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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053639/effects-of-silicon-amendment-on-soilborne-and-fruit-diseases-of-avocado
#1
Elizabeth K Dann, Duy P Le
The effects of silicon (Si) amendment have been studied in several plant/pathogen interactions; however, studies in horticultural tree crops are limited. Effects of amendment with soluble potassium silicate (AgSil(®)32, approximately 30% available Si), or milled cement building board by-products (Mineral Mulch (MM) or Mineral Dust (MD), containing 5% available Si) were investigated in field and greenhouse trials with avocado. Orchard soil drench applications with potassium silicate improved yield and quality of fruit, but visual health of trees declining from Phytophthora root rot (PRR) was not affected...
October 20, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052468/evaluation-of-the-content-of-tio2-nanoparticles-in-the-coatings-of-chewing-gums
#2
William Dudefoi, Hélène Terrisse, Aurelian Florin Popa, Eric Gautron, Bernard Humbert, Marie-Hélène Ropers
Titanium dioxide is a metal oxide used as a white pigment in many food categories, including confectionery. Due to differences in the mass fraction of nanoparticles contained in TiO2, the estimated intakes of TiO2 nanoparticles differ by a factor of 10 in the literature. To resolve this problem, a better estimation of the mass of nanoparticles present in food products is needed. In this study, we focused our efforts on chewing gum, which is one of the food products contributing most to the intake of TiO2. The coatings of four kinds of chewing gum, where the presence of TiO2 was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, were extracted in aqueous phases...
October 20, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047281/development-of-wheat-bran-oil-concentrates-rich-in-bioactives-with-antioxidant-and-hypolipidemic-properties
#3
Sharanappa Talawar, Nanishankar V Harohally, Chethana Ramakrishna, G Suresh Kumar
Wheat bran, an abundant by-product of milling industry, comprises fat soluble bioactives and fibres. In the present study, two concentrates were prepared from wheat bran oil (WBO) using silicic acid coupled with acetone (WBA) and hexane (WBH). WBA extract had enhanced color, viscosity and was also enriched with fat soluble bioactives (sterols, oryzanol-like compounds, tocopherols and carotenoids) as evidenced from NMR and other techniques. In in vitro studies, WBA exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity, limited DNA and LDL oxidation, inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and lipase activity than WBH and WBO...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044828/fracture-resistance-of-monolithic-glass-ceramics-versus-bilayered-zirconia-based-restorations
#4
Tamer A Hamza, Rana M Sherif
PURPOSE: To compare the fracture resistance of monolithic reinforced glass-ceramic restorations with bilayer zirconia-based restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen ceramic crowns were fabricated on epoxy dies duplicated from a stainless steel master die. They were divided into 3 equal groups (n = 5) according to the type of ceramic material used: group I, monolithic lithium disilicate (IPS e.max CAD), group V, monolithic zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (Vita Suprinity), and group B (bilayered zirconia substructure with veneering ceramic)...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044111/elevated-olivine-weathering-rates-and-sulfate-formation-at-cryogenic-temperatures-on-mars
#5
Paul B Niles, Joseph Michalski, Douglas W Ming, D C Golden
Large Hesperian-aged (~3.7 Ga) layered deposits of sulfate-rich sediments in the equatorial regions of Mars have been suggested to be evidence for ephemeral playa environments. But early Mars may not have been warm enough to support conditions similar to what occurs in arid environments on Earth. Instead cold, icy environments may have been widespread. Under cryogenic conditions sulfate formation might be blocked, since kinetics of silicate weathering are typically strongly retarded at temperatures well below 0 °C...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042712/sensitivity-of-novel-silicate-and-borate-based-glass-structures-on-in-vitro-bioactivity-and-degradation-behaviour
#6
Elena Mancuso, Oana Bretcanu, Martyn Marshall, Kenneth W Dalgarno
Three novel glass compositions, identified as NCL2 (SiO2-based), NCL4 (B2O3-based) and NCL7 (SiO2-based), along with apatite-wollastonite (AW) were processed to form sintered dense pellets, and subsequently evaluated for their in vitro bioactive potential, resulting physico-chemical properties and degradation rate. Microstructural analysis showed the carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCA) precipitate morphology following SBF testing to be composition-dependent. AW and the NCL7 formulation exhibited greater HCA precursor formation than the NCL2 and NCL4-derived pellets...
October 15, 2017: Ceramics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042274/study-of-cellulose-nanocrystal-doped-starch-polyvinyl-alcohol-bionanocomposite-films
#7
Nooshin Noshirvani, Wangyujue Hong, Babak Ghanbarzadeh, Hadi Fasihi, Reza Montazami
We prepared biodegradable nanocomposites from plasticized starch-polyvinyl alcohol (PS-PVA) composite incorporated with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). The nanocomposite films were characterized by mechanical, thermal, and barrier analyses as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM). The geometrical characteristics of the CNC confirmed that the thickness of CNC was less than 100nm. The generated nanocomposites exhibited an improvement in mechanical and barrier properties. The films showed decrease in solubility, water absorption, water vapor permeability (WVP), and strain at break (SB)...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042078/bioactivity-and-fluoride-release-of-strontium-and-fluoride-modified-biodentine
#8
Hazel O Simila, Natalia Karpukhina, Robert G Hill
Biodentine™ is a novel tricalcium silicate based material used both as a coronal dentine replacement and in pulp therapy. Its multiple use in sealing perforations, pulp capping and as a temporary restoration arises from its ability to promote dentine formation and to confer an excellent marginal seal. However, there is still room for improvement of this cement as it lacks the anticariogenic effect typically conferred by fluoride ion release as seen in glass ionomer cement based dental materials. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of bioactive glass addition to Biodentine™...
