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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644976/biomaterials-that-promote-cell-cell-interactions-enhance-the-paracrine-function-of-mscs
#1
Taimoor H Qazi, David J Mooney, Georg N Duda, Sven Geissler
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that play crucial roles during tissue regeneration. Whether this paracrine function is influenced by the properties of biomaterials in general, and those used for cell delivery in particular, largely remains unexplored. Here, we investigated if three-dimensional culture in distinct microenvironments - nanoporous hydrogels (mean pore size ∼5 nm) and macroporous scaffolds (mean pore size ∼120 μm) - affects the secretion pattern of MSCs, and consequently leads to differential paracrine effects on target progenitor cells such as myoblasts...
June 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644558/current-understanding-of-cancer-stem-cells-review-of-their-radiobiology-and-role-in-head-and-neck-cancers
#2
REVIEW
Paul Ambrose Reid, Puthenparampil Wilson, Yanrui Li, Loredana Gabriela Marcu, Eva Bezak
Evidence of cancer cells that bear attributes analogous to those of normal stem cells has developed a hierarchical model of cancer's architecture and progression. This subset of cancer stem cells (CSCs) drives the progression and therapy resistance of cancers. Research to identify the phenotypes of these CSCs presents evidence of a subpopulation that is more resistant to therapy and may proliferate in response. Literature shows that CSCs typically represent around 1%-10% of cell populations in head and neck cancer but this proportion may increase in response to a therapeutic radiation dose...
June 23, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644303/prostate-cancer-immunotherapy-the-path-forward
#3
Ravi A Madan, James L Gulley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of current strategies being investigated in the development of immunotherapy in prostate cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Development of immunotherapy in prostate cancer actually began in 2010 with FDA approval of sipuleucel-T. Given that immune checkpoint inhibitor trials have either been negative at the phase III level or underwhelming in smaller studies, it is likely that combination strategies will be required to further maximize the impact immune-based therapies on the clinical course of the disease...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644106/viability-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-periodontal-ligament-progenitor-cells-are-maintained-after-incubation-with-porphyromonas-gingivalis-protein-extract
#4
Mayra Laino Albiero, Rafael Nóbrega Stipp, Miki Taketomi Saito, Márcio Zaffalon Casati, Enilson Antonio Sallum, Francisco Humberto Nociti, Karina Gonzales Silvério
BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) is a major periodontal pathogen that contains immunostimulatory components. Periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (PDLSCs) are responsible for regeneration of the periodontium that is lost due to periodontitis. Pathologic factors within the microenvironment that impair resident PDLSCs are not well understood. The present study investigated in vitro the effects of Pg protein extract (PgPE) on the biological properties of CD105-enriched PDL progenitor cell populations (PDL-CD105(+) cells)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644032/receptor-and-microenvironment-dual-recognizable-nanogel-for-targeted-chemotherapy-of-highly-metastatic-malignancy
#5
Jinjin Chen, Jianxun Ding, Weiguo Xu, Tianmeng Sun, Haihua Xiao, Xiuli Zhuang, Xuesi Chen
Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to the desired lesion sites is the main objective in malignancy treatment, especially in highly metastatic malignancies. However, extensive studies around the world on traditional targeting strategies of recognizing either over-expressed receptors or microenvironments in tumors show great limitations, owing to the off-target effect and tumor homogeneity. Integration of both receptor-mediated targeting (RMT) and environment-mediated targeting (EMT) enhances the tumor accumulation and subsequent cell uptake at the same time, which may avoid these limitations...
June 23, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643902/modulation-of-antitumor-immunity-contributes-to-the-enhanced-therapeutic-efficacy-of-liposomal-oxaliplatin-in-mouse-model
#6
Taro Shimizu, Amr S Abu Lila, Miho Nishio, Yusuke Doi, Hidenori Ando, Masami Ukawa, Yu Ishima, Tatsuhiro Ishida
Immune modulation of the tumor microenvironment has been reported to participate to the therapeutic efficacy of many chemotherapeutic agents. Recently, we reported that liposomal encapsulation of oxaliplatin (l-OHP) within PEGylated liposomes conferred a superior antitumor efficacy to free l-OHP in murine colorectal carcinoma-bearing mice via permitting preferential accumulation of the encapsulated drug within tumor tissue. However, the contribution of the immune-modulatory properties of liposomal l-OHP and/or free l-OHP to the overall antitumor efficacy was not elucidated...
June 23, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643452/emerging-nanotechnology-and-advanced-materials-for-cancer-radiation-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Guosheng Song, Liang Cheng, Yu Chao, Kai Yang, Zhuang Liu
Radiation therapy (RT) including external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and internal radioisotope therapy (RIT) has been widely used for clinical cancer treatment. However, owing to the low radiation absorption of tumors, high doses of ionizing radiations are often needed during RT, leading to severe damages to normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Meanwhile, the RT efficacies are limited by different mechanisms, among which the tumor hypoxia-associated radiation resistance is a well-known one, as there exists hypoxia inside most solid tumors while oxygen is essential to enhance radiation-induced DNA damages...
