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gastrointestinal stromal tumour

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285324/focus-on-periodontal-disease-and-colorectal-carcinoma
#1
REVIEW
D Lauritano, L Sbordone, M Nardone, A Iapichino, L Scapoli, F Carinci
Diagnosis of focal disease, the theory that the human oral microbial (HOM) could affect the onset and development of systemic diseases, was very popular in the past, but the lack of scientific evidence has led to the abandonment of this idea. Interestingly, increasing evidence over the past 3 or so decades suggests that HOM can indeed serve as a reservoir for systemic dissemination of pathogenic bacteria and their toxins in distant body sites, favouring the developments of malignant tumours. Malignant tumours are complex communities of oncogenically transformed cells with aberrant genomes, associated non-neoplastic cells including immune and stromal cells, and sometimes HOM, including bacteria and viruses...
July 2017: Oral & Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279593/diagnostic-conundrum-of-a-perineal-tumour-a-rectal-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumour-mimic
#2
R Shi, M H Chew, W Q Leow
Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is a common mesenchymal tumour arising in the gastrointestinal tract, but not frequently encountered in the rectum. Herein, we describe a case of a rectal GIST which mimicked histomorphological features of a schwannoma; thus, making intraoperative frozen section evaluation challenging. Although subsequent immunohistochemistry and molecular findings readily confirmed the diagnosis of a GIST, we wish to draw attention to three clues that will help the pathologist steer clear of this potential diagnostic pitfall...
December 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258858/emerging-biomarkers-for-immunomodulatory-cancer-treatment-of-upper-gastrointestinal-pancreatic-and-hepatic-cancers
#3
REVIEW
Belinda Lee, Ryan Hutchinson, Hui-Li Wong, Jeanne Tie, Tracy Putoczki, Ben Tran, Peter Gibbs, Michael Christie
Carcinomas of the oesophagus, stomach, pancreas and liver are common and account for a disproportionately high number of cancer deaths. There is a need for new treatment options for patients with advanced disease. Immunomodulatory treatments including immune checkpoint blockade offer a promising new approach, with efficacy shown in other solid tumour types. However, only a small proportion of patients with carcinomas of the oesophagus, stomach, pancreas and liver have responded to single agent checkpoint inhibitors, and there is a need for markers that are predictive of response to guide treatment of individual patients...
December 16, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239342/transgastric-submucosal-excision-of-small-to-medium-sized-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumours-by-pure-minimally-invasive-approach
#4
Manash Ranjan Sahoo, Sumeet Deshpande, Shameel Ahmmed
AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of a single and common approach for transgastric submucosal excision of small- to medium-sized gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) having different locations in upper two-third of the stomach by pure minimally invasive approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study from February 2012 to January 2015 on 11 patients was conducted including both male and female. Their age ranged from 40 to 65 years. All were subjected to laparoscopic transgastric submucosal excision of GIST in upper two-third of the stomach with 1 cm margin having different locations in stomach...
January 2018: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239034/succinate-dehydrogenase-sdh-deficient-neoplasia
#5
REVIEW
Anthony J Gill
The succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex is a key respiratory enzyme composed of four subunits: SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. Remarkably, immunohistochemistry for SDHB becomes negative whenever there is bi-alleic inactivation of any component of SDH, which is very rare in the absence of syndromic disease. Therefore, loss of SDHB immunohistochemistry serves as a marker of syndromic disease, usually germline mutation of one of the SDH subunits. Tumours which show loss of SDHB expression are termed succinate dehydrogenase-deficient...
