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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352378/can-histogram-analysis-of-mr-images-predict-aggressiveness-in-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#1
Riccardo De Robertis, Bogdan Maris, Nicolò Cardobi, Paolo Tinazzi Martini, Stefano Gobbo, Paola Capelli, Silvia Ortolani, Sara Cingarlini, Salvatore Paiella, Luca Landoni, Giovanni Butturini, Paolo Regi, Aldo Scarpa, Giampaolo Tortora, Mirko D'Onofrio
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate MRI derived whole-tumour histogram analysis parameters in predicting pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (panNEN) grade and aggressiveness. METHODS: Pre-operative MR of 42 consecutive patients with panNEN >1 cm were retrospectively analysed. T1-/T2-weighted images and ADC maps were analysed. Histogram-derived parameters were compared to histopathological features using the Mann-Whitney U test. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by ROC-AUC analysis; sensitivity and specificity were assessed for each histogram parameter...
January 19, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352337/impact-of-hepatitis-b-carrier-status-on-the-outcomes-of-surgical-treatment-of-colorectal-liver-metastases
#2
Kin Pan Au, Kenneth Siu Ho Chok, Albert Chi Yan Chan, Wing Chiu Dai, Tan To Cheung, Chung Mau Lo
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal liver metastases. We explored the impact of HBV carrier status on outcomes of surgical treatment of colorectal liver metastases. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted for consecutive patients undergoing liver resection for colorectal liver metastases from 2000 to 2016. HBV carriers were matched with controls by propensity scoring. RESULTS: 304 patients with known HBV carrier status who underwent resection of colorectal liver metastases were studied...
January 19, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352111/hepatic-smarca4-predicts-hcc-recurrence-and-promotes-tumour-cell-proliferation-by-regulating-smad6-expression
#3
Zhiao Chen, Xinyuan Lu, Deshui Jia, Ying Jing, Di Chen, Qifeng Wang, Fangyu Zhao, Jinjun Li, Ming Yao, Wenming Cong, Xianghuo He
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer and is typically diagnosed at advanced stages. Identification and characterisation of genes within amplified and deleted chromosomal loci can provide new insights into the pathogenesis of cancer and lead to new approaches for diagnosis and therapy. In our previous study, we found a recurrent region of copy number amplification at 19p13.2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we performed integrated copy number analysis and expression profiling at this locus and a putative cancer gene, SMARCA4/BRG1, was uncovered in this region...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345407/hepatitis-c-eradication-with-daa-and-risk-of-liver-cancer-recurrence-the-debate-unrests
#4
Massimo Colombo, Vincenzo Boccaccio
The advent of user friendly and highly successful oral regimens based on direct antiviral agents (DAA), has made a cure of hepatitis C possible in more than 95% of treated patients, including those who were considered difficult to cure with interferon, a vast category including patients with advanced liver disease and those who had a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) successfully eradicated by resection or local ablation1 . Despite low rates of treatment uptake and response to therapy with interferon, such hard to treat patients were able to gain significant health benefits, like halting of progression towards liver failure and prevention of second primary tumours, once replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) was permanently shut down2,3 ...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345251/cancer-associated-cachexia
#5
REVIEW
Vickie E Baracos, Lisa Martin, Murray Korc, Denis C Guttridge, Kenneth C H Fearon
Cancer-associated cachexia is a disorder characterized by loss of body weight with specific losses of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cachexia is driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes, including elevated energy expenditure, excess catabolism and inflammation. Cachexia is highly associated with cancers of the pancreas, oesophagus, stomach, lung, liver and bowel; this group of malignancies is responsible for half of all cancer deaths worldwide. Cachexia involves diverse mediators derived from the cancer cells and cells within the tumour microenvironment, including inflammatory and immune cells...
