
#6
REVIEW
Di Sun, Peck Y Ong
Atopic dermatitis is characterized by the interplay of skin barrier defects with the immune system and skin microbiome that causes patients to be at risk for infectious complications. This article reviews the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and the mechanisms through which patients are at risk for infection from bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens. Although these complications may be managed acutely, prevention of secondary infections depends on a multipronged approach in the maintenance of skin integrity, control of flares, and microbial pathogens...
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875351/pathogenesis-and-immunotherapy-in-cutaneous-psoriasis-what-can-rheumatologists-learn
#7
Helen Alexander, Frank O Nestle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review presents our current understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of psoriasis with a particular focus on recent areas of research and emerging concepts. RECENT FINDINGS: Psoriasis arises in genetically predisposed individuals who have an abnormal innate and adaptive immune response to environmental factors. Recent studies have identified novel genetic, epigenetic and immunological factors that play a role in the disease pathogenesis...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834859/a-precision-microbiome-approach-using-sucrose-for-selective-augmentation-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-fermentation-against-propionibacterium-acnes
#8
Yanhan Wang, Ming-Shan Kao, Jinghua Yu, Stephen Huang, Shinta Marito, Richard L Gallo, Chun-Ming Huang
Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, a probiotic skin bacterium) can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes. Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI) that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832215/avoiding-pandemic-fears-in-the-subway-and-conquering-the-platypus
#9
COMMENT
A Gonzalez, Y Vázquez-Baeza, J B Pettengill, A Ottesen, D McDonald, R Knight
Metagenomics is increasingly used not just to show patterns of microbial diversity but also as a culture-independent method to detect individual organisms of intense clinical, epidemiological, conservation, forensic, or regulatory interest. A widely reported metagenomic study of the New York subway suggested that the pathogens Yersinia pestis and Bacillus anthracis were part of the "normal subway microbiome." In their article in mSystems, Hsu and collaborators (mSystems 1(3):e00018-16, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10...
May 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824921/initial-characterization-of-the-pig-skin-bacteriome-and-its-effect-on-in-vitro-models-of-wound-healing
#10
Matthew K McIntyre, Trent J Peacock, Kevin S Akers, David M Burmeister
Elucidating the roles and composition of the human skin microbiome has revealed a delicate interplay between resident microbes and wound healing. Evolutionarily speaking, normal cutaneous flora likely has been selected for because it potentiates or, at minimum, does not impede wound healing. While pigs are the gold standard model for wound healing studies, the porcine skin microbiome has not been studied in detail. Herein, we performed 16S rDNA sequencing to characterize the pig skin bacteriome at several anatomical locations...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822543/the-oral-and-skin-microbiomes-of-captive-komodo-dragons-are-significantly-shared-with-their-habitat
#11
Embriette R Hyde, Jose A Navas-Molina, Se Jin Song, Jordan G Kueneman, Gail Ackermann, Cesar Cardona, Gregory Humphrey, Don Boyer, Tom Weaver, Joseph R Mendelson, Valerie J McKenzie, Jack A Gilbert, Rob Knight
Examining the way in which animals, including those in captivity, interact with their environment is extremely important for studying ecological processes and developing sophisticated animal husbandry. Here we use the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) to quantify the degree of sharing of salivary, skin, and fecal microbiota with their environment in captivity. Both species richness and microbial community composition of most surfaces in the Komodo dragon's environment are similar to the Komodo dragon's salivary and skin microbiota but less similar to the stool-associated microbiota...
July 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822528/urban-transit-system-microbial-communities-differ-by-surface-type-and-interaction-with-humans-and-the-environment
#12
Tiffany Hsu, Regina Joice, Jose Vallarino, Galeb Abu-Ali, Erica M Hartmann, Afrah Shafquat, Casey DuLong, Catherine Baranowski, Dirk Gevers, Jessica L Green, Xochitl C Morgan, John D Spengler, Curtis Huttenhower
Public transit systems are ideal for studying the urban microbiome and interindividual community transfer. In this study, we used 16S amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to profile microbial communities on multiple transit surfaces across train lines and stations in the Boston metropolitan transit system. The greatest determinant of microbial community structure was the transit surface type. In contrast, little variation was observed between geographically distinct train lines and stations serving different demographics...
May 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822524/from-sample-to-multi-omics-conclusions-in-under-48-hours
#13
Robert A Quinn, Jose A Navas-Molina, Embriette R Hyde, Se Jin Song, Yoshiki Vázquez-Baeza, Greg Humphrey, James Gaffney, Jeremiah J Minich, Alexey V Melnik, Jakob Herschend, Jeff DeReus, Austin Durant, Rachel J Dutton, Mahdieh Khosroheidari, Clifford Green, Ricardo da Silva, Pieter C Dorrestein, Rob Knight
Multi-omics methods have greatly advanced our understanding of the biological organism and its microbial associates. However, they are not routinely used in clinical or industrial applications, due to the length of time required to generate and analyze omics data. Here, we applied a novel integrated omics pipeline for the analysis of human and environmental samples in under 48 h. Human subjects that ferment their own foods provided swab samples from skin, feces, oral cavity, fermented foods, and household surfaces to assess the impact of home food fermentation on their microbial and chemical ecology...