June 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643044/pd-1-signaling-and-inhibition-in-aml-and-mds
#8
REVIEW
Faysal Haroun, Sade A Solola, Samah Nassereddine, Imad Tabbara
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are clinically and molecularly heterogeneous clonal myeloid disorders with a poor prognosis especially in the relapsed refractory setting and in patients above the age of 60. While allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a potentially curative approach, high relapse, morbidity, and mortality rates necessitate the development of alternative therapies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors unmask tumoral immune tolerance and have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of chemotherapy-resistant hematologic and solid malignancies...
June 22, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642997/pd-1-and-cancer-molecular-mechanisms-and-polymorphisms
#9
REVIEW
Arash Salmaninejad, Vahid Khoramshahi, Alireza Azani, Ehsan Soltaninejad, Saeed Aslani, Mohammad Reza Zamani, Masoud Zal, Abolfazl Nesaei, Sayed Mostafa Hosseini
The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is expressed by activated T cells that act as an immunoregulatory molecule, and are responsible for the negative regulation of T cell activation and peripheral tolerance. The PD-1 gene also encodes an inhibitory cell surface receptor involved in the regulation of T cell functions during immune responses/tolerance. Beyond potent inhibitory effects on T cells, PD-1 also has a role in regulating B cell and monocyte responses. An overexpression of PD-1 has been reported to contribute to immune system avoidance in different cancers...
June 22, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642882/tumor-related-exosomes-contribute-to-tumor-promoting-microenvironment-an-immunological-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Wuzhen Chen, Jingxin Jiang, Wenjie Xia, Jian Huang
Exosomes are a kind of cell-released membrane-form structures which contain proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. These vesicular organelles play a key role in intercellular communication. Numerous experiments demonstrated that tumor-related exosomes (TEXs) can induce immune surveillance in the microenvironment in vivo and in vitro. They can interfere with the maturation of DC cells, impair NK cell activation, induce myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and educate macrophages into protumor phenotype. They can also selectively induce effector T cell apoptosis via Fas/FasL interaction and enhance regulatory T cell proliferation and function by releasing TGF-β...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642604/turning-the-tide-in-myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#11
REVIEW
Michael W N Deininger, Jeffrey W Tyner, Eric Solary
Myelodysplastic syndromes/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) are aggressive myeloid malignancies recognized as a distinct category owing to their unique combination of dysplastic and proliferative features. Although current classification schemes still emphasize morphology and exclusionary criteria, disease-defining somatic mutations and/or germline predisposition alleles are increasingly incorporated into diagnostic algorithms. The developing picture suggests that phenotypes are driven mostly by epigenetic mechanisms that reflect a complex interplay between genotype, physiological processes such as ageing and interactions between malignant haematopoietic cells and the stromal microenvironment of the bone marrow...
June 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642603/imaging-of-anticancer-drug-action-in-single-cells
#12
REVIEW
Miles A Miller, Ralph Weissleder
Imaging is widely used in anticancer drug development, typically for whole-body tracking of labelled drugs to different organs or to assess drug efficacy through volumetric measurements. However, increasing attention has been drawn to pharmacology at the single-cell level. Diverse cell types, including cancer-associated immune cells, physicochemical features of the tumour microenvironment and heterogeneous cell behaviour all affect drug delivery, response and resistance. This Review summarizes developments in the imaging of in vivo anticancer drug action, with a focus on microscopy approaches at the single-cell level and translational lessons for the clinic...
June 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642346/detergent-induced-self-assembly-and-controllable-photosensitizer-activity-of-diester-phenylene-ethynylenes
#13
Patrick L Donabedian, Matthew N Creyer, Florencia A Monge, Kirk S Schanze, Eva Y Chi, David G Whitten
Photodynamic therapy, in which malignant tissue is killed by targeted light exposure following administration of a photosensitizer, can be a valuable treatment modality but currently relies on passive transport and local irradiation to avoid off-target oxidation. We present a system of excited-state control for truly local delivery of singlet oxygen. An anionic phenylene ethynylene oligomer is initially quenched by water, producing minimal fluorescence and no measurable singlet oxygen generation. When presented with a binding partner, in this case an oppositely charged surfactant, changes in solvent microenvironment result in fluorescence unquenching, restoration of intersystem crossing to the triplet state, and singlet oxygen generation, as assayed by transient absorption spectroscopy and chemical trapping...