January 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341164/patient-derived-organoid-models-help-define-personalized-management-of-gastrointestinal-cancer
#6
REVIEW
M R Aberle, R A Burkhart, H Tiriac, S W M Olde Damink, C H C Dejong, D A Tuveson, R M van Dam
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients with different gastrointestinal cancers varies widely. Despite advances in treatment strategies, such as extensive resections and the addition of new drugs to chemotherapy regimens, conventional treatment strategies have failed to improve survival for many tumours. Although promising, the clinical application of molecularly guided personalized treatment has proven to be challenging. This narrative review focuses on the personalization of cancer therapy using patient-derived three-dimensional 'organoid' models...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340767/analysis-of-prognostic-factors-after-resection-of-solitary-liver-metastasis-in-colorectal-cancer-a-22-year-bicentre-study
#7
Sara Acciuffi, Frank Meyer, Astrid Bauschke, Utz Settmacher, Hans Lippert, Roland Croner, Annelore Altendorf-Hofmann
PURPOSE: The investigation of the predictors of outcome after hepatic resection for solitary colorectal liver metastasis. METHODS: We recruited 350 patients with solitary colorectal liver metastasis at the University Hospitals of Jena and Magdeburg, who underwent curative liver resection between 1993 and 2014. All patients had follow-up until death or till summer 2016. RESULTS: The follow-up data concern 96.6% of observed patients. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 47 and 28%, respectively...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337428/ap4-positively-regulates-laptm4b-to-promote-hepatocellular-carcinoma-growth-and-metastasis-whilst-reducing-chemotherapy-sensitivity
#8
Yue Meng, Lu Wang, Jianjun Xu, Qingyun Zhang
Polymorphisms of the Lysosomal-Associated Protein Transmembrane-4 beta (LAPTM4B) gene are related to various forms of tumour susceptibility, which led us to hypothesize that some unique transcription factors targeting this polymorphism region may affect the biological function of LAPTM4B in tumour progression. In this study, we found that the transcription factor AP4 directly binds to the polymorphism region of the LAPTM4B gene promoter and induces its transcription. In addition, we demonstrated that AP4 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and metastasis, and depresses chemotherapy sensitivity via LAPTM4B by activating the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway and caspase-dependent pathway...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336009/gefitinib-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Esther Ha Sim, Ian A Yang, Richard Wood-Baker, Rayleen V Bowman, Kwun M Fong
BACKGROUND: The role of gefitinib for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is evolving. We undertook a systematic review to evaluate the available evidence from all randomised trials. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of gefitinib as first-line, second-line or maintenance treatment for advanced NSCLC. SEARCH METHODS: We performed searches in CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase from inception to 17 February 2017...
January 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334918/colorectal-cancer-liver-metastases-a-population-based-study-on-incidence-management-and-survival
#10
Jennie Engstrand, Henrik Nilsson, Cecilia Strömberg, Eduard Jonas, Jacob Freedman
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-associated deaths with liver metastases developing in 25-30% of those affected. Previous data suggest a survival difference between right- and left-sided liver metastatic CRC, even though left-sided cancer has a higher incidence of liver metastases. The aim of the study was to describe the liver metastatic patterns and survival as a function of the characteristics of the primary tumour and different combinations of metastatic disease...
January 15, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328482/cytisine-induces-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-caused-by-calcium-overload-in-hepg2-cells
#11
Lei Yu, Bo Jiang, Zhifeng Chen, Xin Wang, Dongxue Shang, Xiaopo Zhang, Yongxue Sun, Jinghui Yang, Yubin Ji
Cytisine, a quinolizidine alkaloid, is one of the major bioactive components found in the small tree Sophora Alopecuraides L., and is a traditional Chinese medicine that is used for treating hepatitis and liver cancer. In the 1960s, quinolizidine alkaloids were reported to exhibit inhibitory effects on tumour cell proliferation in several types of cancer cells. However, few studies have investigated the effect of cytisine on liver cancer. Our team confirmed that cytisine induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells via a mitochondrial pathway...
January 8, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326816/immune-checkpoint-inhibition-prospects-for-prevention-and-therapy-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
REVIEW
Caryn L Elsegood, Janina Ee Tirnitz-Parker, John K Olynyk, George Ct Yeoh
The global prevalence of liver cancer is rapidly rising, mostly as a result of the amplified incidence rates of viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse and obesity in recent decades. Treatment options for liver cancer are remarkably limited with sorafenib being the gold standard for advanced, unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma but offering extremely limited improvement of survival time. The immune system is now recognised as a key regulator of cancer development through its ability to protect against infection and chronic inflammation, which promote cancer development, and eliminate tumour cells when present...
November 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321478/reprogramming-of-pro-inflammatory-human-macrophages-to-an-anti-inflammatory-phenotype-by-bile-acids
#13
Marianne Wammers, Anna-Kathrin Schupp, Johannes G Bode, Christian Ehlting, Stephanie Wolf, René Deenen, Karl Köhrer, Dieter Häussinger, Dirk Graf
Cholestasis is caused by autoimmune reactions, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, viral infections of the liver and the obstruction of bile ducts by tumours or gallstones. Cholestatic conditions are associated with impaired innate and adaptive immunity, including alterations of the cellular functions of monocytes, macrophages, NK cells and T-cells. Bile acids act as signalling molecules, affecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine expression in primary human macrophages. The present manuscript investigates the impact of bile acids, such as taurolithocholic acid (TLC), on the transcriptome of human macrophages in the presence or absence of LPS...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317776/non-coding-rnas-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-molecular-functions-and-pathological-implications
#14
REVIEW
Chun-Ming Wong, Felice Ho-Ching Tsang, Irene Oi-Lin Ng
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading lethal malignancy worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying liver carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. Over the past two decades, overwhelming evidence has demonstrated the regulatory roles of different classes of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in liver carcinogenesis related to a number of aetiologies, including HBV, HCV and NAFLD. Among the ncRNAs, microRNAs, which belong to a distinct class of small ncRNAs, have been proven to play a crucial role in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression...