January 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207774/a-diagnostic-surprise-for-a-right-iliac-fossa-mass-a-perforated-ileal-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumour
#6
J Sanjay Prakash, Anita Samraj, G Sabarish Kumar, R Vijai
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours (GISTs) are tumours of the gut found mostly in stomach and small intestine. The complications are Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, obstruction, pain and rarely perforation. We are reporting an abnormal presentation of GIST masquerading as an acute abdomen with Right Iliac Fossa (RIF) mass in 60-year-old lady. Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) of abdomen revealed a peripherally enhancing encapsulated abscess in RIF in close contact with base of caecum and adjacent peritonitis suggesting caecal perforation...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196126/oncogenic-kit-signalling-on-the-golgi-is-suppressed-by-blocking-secretory-trafficking-with-m-copa-in-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumours
#7
Yuuki Obata, Keita Horikawa, Isamu Shiina, Tsuyoshi Takahashi, Takatsugu Murata, Yasutaka Tasaki, Kyohei Suzuki, Keita Yonekura, Hiroyasu Esumi, Toshirou Nishida, Ryo Abe
Most gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are caused by constitutively active mutations in Kit tyrosine kinase. The drug imatinib, a specific Kit inhibitor, improves the prognosis of metastatic GIST patients, but these patients become resistant to the drug by acquiring secondary mutations in the Kit kinase domain. We recently reported that a Kit mutant causes oncogenic signals only on the Golgi apparatus in GISTs. In this study, we show that in GIST, 2-methylcoprophilinamide (M-COPA, also known as "AMF-26"), an inhibitor of biosynthetic protein trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi, suppresses Kit autophosphorylation at Y703/Y721/Y730/Y936, resulting in blockade of oncogenic signalling...
November 28, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194890/ultra-late-recurrence-of-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumour-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Ugo Grossi, Francesco Ardito, Leonardo Petracca Ciavarella, Marta Goglia, Felice Giuliante
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183145/emerging-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumour
#9
Vineela Kasireddy, Margaret von Mehren
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have transformed the treatment landscape for patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Unfortunately, resistance to the currently approved TKIs poses a huge challenge, and patients are in need of additional therapeutic options. Fortunately, many novel therapeutic approaches are being tested in treatment of GIST to overcome resistance to the approved TKIs Areas Covered: We performed an extensive literature (PUBMED) search to identify emerging drugs being tested in treatment of GIST in early phase clinical trials...
November 29, 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175461/the-future-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-based-therapeutic-approaches-for-cancer-from-cells-to-ghosts
#10
Andrea Mohr, Ralf Zwacka
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells which can differentiate into a variety of cell types including osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. They are normally resident in adipose tissue, bone marrow and the umbilical cord, but can also be found in other tissues and are known to be recruited to sites of wound healing as well as growing tumours. The therapeutic potential of MSCs has been explored in a number of phase I/II and III clinical trials, of which several were targeted against graft-versus-host disease and to support engraftment of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but currently only very few in the oncology field...
November 23, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114386/suppression-of-inflammation-and-tissue-damage-by-a-hookworm-recombinant-protein-in-experimental-colitis
#11
Ivana B Ferreira, Darren A Pickering, Sally Troy, John Croese, Alex Loukas, Severine Navarro
Gastrointestinal parasites, hookworms in particular, have evolved to cause minimal harm to their hosts when present in small numbers, allowing them to establish chronic infections for decades. They do so by creating an immunoregulatory environment that promotes their own survival, but paradoxically also benefits the host by protecting against the onset of many inflammatory diseases. To harness the therapeutic value of hookworms without using live parasites, we have examined the protective properties of the recombinant protein anti-inflammatory protein (AIP)-1, secreted in abundance by hookworms within the intestinal mucosa, in experimental colitis...
October 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110655/treatment-of-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumours-in-paediatric-and-young-adult-patients-with-sunitinib-a-multicentre-case-series
#12
Piotr Rutkowski, Heather Magnan, Alexander J Chou, Charlotte Benson
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are rarely encountered mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract (1.5 people per 100,000/year) that are even more rarely seen in paediatric patients (1-2% of all cases). The standard treatment for advanced adult GIST is imatinib with sunitinib as a second-line option. Although the efficacy and tolerability of sunitinib in adults with GIST has been established, little is known of the profile of sunitinib in paediatric/young adult patients with GIST given the rarity of this disease...
November 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073582/elderly-patients-with-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumour-gist-receive-less-treatment-irrespective-of-performance-score-or-comorbidity-a-retrospective-multicentre-study-in-a-large-cohort-of-gist-patients
#13
Sheima Farag, Frits van Coevorden, Esther Sneekes, Dirk J Grunhagen, Anna K L Reyners, Pieter A Boonstra, Winette T van der Graaf, Hans J Gelderblom, Neeltje Steeghs
OBJECTIVE: Although gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) predominantly occur in older patients, data on treatment patterns in elderly GIST patients are scarce. METHODS: Patients registered in the Dutch GIST Registry (DGR) from January 2009 until December 2016 were included. Differences in treatment patterns between elderly (≥75 years) and younger patients were compared. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression. RESULTS: Data of 145 elderly and 665 non-elderly patients were registered (median age 78 and 60 years respectively)...
