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stroke inflammation intracranial hemorrhage

Airton Leonardo de Oliveira Manoel, R Loch Macdonald
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a sub-type of hemorrhagic stroke associated with the highest rates of mortality and long-term neurological disabilities. Despite the improvement in the management of SAH patients and the reduction in case fatality in the last decades, disability and mortality remain high in this population. Brain injury can occur immediately and in the first days after SAH. This early brain injury can be due to physical effects on the brain such as increased intracranial pressure, herniations, intracerebral, intraventricular hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Zhenhui Duan, Huaiming Wang, Zhen Wang, Yonggang Hao, Wenjie Zi, Dong Yang, Zhiming Zhou, Wenhua Liu, Min Lin, Zhonghua Shi, Penghua Lv, Yue Wan, Gelin Xu, Yunyun Xiong, Wusheng Zhu, Xinfeng Liu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Endovascular treatment (EVT) is proven to be safe and effective for treating acute large vessel occlusion stroke (LVOS). The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) reflects systemic inflammation, which plays an important role in the process of treating ischemic stroke. This study aims to explore the relationship between NLR and the clinical outcomes of LVOS patients undergoing EVT. METHODS: Patients were selected from the EVT for acUte Anterior circuLation (ACTUAL) ischemic stroke registry...
May 15, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Elzbieta Pawlowska, Joanna Szczepanska, Karol Wisniewski, Paulina Tokarz, Dariusz J Jaskólski, Janusz Blasiak
The rupture of saccular intracranial aneurysms (IA) is the commonest cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)—the most serious form of stroke with a high mortality rate. Aneurysm walls are usually characterized by an active inflammatory response, and NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) has been identified as the main transcription factor regulating the induction of inflammation-related genes in IA lesions. This transcription factor has also been related to IA rupture and resulting SAH...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
S Nayak-Rao, M P Shenoy
Renal failure is a potent risk factor for stroke, which is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The risk of stroke is 5-30 times higher in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially on dialysis. Case fatality rates are also higher reaching almost 90%. It is therefore important to understand the factors that predispose to stroke in this vulnerable population to better apply preventive strategies. The heightened risk of stroke in CKD represents the interplay of the vascular co-morbidities that occur with renal impairment and factors specific to renal failure such as malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis complex, the effect of uremic toxins, dialysis techniques, vascular access, and the use of anticoagulants to maintain flow in the extracorporeal circuit...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Carsten Deppermann, Peter Kraft, Julia Volz, Michael K Schuhmann, Sarah Beck, Karen Wolf, David Stegner, Guido Stoll, Bernhard Nieswandt
Platelets maintain hemostasis after injury, but also during inflammation. Recent studies have shown that platelets prevent inflammatory bleeding through (hem) immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-dependent mechanisms irrespective of aggregation during skin and lung inflammation. Although the exact mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown, it was speculated that mediators released from platelet granules might be involved. Maintaining cerebral hemostasis during stroke treatment is of high clinical relevance because hemorrhage may aggravate the disease state and increase mortality...