January 10, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317674/spred2-deficiency-exacerbates-d-galactosamine-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-mice-via-increased-production-of-tnf%C3%AE
#15
Xu Yang, Masayoshi Fujisawa, Teizo Yoshimura, Toshiaki Ohara, Miwa Sato, Megumi Mino, Thar Htet San, Tong Gao, Steven L Kunkel, Akihiro Matsukawa
Acute liver injury (ALI) is characterized by hepatocyte damage and inflammation. In the present study, we examined whether the absence of Sprouty-related EVH1-domain-containing protein 2 (Spred2), a negative regulator of the Ras/Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway, influences ALI induced by D-galactosamine (D-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Compared to wild-type mice, Spred2-/- mice developed exacerbated liver injury represented by enhanced hepatocyte damage and inflammation. Enhanced ERK activation was observed in Spred2-/--livers, and the MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 ameliorated ALI...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316914/differential-induction-of-malaria-liver-pathology-in-mice-infected-with-plasmodium-chabaudi-as-or-plasmodium-berghei-nk65
#16
Diletta Scaccabarozzi, Katrien Deroost, Yolanda Corbett, Natacha Lays, Paola Corsetto, Fausta Omodeo Salè, Philippe E Van den Steen, Donatella Taramelli
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria and severe anaemia are the most common deadly complications of malaria, and are often associated, both in paediatric and adult patients, with hepatopathy, whose pathogenesis is not well characterized, and sometimes also with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, two species of murine malaria, the lethal Plasmodium berghei strain NK65 and self-healing Plasmodium chabaudi strain AS which differ in their ability to cause hepatopathy and/or ARDS were used to investigate the lipid alterations, oxidative damage and host immune response during the infection in relation to parasite load and accumulation of parasite products, such as haemozoin...
January 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314093/hospice-care-in-medicare-patients-with-primary-liver-cancer-the-impact-on-resource-utilisation-and-mortality
#17
N Fukui, P Golabi, M Otgonsuren, L de Avila, H Bush, Z M Younossi
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the impact of hospice care in patients with primary liver cancer. AIM: To examine the determinants of hospice care and its effects on resource utilisation and survival among Medicare beneficiaries with primary liver cancer. METHODS: We utilised the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End result Registry (SEER) database from 2002 to 2009 for this cross-sectional study. A total of 3385 patients with primary liver cancer were included...
January 3, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311396/prognostic-ability-of-bclc-b-subclassification-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-undergoing-transarterial-chemoembolization
#18
Marco Biolato, Giulia Gallusi, Massimo Iavarone, Giuseppe Cabibbo, Simona Racco, Adriano De Santis, Cristina Della Corte, Marcello Maida, Adolfo Francesco Attili, Angelo Sangiovanni, Calogero Cammà, Giuseppe La Torre, Antonio Gasbarrini, Antonio Grieco
Prognostic ability of BCLC-B Subclassification in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Undergoing Transarterial Chemoembolization Background and aims. A subclassification system for intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was recently proposed to optimize treatment allocation. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic ability of that substaging proposal. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective multicenter cohort study including patients with intermediate HCC treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)...
December 27, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310810/radiological-features-and-metastatic-patterns-of-thymic-neuroendocrine-tumours
#19
T Araki, L M Sholl, H Hatabu, M Nishino
AIM: To investigate the clinical and image features of thymic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), and characterise the radiological patterns of recurrence and metastasis on serial imaging studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 14 patients (11 males) with a histopathological diagnosis of thymic NETs (one typical carcinoid, eight atypical carcinoid, and five large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma). Preoperative images were assessed for features of primary tumours...
January 5, 2018: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301446/real-time-estimation-of-lesion-depth-and-control-of-radiofrequency-ablation-within-ex-vivo-animal-tissues-using-a-neural-network
#20
Yearnchee Curtis Wang, Terence Chee-Hung Chan, Alan Varteres Sahakian
BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA), a method of inducing thermal ablation (cell death), is often used to destroy tumours or potentially cancerous tissue. Current techniques for RFA estimation (electrical impedance tomography, Nakagami ultrasound, etc.) require long compute times (≥ 2 s) and measurement devices other than the RFA device. This study aims to determine if a neural network (NN) can estimate ablation lesion depth for control of bipolar RFA using complex electrical impedance - since tissue electrical conductivity varies as a function of tissue temperature - in real time using only the RFA therapy device's electrodes...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
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