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Weizhao Yin, Jing Ai, Li-Zhi Huang, Dominique J Tobler, Hans Christian Bruun Hansen
Layered FeII-FeIII hydroxide chloride (chloride green rust, GRCl) has high reactivity towards reducible pollutants such as chlorinated solvents. However, this reactive solid is prone to dissolution, and hence loss of reactivity during storage and handling. In this study, adsorption of silicate (Si) to GRCl was tested for its ability to minimize GRCl dissolution and to inhibit reduction of carbon tetrachloride (CT). Silicate adsorbed with high affinity to GRCl yielding a sorption maximum of 0.026 g Si per g GRCl...
June 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jéssika Mayhara Pereira Morais, Keli Regina Victorino, Wilfredo Gustavo Escalante-Otárola, Keren Cristina Fagundes Jordão-Basso, Regina Guenka Palma-Dibb, Milton Carlos Kuga
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects when acid etching on the dentin surface was immediately performed (I) or 7 days (D) after calcium silicate-based sealer (MTA Fillapex) removal, using 95% ethanol (E) or xylol (X). First study, 60 bovine incisor dentin specimens were impregnated with sealer and divided into six groups (n = 10): (EI), E + I; (XI), X + I; (ED), E + D; (XD), X + D, (UN), untreated and (MR), mechanical removal of sealer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images (500×) were obtained from each specimen and scores assessed the sealer residues persistence...
June 15, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
C Scatigno, N Prieto-Taboada, M Preite Martinez, A M Conte, J M Madariaga
The study of both original and decaying compounds is relevant in understanding the chemistry behind the deterioration processes, above all in open museum contexts where environmental stressors affect the artefacts. In this sense, a combination of non-invasive spectroscopy techniques (Raman spectroscopy, μ-X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction) was applied on an ancient Roman building (130 CE), the "Casa di Diana" Mithraeum at Ostia Antica archaeological site. The aim is to study the raw materials, manufacturing and decaying products of the two observed types of Roman fired bricks (red and yellow) that compose the building...
June 7, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Grzegorz Ludwik Golewski
Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ) of coarse aggregate cement matrix is commonly regarded as the weakest element of concrete. In this phase - the first cracks in the material are initiated, and the process of destruction of the composite begins. An improvement of the ITZ properties are positively influenced by the mineral additives used for the composite. One of such a substitute for a binder is, potentially hazardous industrial waste, siliceous fly ash (FA). In this paper the ITZ between aggregate and cement paste in concretes containing FA is considered...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Renyao Huang, Li He, Tao Zhang, Dianqing Li, Pinggui Tang, Yongjun Feng
It is of great and increasing interest to explore porous adsorption films to reduce heavy metal ions in aqueous solution. Here, we for the first time fabricated carbon paper@magnesium silicate (CP@MS) composite films for the high-efficiency removal of Zn2+ and Cu2+ by a solid-phase transformation from hydromagnesite coated carbon paper (CP@MCH) precursor film in a hydrothermal route, and detailedly examined adsorption process for Zn2+ and Cu2+ as well as the adsorption mechanism. The suitable initial pH range is beyond 4...
June 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tamara Cibic, Cinzia Comici, Claus Falconi, Daniela Fornasaro, Ana Karuza, Marina Lipizer
Biological, hydrological and chemical data were acquired at monthly intervals from March 2006 to February 2007, at the Long-Term Ecological Research site C1 in the Gulf of Trieste, in the northernmost part of the Adriatic Sea. The biological dataset comprises total chl a and phaeopigment concentrations, and the distinction of the total phytoplankton biomass into three photoautotrophic community fractions, i.e. cyanobacteria, nano- and microphytoplankton, collected at discrete depths. Hydrological data encompass the thermohaline properties of the water column (temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts)...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Réka Lukács, Marcel Guillong, Jakub Sliwinski, István Dunkl, Olivier Bachmann, Szabolcs Harangi
This article provides LA-ICP-MS in-situ U-Pb zircon dates performed on single crystals from dacitic to rhyolitic ignimbrites of the Bükkalja Volcanic Field (Hungary, East-Central Europe) temporally covering the main period of the Neogene silicic volcanic activity in the Pannonian Basin. The data include drift-corrected, alpha dose-corrected, Th-disequilibrium-corrected, and filtered data for geochronological use. The data presented in this article are interpreted and discussed in the research article entitled "Early to Mid-Miocene syn-extensional massive silicic volcanism in the Pannonian Basin (East-Central Europe): eruption chronology, correlation potential and geodynamic implications" by Lukács et al...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Flavia Kolling Marquezan, Patricia Maria Poli Kopper, Angela Isabel Dos Santos Dullius, Diego Machado Ardenghi, Renata Grazziotin-Soares
This study investigated the effect of blood-contamination on the push-out bond strength of BiodentineTM (BD) and MTA Angelus® (MTA-A) to root dentin over time. Twenty-five teeth were sectioned horizontally to obtain 120 root slices. The lumens were filled with MTA-A or BD: 60 for each cement (30 uncontaminated and 30 blood contaminated). Push out bond strength to dentin was assessed at 24 h (n=10), 7 days (n=10) and 28 days (n=10). Failure modes were classified as: cohesive, adhesive or mixed failure. Two-way ANOVA was used to investigate the interaction between blood contamination vs...
