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Jiaqing Zhuang, Qi-Jun Sun, Ye Zhou, Suting Han, Li Zhou, Yan Yan, Haiyan Peng, Shishir Venkatesh, Wei Wu, Robert Kwok-Yiu Li, Vellaisamy A L Roy
Previous investigations on rare-earth oxides (REOs) reveal their high possibility as dielectric films in electronic devices, while complicated physical methods impede their developments and applications. Herein, we report a facile route to fabricate 16 REOs thin insulating films through a general solution process and their applications in low-voltage thin-film transistors as dielectrics. The formation and properties of REOs thin films are analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectroscopic ellipsometry, water contact angle measurement, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and electrical characterizations, respectively...
October 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ming Yan, Guangming Zeng, Xiaoming Li, Jianmin He, Guiqiu Chen, Danlian Huang, Lin Tang, Cui Lai, Chang Zhang, Xiaodong Li, Lichao Wang, Zhi Guo, Wei Tao
Solidification is a very effective way to alleviate heavy metal impacts to the environment. In this paper, an improved method was adopted herein for the solidification/stabilization (S/S) of sediments with cement-based additives and low content of cement in S/S materials. Sediments in Xiangjiang River, containing high concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Pb, were solidified/stabilized by binders of cement, fly ash, and bentonite. Admixtures such as sodium lignosulfonate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and triethanolamine were used to improve the bonding properties of S/S, which had never been investigated before...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kai Li, Jiangming Yu, Youtao Xie, Mingyu You, Liping Huang, Xuebin Zheng
Ideal coatings for orthopedic implants should be able to induce excellent osseointegration with host bone tissue, which requires good osteogenic responses and limited inflammatory reactions. Cerium oxide (CeO2) ceramics have anti-oxidative properties and can be used to decrease mediators of inflammation, making them attractive for biomedical application. In this study, two kinds of CeO2 incorporated calcium silicate coatings (CS-10Ce and CS-30Ce) were prepared via plasma spraying technique, and the effects of CeO2 addition on the responses of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and RAW264...
October 20, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Donato Belmonte, Carlo Gatti, Giulio Armando Ottonello, Pascal Richet, Marino Vetuschi Zuccolini
Thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of Na2SiO3 in the Cmc21 structural state are computed ab-initio using the hybrid B3LYP density functional method. The static properties at the athermal limit are first evaluated through a symmetry-preserving relaxation procedure. The thermodynamic properties that depend on vibrational frequencies viz, heat capacities, thermal expansion, thermal derivative of the bulk modulus, thermal correction to internal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, are then computed in the framework of quasi-harmonic approximation...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Sofia A V Fortunato, Michel Vervoort, Marcin Adamski, Maja Adamska
BACKGROUND: Basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) genes encode a large family of eukaryotic transcription factors, categorized into six high-order groups: pan-eukaryotic group B involved in regulation of cell cycle, metabolism, and development; holozoan-specific groups C and F involved in development and maintenance of homeostasis; and metazoan-specific groups A, D and E including well-studied genes, such as Atonal, Twist and Hairy, with diverse developmental roles including control of morphogenesis and specification of neurons...
2016: EvoDevo
Alessandra De Lorenzi Pezzolo, Gabrio Valotto, Alberto Quaranta
Two different types of spectroscopic methods, namely diffuse reflection infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) as a vibrational spectroscopy and ion-beam-induced luminescence (IBIL) as an optical spectroscopy, have been exploited for the analysis of three sand samples collected from the Adige, Bacchiglione, and Brenta rivers (Veneto, Northern Italy) with the aim to set up a procedure for the comparison of the relative abundance of silicates, carbonates, and feldspars. By fitting the spectra, the features corresponding to different geological compounds have been identified and descriptive indexes of their relative amount have been obtained by comparing the peak area ratios...
October 18, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
William Hutchison, Raffaella Fusillo, David M Pyle, Tamsin A Mather, Jon D Blundy, Juliet Biggs, Gezahegn Yirgu, Benjamin E Cohen, Richard A Brooker, Dan N Barfod, Andrew T Calvert
The Ethiopian Rift Valley hosts the longest record of human co-existence with volcanoes on Earth, however, current understanding of the magnitude and timing of large explosive eruptions in this region is poor. Detailed records of volcanism are essential for interpreting the palaeoenvironments occupied by our hominin ancestors; and also for evaluating the volcanic hazards posed to the 10 million people currently living within this active rift zone. Here we use new geochronological evidence to suggest that a 200 km-long segment of rift experienced a major pulse of explosive volcanic activity between 320 and 170 ka...
