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Signal transduction

Karolina Nemes, Michael C Frühwald
Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor (MRT) is a rare and highly aggressive malignancy primarily affecting infants and young children. The most common anatomic locations are the central nervous system (AT/RT), the kidneys (RTK) and other soft tissues (eMRT). The genetic origin of this disease is linked to mutations in SMARCB1, a gene encoding a core subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. Areas covered: Conventional multimodal treatment may offer a significant survival benefit to certain patients. It remains to be determined, however, which patients will prove resistant to chemotherapy and need novel therapeutic approaches...
March 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Min Jiang, Qiang Lyu, Yun-Gang Bai, Huan Liu, Jing Yang, Jiu-Hua Cheng, Ming Zheng, Jin Ma
Recent studies have suggested that microgravity-induced arterial remodelling contributes to post-flight orthostatic intolerance and that multiple mechanisms are involved in arterial remodelling. However, the initial mechanism by which haemodynamic changes induce arterial remodelling is unknown. Focal adhesions (FAs) are dynamic protein complexes that have mechanotransduction properties. This study aimed to investigate the role of FAs in simulated microgravity-induced basilar and femoral arterial remodelling...
March 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Zhimin Du, Ki Hyung Kim, Juil Kim, Yuseok Moon
Adlay is a cereal crop that has long been used as traditional herbal medicine and as a highly nourishing food. However, deoxynivalenol (DON), the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin worldwide, frequently spoils grains, including adlay, via fungal infection. On the basis of an assumption that the actions of DON in the gut could be modified by adlay consumption, we simulated the impacts of co-exposure in enterocytes and investigated the effectiveness of treatment with adlay for reducing the risk of DON-induced inflammation and epithelia barrier injury...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tong Hao, Dan Wu, Lingxuan Zhao, Qian Wang, Edwin Wang, Jinsheng Sun
The genome-scale cellular network has become a necessary tool in the systematic analysis of microbes. In a cell, there are several layers (i.e., types) of the molecular networks, for example, genome-scale metabolic network (GMN), transcriptional regulatory network (TRN), and signal transduction network (STN). It has been realized that the limitation and inaccuracy of the prediction exist just using only a single-layer network. Therefore, the integrated network constructed based on the networks of the three types attracts more interests...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xiaoxu Chen, Xiaoke Nie, Jiamin Mao, Yan Zhang, Kaizhi Yin, Shengyang Jiang
Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)-containing compounds are widely used in all aspects of industrial and consumer products. Recent studies indicated that PFOS is ubiquitous in environments and is considered to be a new type of persistent organic pollutant (POP). This has raised concerns regarding its adverse effects on human health. The nervous system is regarded as a sensitive target of environmental contaminants, including PFOS. Previous findings showed that PFOS can induce neurobehavioral deficits. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PFOS neurotoxicity remains obscure...
March 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Xu Chen, Xuan Li, Wenyan Zhang, Jie He, Bo Xu, Bin Lei, Zhenhua Wang, Courtney Cates, Thomas Rousselle, Ji Li
BACKGROUND: AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) is a stress-activated kinase that protects against cardiomyocyte injury during ischemia and reperfusion. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a mitogen activated protein kinase, is activated by ischemia and reperfusion. NF-κB is an important transcription factor involved in ischemia and reperfusion injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: The intrinsic activation of AMPK attenuates the inflammation which occurred during ischemia/reperfusion through the modulation of the JNK mediated NF-κB signaling pathway...