October 23, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070651/gene-of-the-month-sdh
#14
REVIEW
Alessandro Pietro Aldera, Dhirendra Govender
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a heterotetrameric nuclear encoded mitochondrial protein complex which plays a role in the citric acid cycle and the electron transfer chain. Germline mutations in SDHA are associated with Leigh syndrome. Mutations in SDHB, SDHC and SDHD are found in an increasing number of neoplasms, most notably paragangliomas and wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumours. SDH deficiency in these tumours has important prognostic implications, and also provides a novel target for molecular therapy...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054076/genetic-polymorphisms-in-angiogenesis-related-genes-are-associated-with-worse-progression-free-survival-of-patients-with-advanced-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumours-treated-with-imatinib
#15
Michiel C Verboom, Jacqueline S L Kloth, Jesse J Swen, Tahar van der Straaten, Judith V M G Bovée, Stefan Sleijfer, Anna K L Reyners, Ron H J Mathijssen, Henk-Jan Guchelaar, Neeltje Steeghs, Hans Gelderblom
BACKGROUND: Imatinib 400 mg per day is first-line therapy for patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). Although clinical benefit is high, progression-free survival (PFS) is variable. This study explores the relationship of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to imatinib pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and PFS in imatinib-treated patients with advanced GIST. METHODS: In 227 patients a pharmacogenetic pathway analysis was performed...
November 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044935/unusual-presentation-of-metastatic-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumour
#16
Hao-Yun Yap, Tze-Wei Chng, Brian K P Goh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983577/early-experience-with-robot-assisted-laparoscopic-hepatobiliary-and-pancreatic-surgery-in-singapore-single-institution-experience-with-20-consecutive-patients
#17
Brian Kp Goh, Ser-Yee Lee, Chung-Yip Chan, Jen-San Wong, Peng-Chung Cheow, Alexander Yf Chung, London Lpj Ooi
INTRODUCTION: Presently, experience with robot-assisted laparoscopic (RAL) hepatobiliary and pancreatic (HPB) surgery remains limited worldwide. In this study, we report our early experience with RAL HPB surgery in Singapore. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of the first 20 consecutive patients who underwent RAL HPB surgery at a single institution over a 34-month period from February 2013 to November 2015. The 20 cases were performed by three principal surgeons, of which 17 (85...
October 6, 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969853/texture-analysis-of-ct-images-in-predicting-malignancy-risk-of-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumours
#18
S Liu, X Pan, R Liu, H Zheng, L Chen, W Guan, H Wang, Y Sun, L Tang, Y Guan, Y Ge, J He, Z Zhou
AIM: To explore the role of texture analysis of computed tomography (CT) images in predicting the malignancy risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-eight patients with histopathologically confirmed GISTs underwent preoperative CT. Texture analysis was performed on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT images, respectively. Fourteen CT texture parameters were obtained and compared among GISTs at different malignancy risks with one-way analysis of variance or independent-samples Kruskal-Wallis test...
September 29, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969200/gastroduodenal-intussusception-due-to-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumour-gist
#19
Abdul Rehman Abdul Jameel, Durairaj Segamalai, Gnanasekaran Murugaiyan, Rajendran Shanmugasundaram, Naganath Babu Obla
Gastroduodenal intussusception is the rarest forms of adult intussusception. We present a case of gastroduodenal intussusception due to a gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST). The patient was a 65-year-old female who clinically presented as acute gastric outlet obstruction. The patient was managed by gentle reduction of the intussusception, followed by wedge resection of the tumour. She was relieved of her symptoms and recurrence free for past one year.
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950990/recent-advances-in-the-diagnosis-of-soft-tissue-tumours
#20
REVIEW
Inga-Marie Schaefer, Christopher D M Fletcher
Soft tissue tumours are relatively rare, but are diagnostically challenging as they comprise a large spectrum of diagnostic entities. Substantial advances have been made in recent years in identifying the underlying recurrent chromosomal and genomic alterations in a significant subset of soft tissue tumours, and this continues to enrich our understanding of the biological mechanisms of tumour development and progression. Ongoing validation and integration of these findings into existing pathological-diagnostic algorithms has led to re- or subclassification of diagnostic categories and will continue to shape a more nuanced (and hopefully clinically relevant) tumour classification system in the future...
September 23, 2017: Pathology
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