March 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Gabriela Nishioka, Catina Prochnow, Aline Firmino, Marina Amaral, Marco Antonio Bottino, Luiz Felipe Valandro, Melo Renata Marques de
This in vitro study evaluated the fatigue strength of different ceramic materials indicated for monolithic restorations. Disc-shaped specimens were made according to ISO 6872 from five different ceramic materials: feldspathic ceramic (FC), polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PIC), lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LD), zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic (ZLS), and high translucent tetragonal zirconia polycrystals doped by yttrium (YZ-HT). After obtaining the mean of each material (n = 5) from monotonic load-to-failure tests, specimens (n = 20) were subjected to fatigue tests (staircase method) using a biaxial flexural setup (piston-on-three-balls), to determine the fatigue strength...
June 11, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Francesca Lolli, Hegoi Manzano, John L Provis, Maria Chiara Bignozzi, Enrico Masoero
Geopolymers are hydrated alumino-silicates with excellent binding properties. Geopolymers appeal to the construction sector as a more sustainable alternative to traditional cements, but their exploitation is limited by a poor understanding of the linkage between chemical composition and macroscopic properties. Molecular simulations can help clarify this linkage, but existing models based on amorphous or crystalline aluminosilicate structures provide only a partial explanation of experimental data at the nanoscale...
June 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
R M Barros, M C H Clemente, G A V Martins, L P Silva
Recent advances in nanotechnology applied in forensic sciences have contributed to consider new approaches including chemical evaluation of latent fingermarks. Significant improvement to the detection of small organic molecules has been reached with matrix-free methods associated to laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The present study investigated the application of mesocellular siliceous foam (MCF) as an ionizing agent for laser desorption/ionization (LDI-MS) analysis of fingermarks as a proof of concept research...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Jeffrey A Hansen, Bryant C Jurgens, Miranda S Fram
Total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations in groundwater tapped for beneficial uses (drinking water, irrigation, freshwater industrial) have increased on average by about 100 mg/L over the last 100 years in the San Joaquin Valley, California (SJV). During this period land use in the SJV changed from natural vegetation and dryland agriculture to dominantly irrigated agriculture with growing urban areas. Century-scale salinity trends were evaluated by comparing TDS concentrations and major ion compositions of groundwater from wells sampled in 1910 (Historic) to data from wells sampled in 1993-2015 (Modern)...