March 8, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Marcel Wiesweg, Henning Reis, Tobias Köster, Moritz Goetz, Karl Worm, Thomas Herold, Andreas Paul, Alexander Dechêne, Brigitte Schumacher, Peter Markus, Isabel Virchow, Karina Kostbade, Nathalie Wolf, Gregor Zaun, Martin Metzenmacher, Kurt W Schmid, Martin Schuler, Stefan Kasper
BACKGROUND: Deregulation of signal transduction pathways plays a critical role in oncogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and directly affects sensitivity to targeted therapies. Against this background we developed a comprehensive biomarker profiling program including markers of downstream signaling to study their association with clinical outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospectively studied cohort of 160 patients with metastatic CRC was included. Standard diagnostic workup included mutational analyses of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS), and v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF)...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Mary K Phillips-Jones, Stephen E Harding
In this review, we discuss mechanisms of resistance identified in bacterial agents Staphylococcus aureus and the enterococci towards two priority classes of antibiotics-the fluoroquinolones and the glycopeptides. Members of both classes interact with a number of components in the cells of these bacteria, so the cellular targets are also considered. Fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms include efflux pumps (MepA, NorA, NorB, NorC, MdeA, LmrS or SdrM in S. aureus and EfmA or EfrAB in the enterococci) for removal of fluoroquinolone from the intracellular environment of bacterial cells and/or protection of the gyrase and topoisomerase IV target sites in Enterococcus faecalis by Qnr-like proteins...
March 10, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Zofia Iskierko, Krzysztof Noworyta, Piyush Sindhu Sharma
Molecular recognition, i.e., ability of one molecule to recognize another through weak bonding interactions, is one of the bases of life. It is often implemented to sensing systems of high merits. Preferential recognition of the analyte (guest) by the receptor (host) induces changes in physicochemical properties of the sensing system. These changes are measured by using suitable signal transducers. Because of possibility of miniaturization, fast response, and high sensitivity, field-effect transistors (FETs) are more frequently being used for that purpose...
March 6, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Zahra Tahmasebi Fard, Nahid Nafisi
BACKGROUND: Caveolae play a role in cell signal transduction, kinetic regulation of transport vesicles, and cellular physiology. In this study, we evaluated the role of caveolin-1 (CAV-1) genotypes in the risk of breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CAV-1 gene in a sample size of 406 participants. Six polymorphisms-G32124A (rs3807992), T29107A (rs7804372), T28608A (rs3757733), G21985A (rs12672038), G14713A (rs3807987), and C521A (rs1997623)-were assessed using restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
Kevin Thurley, Lani F Wu, Steven J Altschuler
Cell-to-cell communication networks have critical roles in coordinating diverse organismal processes, such as tissue development or immune cell response. However, compared with intracellular signal transduction networks, the function and engineering principles of cell-to-cell communication networks are far less understood. Major complications include: cells are themselves regulated by complex intracellular signaling networks; individual cells are heterogeneous; and output of any one cell can recursively become an additional input signal to other cells...
February 23, 2018: Cell Systems
Frank Curmi, Ruben J Cauchi
Gemin3, also known as DDX20 or DP103, is a DEAD-box RNA helicase which is involved in more than one cellular process. Though RNA unwinding has been determined in vitro , it is surprisingly not required for all of its activities in cellular metabolism. Gemin3 is an essential gene, present in Amoeba and Metazoa. The highly conserved N-terminus hosts the helicase core, formed of the helicase- and DEAD-domains, which, based on crystal structure determination, have key roles in RNA binding. The C-terminus of Gemin3 is highly divergent between species and serves as the interaction site for several accessory factors that could recruit Gemin3 to its target substrates and/or modulate its function...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Juliane Lokau, Christoph Garbers
Interleukin (IL)-11 is a multifunctional cytokine that was traditionally recognized for its hematopoietic and anti-inflammatory functions, but has recently been shown also to be involved in tumorigenesis. IL-11 signaling is initiated by binding of the cytokine to the IL-11 receptor (IL-11R), which is not directly involved in signaling, but required for IL-11 binding to the signal-transducing receptor glycoprotein (gp)130. In classic signaling, IL-11 binds to the membrane-bound IL-11R in order to initiate signal transduction...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jeremy Streuli, Alan G Harris, Cecilia Cottiny, Florent Allagnat, Adrian F Daly, Eric Grouzmann, Karim Abid
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are first-line medical therapy for the treatment of acromegaly and neuroendocrine tumors that express somatostatin receptors (SSTR). Somatostatin suppresses secretion of a large number of hormones through the stimulation of the five SSTR. However, unbalanced inhibition of secretion as observed with the highly potent SSAs pasireotide causes hyperglycaemia mainly by inhibiting insulin secretion. In contrast, AP102 a new SSAs has neutral effect on blood glucose while suppressing GH secretion...