March 23, 2017: Blood
Jeffrey T Guptill, Shruti M Raja, Felix Boakye-Agyeman, Robert Noveck, Sarah Ramey, Tian Ming Tu, Daniel T Laskowitz
Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) remains a devastating stroke subtype, affecting as many as 80,000 people annually in the United States and associated with extremely high mortality. In the absence of any pharmacological interventions demonstrated to improve outcome, care for patients with ICH remains largely supportive. Thus, despite advances in the understanding of ICH and brain injury, there remains an unmet need for interventions that improve neurologic recovery and outcomes. Recent research suggesting inflammation and APOE genotype play a role in modifying neurologic outcome after brain injury has led to the development of an APOE-derived peptide agent (CN-105)...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Menno R Germans, Hieronymus D Boogaarts, R Loch Macdonald
Ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury-all have in common early brain injury due to brain tissue destruction, reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery, and overall substantial morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of brain tissue damage likely includes common cellular mechanisms. Neuroprotection has seldom, if ever, been shown to reduce early brain injury. Secondary brain injury develops after these conditions due to macroscopic events such as increased intracranial pressure and reduced cerebral blood flow, as well as cellular processes including vascular damage, inflammation, and apoptotic/necrotic cell death...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Gaurav Saigal, Natalya Nagornaya, M Judith D Post
Imaging is useful in the diagnosis and management of infections of the central nervous system. Typically, imaging findings at the outset of the disease are subtle and nonspecific, but they often evolve to more definite imaging patterns in a few days, with less rapidity than for stroke but faster than for neoplastic lesions. This timing is similar to that of noninfectious inflammatory brain disease, such as multiple sclerosis. Fortunately, imaging patterns help to distinguish the two kinds of processes. Other than for sarcoidosis, the meninges are seldom involved in noninfectious inflammation; in contrast, many infectious processes involve the meninges, which then enhance with contrast on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Melanie Dittmeier, Kathrin Wassmuth, Michael K Schuhmann, Peter Kraft, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Felix Fluri
Dabigatran etexilate (DE), a direct-acting, oral inhibitor of thrombin, significantly reduces the risk of stroke compared with traditional anticoagulants, without increasing the risk of major bleeding. However, studies on the fate of cerebral tissue after ischemic stroke in patients receiving DE are sparse and the role of dabigatran-mediated reduction of thrombin in this context has not yet been investigated. Here, we investigated whether pretreatment with DE reduces thrombin-mediated pro-inflammatory mechanisms and leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following ischemic stroke in rats...
2016: Current Neurovascular Research
Haiping Zheng, Chunli Chen, Jie Zhang, Zhiping Hu
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subtype of stroke with a severe high mortality and disability rate and accounts for about 10-15% of all strokes. The oppression and destruction by hematoma to brain tissue cause the primary brain injury. The inflammation and coagulation response after ICH would accelerate the formation of brain edema around hematoma, resulting in a more severe and durable injury. Currently, treatments for ICH are focusing on the primary injury including reducing intracranial hypertension, blood pressure control, and rehabilitation...
2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Maurizio Acampa, Pietro Enea Lazzerini, Francesca Guideri, Rossana Tassi, Giuseppe Martini
Cerebrovascular complications after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) are more common in comparison with neurological sequelae subsequent to routine cardiac surgery. Ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) are more common (with an incidence of up to 13%) than intracranial hemorrhage (2.5%). Clinically, ischemic stroke is manifested by the appearance of focal neurologic deficits, although sometimes a stroke may be silent or manifests itself by the appearance of encephalopathy, reflecting a diffuse brain disorder...
May 2016: Journal of Stroke
Anastasia Orlova Lorentzen, Terje Nome, Søren Jacob Bakke, David Scheie, Vidar Stenset, Anne Hege Aamodt
Flow diverter stents are new important tools in the treatment of large, giant, or wide-necked aneurysms. Their delivery and positioning may be difficult due to vessel tortuosity. Common adverse events include intracranial hemorrhage and ischemic stroke, which usually occurs within the same day, or the next few days after the procedure. We present a case where we encountered an unusual intracerebral complication several months after endovascular treatment of a large left internal carotid artery aneurysm, and where brain biopsy revealed foreign body reaction to hydrophilic polymer fragments distally to the stent site...
February 2016: Interventional Neuroradiology
Hamza M Pasha, David M Mirsky, Sven O Streubel
Cerebral artery infarction as a complication of acute otitis media is a rare complication. The mechanism appears to be the spread of meningeal inflammation to involve the walls of intracranial vessels, resulting in arterial thrombosis with ischemia or rupture with hemorrhage. We report the case of a 3 year old female with a history of global developmental delay who sustained a large left hemispheric stroke after middle cerebral artery infarction as a complication of an acute otitis media.
October 2015: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Daniel Agustin Godoy, Gustavo Rene Piñero, Patricia Koller, Luca Masotti, Mario Di Napoli
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is a type of stroke associated with poor outcomes. Mortality is elevated, especially in the acute phase. From a pathophysiological point of view the bleeding must traverse different stages dominated by the possibility of re-bleeding, edema, intracranial hypertension, inflammation and neurotoxicity due to blood degradation products, mainly hemoglobin and thrombin. Neurological deterioration and death are common in early hours, so it is a true neurological-neurosurgical emergency...