June 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Adam van Casteren, Peter W Lucas, David S Strait, Shaji Michael, Nick Bierwisch, Norbert Schwarzer, Khaled J Al-Fadhalah, Abdulwahab S Almusallam, Lidia A Thai, Sreeja Saji, Ali Shekeban, Michael V Swain
Mammalian tooth wear research reveals contrasting patterns seemingly linked to diet: irregularly pitted enamel surfaces, possibly from consuming hard seeds, versus roughly aligned linearly grooved surfaces, associated with eating tough leaves. These patterns are important for assigning diet to fossils, including hominins. However, experiments establishing conditions necessary for such damage challenge this paradigm. Lucas et al . (Lucas et al . 2013 J. R. Soc. Interface 10 , 20120923. (doi:10.1098/rsif.2012...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Huashan Yang, Yujun Che, Faguang Leng
The calcium leaching behavior of cement paste and silica fume modified calcium hydroxide paste, exposed to hydrochloric acid solution, is reported in this paper. The kinetic of degradation was assessed by the changes of pH of hydrochloric acid solution with time. The changes of compressive strength of specimens in hydrochloric acid with time were tested. Hydration products of leached specimens were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric (TG), and atomic force microscope (AFM)...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Svetlana Shkarina, Roman Shkarin, Venera Weinhardt, Elizaveta Melnik, Gabriele Vacun, Petra Kluger, Kateryna Loza, Matthias Epple, Sergei I Ivlev, Tilo Baumbach, Maria A Surmeneva, Roman A Surmenev
To date, special interest has been paid to composite scaffolds based on polymers enriched with hydroxyapatite (HA). However, the role of HA containing different trace elements such as silicate in the structure of a polymer scaffold has not yet been fully explored. Here, we report the potential use of silicate-containing hydroxyapatite (SiHA) microparticles and microparticle aggregates in the predominant range from 2.23 to 12.40 µm in combination with polycaprolactone (PCL) as a hybrid scaffold with randomly oriented and well-aligned microfibers for regeneration of bone tissue...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hope A Ishii, John P Bradley, Hans A Bechtel, Donald E Brownlee, Karen C Bustillo, James Ciston, Jeffrey N Cuzzi, Christine Floss, David J Joswiak
The solar system formed from interstellar dust and gas in a molecular cloud. Astronomical observations show that typical interstellar dust consists of amorphous ( a -) silicate and organic carbon. Bona fide physical samples for laboratory studies would yield unprecedented insight about solar system formation, but they were largely destroyed. The most likely repositories of surviving presolar dust are the least altered extraterrestrial materials, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) with probable cometary origins...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Naghmeh Meraji, Mohammad H Nekoofar, Kazem Ashofteh Yazdi, Mohammad Reza Sharifian, Noushin Fakhari, Josette Camilleri
OBJECTIVES: Dentine replacement materials are often placed over caries affected dentine (CAD). The aim of this study was to compare the bonding characteristics and interactions of selected hydraulic calcium silicate-based dentine replacement materials to CAD and sound dentine. METHODS: Three hydraulic calcium silicate-based dentine replacement materials were assessed: Retro MTA, Biodentine and Theracal LC. Material characterization was done by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses...
June 8, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Riqiang Fu, Arturo J Hernández-Maldonado
A small flip-angle pulse direct polarization is the simplest method commonly used to quantify various compositions in many materials applications. This method sacrifices the sensitivity per scan in exchange for rapid repeating of data acquisition for signal accumulation. In addition, the resulting spectrum often encounters artifacts from background signals from probe components and/or from acoustic rings leading to a distorted baseline, especially in low-γ nuclei and wideline NMR. In this work, a multi-acquisition scheme is proposed to boost the sensitivity per scan and at the same time effectively suppress these artifacts...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Mingming Peng, Jingang Jiang, Xue Liu, Yue Ma, Meichen Jiao, Hao Xu, Haihong Wu, Mingyuan He, Peng Wu
Zeolites, a class of crystalline microporous materials, have a wide range of practical applications, in particular serving as key catalysts in petrochemical and finechemical processes. Millions of zeolite topologies are theoretically possible. However, to date, only 235 frameworks with various tetrahedral element compositions have been discovered in nature or artificially synthesized, among which approximately 50 topologies are available in pure silica forms. Germanosilicates are becoming an important zeolite family, with a rapidly increasing number of topological structures with unusual double four-membered-ring (D4R) building units and large-pore or extra large-pore systems...
June 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Pieter Vermeesch, Martin Rittner, Irene Schimmelpfennig, Lucilla Benedetti, Aster Team
205 Tl in the lorandite (TiAsS2 ) mine of Allchar (Majdan, FYR Macedonia) is transformed to 205 Pb by cosmic ray reactions with muons and neutrinos. At depths of more than 300 m, muogenic production would be sufficiently low for the 4.3 Ma old lorandite deposit to be used as a natural neutrino detector. Unfortunately, the Allchar deposit currently sits at a depth of only 120 m below the surface, apparently making the lorandite experiment technically infeasible. We here present 25 erosion rate estimates for the Allchar area using in situ produced cosmogenic 36 Cl in carbonates and 10 Be in alluvial quartz...
May 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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