March 2, 2018: Neuropeptides
Hong Liang, Shan Chen, Peipei Li, Liping Wang, Jingying Li, Juan Li, Huang-Hao Yang, Weihong Tan
Herein, we report a nongenetic and real-time approach for imaging protein dimerization on living cell surfaces by aptamer recognition and proximity-induced DNA assembly. We use the aptamer specific for the receptor monomer as a recognition probe. When receptor dimerization occurs, the dimeric receptors bring two aptamer probes into close proximity, thereby triggering dynamic DNA assembly. The proposed approach was successfully applied to visualize dimerization of Met receptor and transforming growth factor-β type II receptor...
March 9, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Fang Wang, Yu Xiu Dong, Xiao Zhen Tang, Tian Li Tu, Bin Zhao, Na Sui, Daolin Fu, Xian Sheng Zhang
To study mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis regulation, we examined light-regulated gene expression involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple grain of wheat. Ten kinds of anthocyanins were identified from a purple-grain wheat cultivar by HPLC ESI-MS/MS analysis. The libraries constructed from total RNA of purple grain under light (L) or dark (D) conditions for 15 and 20 days were sequenced. In total, 1,874 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in L20 vs. L15, 1,432 DEGs in D20 vs. D15, 862 DEGs in D15 vs...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Allan B James, Stuart Sullivan, Hugh G Nimmo
How plants perceive and respond to temperature remains an important question in the plant sciences. Temperature perception and signal transduction may occur through temperature-sensitive intra-molecular folding of primary mRNA transcripts. Recent studies suggested a role for retention of the first intron in the 5'UTR of the clock component LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) in response to changes in temperature. Here we identified a set of haplotypes in the LHY 5'UTR, examined their global spatial distribution and obtained evidence that haplotype can affect temperature-dependent splicing of LHY transcripts...
March 8, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Thomas Theis, Anmol Singh Johal, Maciej Kabat, Sayantani Basak, Melitta Schachner
Glycosylation fine-tunes signal transduction of adhesion molecules during neural development and supports synaptic plasticity and repair after injury in the adult nervous system. One abundantly expressed neural glycan is LewisX (LeX). Although it is known that its expression starts at the formation of the neural tube during the second embryonic week in the mouse and peaks during the first postnatal week, its functional relevance is only rudimentarily understood. To gain better insights into the functions of this glycan, we identified small organic compounds that mimic structurally and functionally this glycan glycosidically linked to several neural adhesion molecules...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Chenxing Ji, Hua Guo, Pei Zhang, Wei Kuang, Yanghua Fan, Lei Wu
As an important member of the Annexins, AnnexinA5 has been attributed important functions in trophoblast membrane repair, anticoagulation and cellular signal transduction. Accumulated studies show that AnnexinA5 is closely associated with various types of carcinomas. However, the potential contribution of AnnexinA5 to glioma cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we report that AnnexinA5 is significantly upregulated in both high-grade glioma samples and glioma cell lines. Moreover, overexpression of AnnexinA5 promotes cell migration and invasion in vitro and tumorigenicity of glioma cells in nude mice, while knockdown of AnnexinA5 manifests a repressive function during these cellular processes...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Suzhen Qi, Donghui Wang, Lizhen Zhu, Miaomiao Teng, Chengju Wang, Xiaofeng Xue, Liming Wu
Cycloxaprid (CYC) is a novel neonicotinoid insecticide with high activity against resistant pests but is safe for mammals. The toxic effects of CYC on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied in this paper. The 14-day exposure results showed that CYC is potentially toxic to earthworms, with a 14d-LC50 of 10.21 mg/kgdry soil , and that it induced tissue damage to the epidermis, gut, and neurochord at sublethal doses. During a 21-day exposure, CYC induced oxidative stress in earthworms, and both enzyme activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were impacted...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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