August 4, 2015: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Howard S Kirshner, Michael Bradshaw
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAARI) is a recently recognized syndrome of reversible encephalopathy seen in a subset of patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). CAA is a disorder of the elderly in which amyloid peptides are deposited in the walls of cerebral arteries, leading to microhemorrhages, macrohemorrhages, and eventually dementia. In a few cases, the amyloid deposition is accompanied by inflammation or edema. The clinical syndrome of CAARI is distinguished by subacute neurobehavioral symptoms, headaches, seizures, and stroke-like signs, contrasting the acute intracranial hemorrhage typically seen in CAA...
August 2015: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Ran Meng, Yuchuan Ding, Karam Asmaro, David Brogan, Lu Meng, Meng Sui, Jingfei Shi, Yunxia Duan, Zhishan Sun, Yang Yu, Jianping Jia, Xunming Ji
UNLABELLED: Symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis (SIAS) is very common in octo- and nonagenarians, especially in the Chinese population, and is likely the most common cause of stroke recurrence worldwide. Clinical trials demonstrate that endovascular treatment, such as stenting, may not be suitable for octogenarians with systemic diseases. Hence, less invasive methods for the octogenarian patients are urgently needed. Our previous study (unique identifier: NCT01321749) showed that repetitive bilateral arm ischemic preconditioning (BAIPC) reduced the incidence of stroke recurrence by improving cerebral perfusion (confirmed by single photon emission computed tomography and transcranial Doppler sonography) in patients younger than 80 years of age; however, the safety and effectiveness of BAIPC on stroke prevention in octo- and nonagenarians with SIAS are still unclear...
July 2015: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Damon Klebe, Devin McBride, Jerry J Flores, John H Zhang, Jiping Tang
Cerebral hemorrhages account for 15-20 % of stroke sub-types and have very poor prognoses. The mortality rate for cerebral hemorrhage patients is between 40 and 50 %, of which at least half of the deaths occur within the first 2 days, and 75 % of survivors are incapable of living independently after 1 year. Current emergency interventions involve lowering blood pressure and reducing intracranial pressure by controlled ventilations or, in the worst case scenarios, surgical intervention. Some hemostatic and coagulatherapeutic interventions are being investigated, although a few that were promising in experimental studies have failed in clinical trials...
December 2015: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Xiang Fan, Yinghua Jiang, Zhanyang Yu, Jing Yuan, Xiaochuan Sun, Shuanglin Xiang, Eng H Lo, Xiaoying Wang
To date, tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA)-based thrombolytic stroke therapy is the only FDA-approved treatment for achieving vascular reperfusion and clinical benefit, but this agent is given to only about 5% of stroke patients in the USA. This may be related, in part, to the elevated risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and consequently limited therapeutic time window. Clinical investigations demonstrate that poststroke hyperglycemia is one of the most important risk factors that cause intracerebral hemorrhage and worsen neurological outcomes...
2014: Advances in Pharmacology
Sitara Roy, Satrupa Das, Anjana Munshi, Subhash Kaul, Akka Jyothy
BACKGROUND: CCL11 (Eotaxin-1) is an important inflammatory cytokine belonging to the CC family of chemokines associated with a number of infection or inflammation-related diseases such as atherosclerosis and stroke. We investigated the association of CCL11 gene polymorphism rs4795895-1382A>G with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six hundred and twenty ischemic stroke patients, 620 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, and 220 hemorrhagic stroke patients, 220 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the present study...
July 2014: Neurology India
Fanxia Shen, Vincent Degos, Pei-Lun Chu, Zhenying Han, Erick M Westbroek, Eun-Jung Choi, Douglas Marchuk, Helen Kim, Michael T Lawton, Mervyn Maze, William L Young, Hua Su
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endoglin deficiency causes hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia-1 and impairs myocardial repair. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia-1 are associated with a high incidence of paradoxical embolism in the cerebral circulation and ischemic brain injury. We hypothesized that endoglin deficiency impairs stroke recovery. METHODS: Eng heterozygous (Eng+/-) and wild-type mice underwent permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO)...
July 2014: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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