October 18, 2016: Nature Communications
Raúl Rodríguez-Gómez, Gunno Renman
The phosphorus (P) and BOD7 removal performance of an upflow packed bed reactor (PBR) filled with two reactive filter media was studied over 50 weeks. The lower one-fifth of the reactor was filled with calcium-silicate-hydrate (Sorbulite®) and the upper four-fifth with calcium-silicate (Polonite®). A laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor (UASB) delivered wastewater to the PBR. A model was developed to describe the gradient in P concentration change in the reactor, based on reaction kinetics...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Technology
Alexandra Ioana Lupulescu, Wei Qin, Jeffrey D Rimer
Nonclassical mechanisms of crystal growth often involve the formation of amorphous precursors that play a direct role in what is generally referred to as crystallization by particle attachment (or CPA). One of the most studied CPA systems in literature is zeolite MFI, which is a microporous crystal with siliceous (silicalite-1) and aluminosilicate (ZSM-5) isostructures. The self-assembly, microstructural evolution, and mechanistic role of nanoparticle precursors (1 - 6 nm) during silicalite-1 crystallization have been the subjects of prior investigation by combined experimental and modeling techniques...
October 17, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Mingfei Xing, Zegang Fu, Yaping Wang, Jingyu Wang, Zhiyuan Zhang
In this study, a novel process for the removal of toxic lead from the CRT funnel glass and synchronous preparation of high silica glass powder was developed by a carbon-thermal reduction enhanced glass phase separation process. CRT funnel glass was remelted with B2O3 in reducing atmosphere. In the thermal process, a part of PbO contained in the funnel glass was reduced into metallic Pb and detached from the glass phase. The rest of PbO and other metal oxides (including Na2O, K2O, Al2O3, BaO and CaO) were mainly concentrated in the boric oxide phase...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Ilya Perederiy, Vladimiros G Papangelakis
It has been shown previously that amorphous FeO-SiO2 slags are not amenable to high pressure oxidative acid leaching - unlike their crystalline counterparts. Independent studies of glass and silicate mineral dissolution at ambient conditions suggest that acid attack can be hindered by the formation of a passive silica layer. The current work extends this finding to the case of high temperature dissolution of amorphous FeO-SiO2 slags by providing evidence for the formation of a passive silica layer within slag particles under high pressure oxidative acid leaching conditions (250°C, 70g/L initial H2SO4, 0...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Ali Said Durmus, Mehmet Tuzcu, Oguzhan Ozdemir, Cemal Orhan, Nurhan Sahin, Ibrahim Hanifi Ozercan, James Richard Komorowski, Shakir Ali, Kazim Sahin
Arginine silicate inositol (ASI) complex is a composition of arginine, silicon, and inositol that has been shown to have beneficial effects on vascular health. This study reports the effects of an ASI ointment on wound healing in rats. A full-thickness excision wound was created by using a disposable 5 mm diameter skin punch biopsy tool. In this placebo-controlled study, the treatment group's wound areas were covered by 4 or 10 % ASI ointments twice a day for 5, 10, or 15 days. The rats were sacrificed either 5, 10, or 15 days after the wounds were created, and biopsy samples were taken for biochemical and histopathological analysis...
October 14, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Shouwei Zhang, Huihui Gao, Xia Liu, Yong-Shun Huang, Xijin Xu, Njud S Alharbi, Tasawar Hayat, Jia-Xing Li
The smaller particle sizes, better dispersion and more heterojunction interfaces can enhance the photocatalytic performance of photocatalysts. Herein, ultradispersed amorphous silver silicates/ultrathin g-C3N4 nanosheets heterojunction composites (a-AgSiO/CNNS) with intimate interfacial coupling effect were synthesized through the facile in situ precipitation of ultrafine a-AgSiO (~5.2 nm) uniformly dispersed on the entire surface of hierarchical ultrathin CNNS. In this process, the ultrathin CNNS not only perform as the support to form heterostructures, but are employed as dispersant to confine the aggregation of a-AgSiO nanoparticles...