March 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822521/geography-and-location-are-the-primary-drivers-of-office-microbiome-composition
#14
John Chase, Jennifer Fouquier, Mahnaz Zare, Derek L Sonderegger, Rob Knight, Scott T Kelley, Jeffrey Siegel, J Gregory Caporaso
In the United States, humans spend the majority of their time indoors, where they are exposed to the microbiome of the built environment (BE) they inhabit. Despite the ubiquity of microbes in BEs and their potential impacts on health and building materials, basic questions about the microbiology of these environments remain unanswered. We present a study on the impacts of geography, material type, human interaction, location in a room, seasonal variation, and indoor and microenvironmental parameters on bacterial communities in offices...
March 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822518/improved-bacterial-16s-rrna-gene-v4-and-v4-5-and-fungal-internal-transcribed-spacer-marker-gene-primers-for-microbial-community-surveys
#15
William Walters, Embriette R Hyde, Donna Berg-Lyons, Gail Ackermann, Greg Humphrey, Alma Parada, Jack A Gilbert, Janet K Jansson, J Gregory Caporaso, Jed A Fuhrman, Amy Apprill, Rob Knight
Designing primers for PCR-based taxonomic surveys that amplify a broad range of phylotypes in varied community samples is a difficult challenge, and the comparability of data sets amplified with varied primers requires attention. Here, we examined the performance of modified 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) primers for archaea/bacteria and fungi, respectively, with nonaquatic samples. We moved primer bar codes to the 5' end, allowing for a range of different 3' primer pairings, such as the 515f/926r primer pair, which amplifies variable regions 4 and 5 of the 16S rRNA gene...
January 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786295/sebum-and-hydration-levels-in-specific-regions-of-human-face-significantly-predict-the-nature-and-diversity-of-facial-skin-microbiome
#16
Souvik Mukherjee, Rupak Mitra, Arindam Maitra, Satyaranjan Gupta, Srikala Kumaran, Amit Chakrabortty, Partha P Majumder
The skin microbiome varies across individuals. The causes of these variations are inadequately understood. We tested the hypothesis that inter-individual variation in facial skin microbiome can be significantly explained by variation in sebum and hydration levels in specific facial regions of humans. We measured sebum and hydration from forehead and cheek regions of healthy female volunteers (n = 30). Metagenomic DNA from skin swabs were sequenced for V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA gene. Altogether, 34 phyla were identified; predominantly Actinobacteria (66...
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780238/bacterial-etiology-and-risk-factors-associated-with-cellulitis-and-purulent-skin-abscesses-in-military-trainees
#17
Ryan C Johnson, Michael W Ellis, Carey D Schlett, Eugene V Millar, Patrick T LaBreck, Deepika Mor, Emad M Elassal, Jeffrey B Lanier, Cassie L Redden, Tianyuan Cui, Nimfa Teneza-Mora, Danett K Bishop, Eric R Hall, Kimberly A Bishop-Lilly, D Scott Merrell
: Military trainees are at high risk for skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). Although Staphylococcus aureus is associated with purulent SSTI, it is unclear to what degree this pathogen causes nonpurulent cellulitis. To inform effective prevention strategies and to provide novel insights into SSTI pathogenesis, we aimed to determine the etiology of SSTI in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study in US Army Infantry trainees with SSTI (cutaneous abscesses and cellulitis) from July 2012 through December 2014...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766204/draft-genome-sequence-of-staphylococcus-hominis-strain-hudgins-isolated-from-human-skin-implicates-metabolic-versatility-and-several-virulence-determinants
#18
Shelby Calkins, M B Couger, Colin Jackson, Jordan Zandler, Garett C Hudgins, Radwa A Hanafy, Connie Budd, Donald P French, Wouter D Hoff, Noha Youssef
Staphylococcus hominis is a predominant member of the human skin microbiome. We here report on the genomic analysis of Staphylococcus hominis strain Hudgins that was isolated from the wrist area of human skin. The partial genome assembly of S. hominis Hudgins consists of 2,211,863 bp of DNA with 2174 protein-coding genes and 90 RNA genes. Based on the genomic analysis of KEGG pathways, the organism is expected to be a versatile heterotroph potentially capable of hydrolyzing the sugars glucose, fructose, mannose, and the amino acids alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, threonine, cysteine, methionine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, arginine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan for energy production through aerobic respiration, with occasional lactate and acetate fermentation...
December 2016: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761936/epigenetic-treatment-of-persistent-viral-infections
#19
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754756/topographical-and-physiological-differences-of-the-skin-mycobiome-in-health-and-disease
#20
Jay-Hyun Jo, Elizabeth A Kennedy, Heidi H Kong
Skin constantly encounters external elements, including microbes. Culture-based studies have identified fungi present on human skin and have linked some species with certain skin diseases. Moreover, modern medical treatments, especially immunosuppressants, have increased the population at risk for cutaneous and invasive fungal infections, emphasizing the need to understand skin fungal communities in health and disease. A major hurdle for studying fungal flora at a community level has been the heterogeneous culture conditions required by skin fungi...
October 18, 2016: Virulence
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