October 14, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041664/diode-pumped-passively-q-switched-self-frequency-doubled-nd-cngs-laser
#9
Xuzhao Zhang, Ying Zhou, Anatol Yasukevich, Pavel Loiko, Xavier Mateos, Xinguang Xu, Shiyi Guo, Zhengping Wang
With Cr(4+):YAG as a saturable absorber, a passively Q-switched self-frequency-doubled (SFD) laser based on a trigonal Nd:Ca3NbGa3Si2O14 (Nd:CNGS) silicate crystal was demonstrated for the first time. The maximum average output power at 532 nm was 16.2 mW, and the corresponding pulse repetition frequency, single pulse energy, pulse duration and peak power were 2.25 kHz, 7.2 μJ, 13.7 ns, 0.53 kW, respectively. We also present a rate-equation model of such a passively Q-switched SFD laser showing a good agreement with the experiment...
August 21, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040822/removal-of-lead-and-bisphenol-a-using-magnesium-silicate-impregnated-palm-shell-waste-powdered-activated-carbon-comparative-studies-on-single-and-binary-pollutant-adsorption
#10
Choe Earn Choong, Shaliza Ibrahim, Yeomin Yoon, Min Jang
In this work, palm shell waste powder activated carbon coated by magnesium silicate (PPAC-MS) were synthesized by the impregnation of magnesium silicate (MgSiO3) using economical material (silicon dioxide powder) via mild hydrothermal approach for the first time. As an effective adsorbent, PPAC-MS simultaneously removes BPA and Pb(II) in single and binary mode. Surprisingly, PPAC-MS exhibited a homogeneous thin plate mesh-like structure, as well as meso- and macropores with a high surface area of 772.1m(2)g(-1)...
October 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035549/water-as-a-probe-of-colloidal-properties-of-cement
#11
Francesca Ridi, Monica Tonelli, Emiliano Fratini, Sow-Hsin Chen, Piero Baglioni
Cement is produced by mixing mineral phases based on calcium silicates and aluminates with water. The hydration reaction of the mixture leads to a synthetic material with outstanding properties that can be used as a binder for construction applications. Despite the importance of cement in society, for a long time, the chemical reactions involved in its hydration remained poorly understood due to the complexity of hydration processes, nanostructure and transport phenomena. This feature article reviews the recently obtained results using water as "a probe" to detail the essential features in the setting process...
October 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034340/titanium-addition-influences-antibacterial-activity-of-bioactive-glass-coatings-on-metallic-implants
#12
Omar Rodriguez, Wendy Stone, Emil H Schemitsch, Paul Zalzal, Stephen Waldman, Marcello Papini, Mark R Towler
In an attempt to combat the possibility of bacterial infection and insufficient bone growth around metallic, surgical implants, bioactive glasses may be employed as coatings. In this work, silica-based and borate-based glass series were synthesized for this purpose and subsequently characterized in terms of antibacterial behavior, solubility and cytotoxicity. Borate-based glasses were found to exhibit significantly superior antibacterial properties and increased solubility compared to their silica-based counterparts, with BRT0 and BRT3 (borate-based glasses with 0 and 15 mol% of titanium dioxide incorporated, respectively) outperforming the remainder of the glasses, both borate and silicate based, in these respects...
October 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033393/new-bioactive-glass-scaffolds-with-exceptional-qualities-for-bone-tissue-regeneration-response-of-osteoblasts-and-osteoclasts
#13
Tia Kowal, Natalie C Hahn, Stephanie Eider, Jutta Marzillier, Daniella Marie Fodera, Ukrit Thamma, Himanshu Jain, Matthias M Falk
Tissue regeneration is a significantly improved alternative to tissue replacement by implants. It requires porous bioscaffolds for the restoration of natural tissue rather than relying on bio-inactive, often metallic implants. Recently, we developed technology for fabricating novel, nano-macroporous bioactive 'Tailored Amorphous Multi-Porous (TAMP)' hard tissue scaffolds using a 70 mol% SiO2-30 mol% CaO model composition. The TAMP silicate scaffolds, fabricated by a modified sol-gel process, have shown excellent biocompatibility via the rapid formation of hydroxyapatite in biological fluids as well as in early tests with bone forming cells...