October 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Viktor A Vorozhtcov, Valentina L Stolyarova, Sergey I Lopatin, Sergey M Shugurov, Andrey L Shilov, Vladimir F Sapega
RATIONALE: The Bi2 O3 -P2 O5 -SiO2 system possesses a number of valuable properties that may be of use for various practical applications, both for obtaining new materials e.g. optical fibers and for replacing systems based on toxic lead silicate. Information on vaporization processes and thermodynamic properties obtained in the present study will be useful for the development of synthesis methods and approaches for modeling the thermodynamic properties of materials based on this system...
October 14, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Behrad Gholipour, Paul Bastock, Long Cui, Christopher Craig, Khouler Khan, Daniel W Hewak, Cesare Soci
We present a high-throughput and scalable technique for the production of metal nanowires embedded in glass fibres by taking advantage of thin film properties and patterning techniques commonly used in planar microfabrication. This hybrid process enables the fabrication of single nanowires and nanowire arrays encased in a preform material within a single fibre draw, providing an alternative to costly and time-consuming iterative fibre drawing. This method allows the combination of materials with different thermal properties to create functional optoelectronic nanostructures...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Morgan F Schaller, Megan K Fung, James D Wright, Miriam E Katz, Dennis V Kent
Extraterrestrial impacts have left a substantial imprint on the climate and evolutionary history of Earth. A rapid carbon cycle perturbation and global warming event about 56 million years ago at the Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary (the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum) was accompanied by rapid expansions of mammals and terrestrial plants and extinctions of deep-sea benthic organisms. Here, we report the discovery of silicate glass spherules in a discrete stratigraphic layer from three marine P-E boundary sections on the Atlantic margin...
October 14, 2016: Science
Sabrina Seidel, Christian Patzig, Wolfgang Wisniewski, Antje Gawronski, Yongfeng Hu, Thomas Höche, Christian Rüssel
The non-isochemical crystallization of glasses leads to glass-ceramics in which the chemical composition of the amorphous matrix differs from that of the parent glass. It is challenging to solely analyse the properties of these residual glassy phases because they frequently contain finely dispersed crystals. In this study, the composition of the residual glass matrix after the crystallization of a glass with the mol% composition 50.6 SiO2 · 20.7 MgO · 20.7 Al2O3 · 5.6 ZrO2 · 2.4 Y2O3 is analysed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) including energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXS)...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xiuning Du, William Peterson, Jennifer Fisher, Matt Hunter, Jay Peterson
In spring/summer 2015, a toxic bloom by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia (PN) occurred along the west coast of the United States which led to closures of the harvest of razor clams and Dungeness crabs. Twice monthly observations of temperature, salinity, nutrients, chlorophyll and phytoplankton species composition allowed us to track oceanographic conditions preceding and during the development of the bloom. PN cells were first detected during late winter 2015. A PN bloom was initiated following the onset of coastal upwelling in mid-April; subsequent peaks in May and June were sustained by episodic upwelling events and reached magnitudes of 105 cells/L and 106 cells/L, 40% and 90% of the total diatom abundance, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Alan O Marron, Sarah Ratcliffe, Glen L Wheeler, Raymond E Goldstein, Nicole King, Fabrice Not, Colomban de Vargas, Daniel J Richter
Biosilicification (the formation of biological structures from silica) occurs in diverse eukaryotic lineages, plays a major role in global biogeochemical cycles and has significant biotechnological applications. Silicon (Si) uptake is crucial for biosilicification, yet the evolutionary history of the transporters involved remains poorly known. Recent evidence suggests that the SIT family of Si transporters, initially identified in diatoms, may be widely distributed, with an extended family of related transporters (SIT-Ls) present in some non-silicified organisms...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Xiaochu Ding, Jin Gao, Zhouguang Wang, Hassan Awada, Yadong Wang
We designed and tested a versatile hydrogel for tissue regeneration by preserving the bioactivity of growth factors. The shear-thinning gel self-assembles within 1 min from heparin and Laponite-a silicate nanoparticle, thus the name HELP gel. By not covalently modifying heparin, it should retain its natural affinity towards many proteins anchored in the extracellular matrix. In principle, HELP gel can bind any heparin-binding growth factor; we use fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) in this study to demonstrate its utility...
December 2016: Biomaterials
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