June 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642280/granulocytes-as-modulators-of-dendritic-cell-function
#14
REVIEW
Annelot Breedveld, Tom Groot Kormelink, Marjolein van Egmond, Esther de Jong
Effector T cell development is directly driven by APCs, in particular, by antigen-primed dendritic cells (DCs). Depending on the pathogenic stimulus and the microenvironment, DCs induce proliferation and polarization of naive CD4(+) T cells into different effector subsets, such as Th1, Th2, Th17, or regulatory T cells (Tregs). During inflammation, DCs are found in close proximity to other innate immune cells, including all granulocyte subtypes, which potentially influence the immunomodulatory capacities of DCs...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642238/ager-deletion-enhances-ischemic-muscle-inflammation-neoangiogenesis-and-blood-flow-recovery-in-diabetic-mice
#15
Raquel Lopez Diez, Xiaoping Shen, Gurdip Daffu, Md Khursheed, Jiyuan Hu, Fei Song, Rosa Rosario, Yunlu Xu, Qing Li, Xiangmei Xi, Yu Shan Zou, Huilin Li, Ann Marie Schmidt, Shi Fang Yan
OBJECTIVE: Diabetic subjects are at higher risk of ischemic peripheral vascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) block neoangiogenesis and blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia induced by femoral artery ligation through modulation of immune/inflammatory mechanisms. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Wild-type mice rendered diabetic with streptozotocin and subjected to unilateral femoral artery ligation displayed increased accumulation and expression of AGEs and RAGE in ischemic muscle...
June 22, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642171/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-promotes-osteosarcoma-growth-and-lung-metastasis-through-activating-the-ras-mapk-pathway
#16
Chen Wang, Xing Zhou, Wentao Li, Mingyue Li, Tingyue Tu, Ximing Ba, Yinyu Wu, Zhen Huang, Gentao Fan, Guangxin Zhou, Sujia Wu, Jianning Zhao, Junfeng Zhang, Jiangning Chen
Emerging evidence suggests that the tumour microenvironment plays a critical role in osteosarcoma (OS) development. Thus, cytokine immunotherapy could be a novel strategy for OS treatment. In this study, we explored the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an important cytokine in OS progression, and investigated the anti-tumour effects of targeting MIF in OS. The results showed that MIF significantly increased in the tissue and serum samples of OS patients and was associated with tumour size, pulmonary metastasis and the survival rate of OS patients...
June 19, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642128/immunomodulation-of-parkinson-s-disease-using-mucuna-pruriens-mp
#17
REVIEW
Sachchida Nand Rai, Hareram Birla, Walia Zahra, Saumitra Sen Singh, Surya Pratap Singh
Immune control is associated with nigrostriatal neuroprotection for Parkinson's disease (PD); though its direct cause and effect relationships have not yet been realized and modulating the immune system for therapeutic gain has been openly discussed. While the pathobiology of PD remains in study, neuroinflammation is thought to speed nigrostriatal degeneration. The neuroinflammatory cascade associated with PD begins with aggregation of misfolded or post-translationally modified α-synuclein (α-syn). Such aggregation results in neuronal cell death and the presence of chronically activated glia (microglia and astroglia), leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and enzymes such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642033/atg4b-inhibitors-with-a-benzotropolone-core-structure-block-autophagy-and-augment-efficiency-of-chemotherapy-in-mice
#18
Ammar Kurdi, Matthias Cleenewerck, Christel Vangestel, Sophie Lyssens, Wim Declercq, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Sigrid Stroobants, Koen Augustyns, Guido R Y De Meyer, Pieter Van Der Veken, Wim Martinet
Autophagy is a cell survival mechanism hijacked by advanced tumors to endure a rough microenvironment. Late autophagy inhibitors such as (hydroxy)chloroquine have been used clinically to halt tumor progression with modest success. However, given the toxic nature of these compounds and their lack of specificity, novel targets should be considered. We recently identified a benzotropolone derivative that significantly inhibited the essential autophagy protein ATG4B. Therefore, we synthesized and tested additional benzotropolone compounds to identify a promising ATG4B inhibitor that impairs autophagy both in vitro and in vivo...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641961/wnt5a-and-its-signaling-pathway-in-angiogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Ya-Ning Shi, Neng Zhu, Chan Liu, Hong-Tao Wu, Yu Gui, Duan-Fang Liao, Li Qin
Wnt5a, a secreted glycoprotein, belongs to the noncanonical Wnt family involved in a wide range of organism development and tissue homeostasis. Wnt5a and its signaling pathway can regulate fundamental cellular processes, including specification of cell fate, proliferation, and survival. Accumulating evidence indicates that Wnt5a exhibits dual effects on angiogenesis. The formation of new blood vessels derives from pre-existing vessels via canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways, depending on cell types, receptors, downstream effectors, and microenvironment...
June 19, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641656/-effect-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-the-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-leukemic-cells-and-its-mechanism
#20
Ming-Ying Li, Chun-Ting Zhao, Bo-Li Cui, Shao-Ling Wu, Xiao-Dan Liu, Zhan Su, Tian-Lan Li, Ling-Jie Sun, Wei Wang, Xiao-Yan Ju
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells(HUCMSC) on the leukemic cell line HL-60 and acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Jurkat as well as the role of CXCL12/CXCR4. METHODS: HL-60 cells and Jurkat cells were co-cultured with human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (HUCMSC), and the model was treated with G-CSF, AMD3100 and their combination. The cell viability and cell cycle were measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), the apoptosis and the cell-cycle analysis were assessed by flow cytometry with the Annexin V/PI double staining...
June 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
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