October 16, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033089/the-effect-of-heating-time-and-temperature-on-epoxy-resin-and-calcium-silicate-based-endodontic-sealers
#14
Amre R Atmeh, Emad AlShwaimi
INTRODUCTION: With the growing use of warm obturation techniques during endodontic treatment, more interest is directed toward sealers' compatibility with heat. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of heat application duration and temperature on epoxy resin- and calcium silicate-based sealers using chemical and thermogravimetric analyses. METHODS: Freshly mixed samples (n = 5/group) of each sealer were heated at 200°C or 250°C for 30 or 60 seconds. Additional 2 sets of samples were examined directly after mixing or after setting without heat exposure...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032816/physicochemical-properties-and-volumetric-change-of-silicone-bioactive-glass-and-calcium%C3%A2-silicate-based-endodontic-sealers
#15
Mario Tanomaru-Filho, Fernanda Ferrari Esteves Torres, Gisselle Moraima Chávez-Andrade, Madelise de Almeida, Luciana Guilherme Navarro, Liviu Steier, Juliane Maria Guerreiro-Tanomaru
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated setting time (ST), radiopacity, pH, flow, solubility, and volumetric change (VC) of a silicone, gutta-percha, and bioactive glass-based sealer, GuttaFlow Bioseal (GFB), and a calcium silicate-based sealer, TotalFill BC Sealer (TFBC), in comparison with AH Plus. METHODS: ST and flow were evaluated in accordance with the ISO 6876 Standard. pH was evaluated after different time intervals (1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days). Radiopacity was evaluated by radiographic analysis in millimeters of aluminum...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032813/light-cured-tricalcium-silicate-toxicity-to-the-dental-pulp
#16
Charlotte Jeanneau, Patrick Laurent, Charlotte Rombouts, Thomas Giraud, Imad About
INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies reported dentin bridge formation after pulp capping with tricalcium silicates. By contrast, pulp capping with resins leads to pulp toxicity and inflammation. Hybrid materials made up of tricalcium silicates and resins have also been developed to be used in direct pulp capping. This work was designed to study the consequences of adding resins to tricalcium silicates by investigating TheraCal (BISCO, Lançon De Provence, France) and Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fosses, France) interactions with the dental pulp...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032002/recoveries-of-rare-elements-ga-ge-in-and-sn-from-waste-electric-and-electronic-equipment-through-secondary-copper-smelting
#17
Katri Avarmaa, Simon Yliaho, Pekka Taskinen
The recycling and recovery of valuable metals from waste materials is one of the key issues in maintaining the sustainability of base and rare metals. Especially WEEE (Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment) can be considered as a high potential resource for a number of valuable and critical metals like gallium, germanium and indium. During the mechanical processing of WEEE, these metals are primary separated into the non-ferrous scrap fractions, including copper fraction. As a consequence, the behavior of these valuable metals and the possibility of their recycling in secondary copper smelting are of great interest...
October 11, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031416/zinc-silicate-mineral-coated-scaffold-improved-in-vitro-osteogenic-differentiation-of-equine-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Behnaz Bageshlooyafshar, Saeid Vakilian, Mousa Kehtari, Tarlan Eslami-Arshaghi, Farjad Rafeie, Rouhallah Ramezanifard, Reza Rahchamani, Abdollah Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Yousef Mostafaloo, Ehsan Seyedjafari
In current study we aimed to coat the PLLA scaffold with zinc (Zn) silicate mineral nanoparticles. Then, using equine adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) we intended to compare the osteogenic induction potency of Zn silicate mineral-coated PLLA scaffold with uncoated PLLA scaffold and tissue culture plastic (TCPS). Adipose tissues were collected from 3 horses, and isolation of ASCs was achieved by enzymatic digestion. PLLA scaffold was successfully prepared using a phase separation method and coated with Zn silicate mineral nanoparticles...
September 18, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031165/characterization-and-morphological-analysis-of-individual-aerosol-of-pm10-in-urban-area-of-lucknow-india
#19
Sushil Kumar Bharti, Dhananjay Kumar, Sangeeta Anand, Poonam, Shymal Chandra Barman, Narendra Kumar
Airborne particulate matters were collected during the period of October 2015 to September 2016 in Lucknow at different sampling sites. The annual mean concentration of particulate matter was found to be relatively higher than the limits prescribed by National ambient air quality standards (NAAQS), United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and World Health Organization (WHO). Particulate matters were studied for morphological analysis, elemental composition and functional group variability with the help of Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) followed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
September 14, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028296/enhanced-flux-and-electrochemical-cleaning-of-silicate-scaling-on-carbon-nanotube-coated-membrane-distillation-membranes-treating-geothermal-brines
#20
Li Tang, Arpita Iddya, Xiaobo Zhu, Alexander V Dudchenko, Wenyan Duan, Craig Turchi, Johan Vanneste, Tzahi Y Cath, David Jassby
The desalination of inland brackish groundwater offers the opportunity to provide potable drinking water to residents and industrial cooling water to industries located in arid regions. Geothermal brines are used to generate electricity, but often contain high concentrations of dissolved salt. Here, we demonstrate how the residual heat left in spent geothermal brines can be used to drive a membrane distillation (MD) process and recover desalinated water. Porous polypropylene membranes were coated with a carbon nanotube (CNT)/poly (vinyl alcohol) layer, resulting in composite membranes having a binary structure that combines the hydrophobic properties critical for MD with the hydrophilic and conductive properties of the CNTs...
October 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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