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Felix Lampert, Shima Kadkhodazadeh, Takeshi Kasama, Kristian Vinter Dahl, Alexander Bruun Christiansen, Per Møller
Hydrogen silsesquioxane ([HSiO3/2]n) based "spin-on-glass" has been deposited on 316L substrate and cured in Ar/H2 gas atmosphere at 600 ºC to form a continuous surface coating with sub-micrometer thickness. The coating functionality depends primarily on the adhesion to the substrate, which is largely affected by the chemical interaction at the interface between the coating and the substrate. We have investigated this interface by transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy...
February 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Fatemeh Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Mosaddeghi, Anthony Roger Dexter, Mozhgan Sepehri
Under combined drought and mechanical stresses, mechanical stress primarily controlled physiological responses of maize. Piriformospora indica mitigated the adverse effects of stresses, and inoculated maize experienced less oxidative damage and had better adaptation to stressful conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize root colonization by an endophytic fungus P. indica on plant water status, physiological traits and root morphology under combined drought and mechanical stresses...
February 16, 2018: Planta
Deok Hyun Moon, Inseong Hwang, Agamemnon Koutsospyros, Kyung Hoon Cheong, Yong Sik Ok, Won Hyun Ji, Jeong-Hun Park
Lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) contaminated rice paddy soil was stabilized using natural (NSF) and calcined starfish (CSF). Contaminated soil was treated with NSF in the range of 0-10 wt% and CSF in the range of 0-5 wt% and cured for 28 days. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test was used to evaluate effectiveness of starfish treatment. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses were conducted to investigate the mechanism responsible for effective immobilization of Pb and Zn...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Seongmin Ju, Kadathala Linganna, Bok Hyeon Kim, Seongjae Boo, Yong Ho An, Won-Taek Han
Alumino-germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with Gd2O3 nano-particles (NPs) was developed by using the modified chemical vapor deposition and the drawing process. The formation of spherical Gd2O3 NPs in the fiber core with average diameter of 10.8 nm was confirmed by the TEM. The distinct absorption peaks in the fiber preform appearing in the UV region at 205, 247, 253, 274, and 312 nm were due to the incorporated Gd2O3 NPs via reorganization of the seven 4f electrons into various multiplets of Gd ions...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Ediana P Rebitski, Pilar Aranda, Margarita Darder, Raffaele Carraro, Eduardo Ruiz-Hitzky
Metformin hydrochloride is an extensively used antidiabetic drug that according to the results reported here is able to spontaneously intercalate layered silicates like the montmorillonite clay mineral following an ion-exchange mechanism. The adsorption isotherm from water solutions shows a great affinity of metformin towards the clay mineral, which can retain about thrice the exchange capacity of the clay. The adsorbed excess was easily removed by washing with water, leading to an intercalation compound that contains 93 meq of metformin per 100 g of montmorillonite, matching the CEC value of this clay...
February 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Piotr Izak, Longin Ogłaza, Włodzimierz Mozgawa, Joanna Mastalska-Popławska, Agata Stempkowska
To avoid agglomeration and sedimentation of grains, ceramic slurries should be modified by stabilizers in order to increase the electrostatic interactions between the dispersed particles. In this study we present the spectral analysis of aqueous sodium silicates obtained by different synthesis methods and their influence on the rheological properties of kaolin based slurries. Infrared and Raman spectra can be used to describe the structure of silicate structural units present in aqueous sodium silicates. It was confirmed that the best stabilization results possess aqueous sodium silicates of the silicate moduli of about 2 and the optimal concentration of the used fluidizer is 0...
February 8, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
S S Fedotov, A G Okhrimchuk, A S Lipatiev, A A Stepko, K I Piyanzina, G Yu Shakhgildyan, M Yu Presniakov, I S Glebov, S V Lotarev, V N Sigaev
We have found that a single sub-microsecond burst of femtosecond laser pulses produces a sub-micrometer cavity possessing the homogeneous birefringence with slow-axis orientation perpendicular to polarization of the laser beam in high-silicate nanoporous glass. Retardance and the root mean square of slow-axis orientation are investigated in dependence on the energy and the number of pulses in the burst. A burst of just three pulses with 98 ns inter-pulse intervals has been shown to induce homogeneous birefringence, and a burst of four pulses has provided birefringence with retardance of 35 nm, which is sufficient for reliable readout of the information recorded with multilevel encoding in slow-axis orientation...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Zheng Xie, Yongzhong Wu, Xingming Sun, Shixin Liu, Fukun Ma, Gang Zhao, Xiaopeng Hao, Shuyun Zhou
Hydrophilic hydroxylated hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs), also called 'white graphene', exhibit high water solubility, compatibility, dispersity with physical and/or chemical effects on the gel matrix, and unexpected but outstanding near-infrared adsorption and nonlinear optical limiting properties. These properties mean that hydroxylated BNNSs are suitable for practical applications in solidification and devices. Hydroxylated BNNSs are doped into an organically modified silicate matrix through a facile sol-gel process...
February 13, 2018: Nanoscale
Yoshio Kono, Yuki Shibazaki, Curtis Kenney-Benson, Yanbin Wang, Guoyin Shen
Knowledge of the structure and properties of silicate magma under extreme pressure plays an important role in understanding the nature and evolution of Earth's deep interior. Here we report the structure of MgSiO3 glass, considered an analog of silicate melts, up to 111 GPa. The first (r1) and second (r2) neighbor distances in the pair distribution function change rapidly, with r1 increasing and r2 decreasing with pressure. At 53-62 GPa, the observed r1 and r2 distances are similar to the Si-O and Si-Si distances, respectively, of crystalline MgSiO3 akimotoite with edge-sharing SiO6 structural motifs...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
A Medina-Ramírez, A A Flores-Díaz, B Ruiz Camacho, G García-Ruiz
The synthesis of calcium silicate supported zeolite membrane was carried out by second growth method. The chemical nature of the functionalizing agent on the formation of homogenous zeolite membrane was evaluated. One monomer and two cationic polymers were used: 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS), polyethylenimine (PEI) and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA). The support was subjected to chemical functionalization and then it was rubbed with zeolite crystals. The W zeolite was used as zeolite seed in two different Si/Al ratios...
February 10, 2018: Progress in Biomaterials
Jie Li, Guangwei Yu, Shengyu Xie, Lanjia Pan, Chunxing Li, Futian You, Yin Wang
Ceramsite was prepared from sewage sludge biochar (SSB). The migration, speciation evolution, leaching toxicity, and potential environmental risk of heavy metals (HMs) in sludge biochar ceramsite (SBC) were investigated. The characteristics of the SBC met the requirements for Chinese lightweight aggregate standards (GB/T 1743.1-2010 and JT/T 770-2009) and the heavy metals (HMs: Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, and Cd) were well immobilized in the SBC. The leaching percentages of the HMs in SBC were remarkably reduced, in particular after preheating at 400°C and sintering at 1100°C...
February 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jingshu Guo, Congqin Ning, Xuanyong Liu
Due to the dissimilar features between the tendon and bone, tendon to bone healing is the most challenging problems in sports medicine. In the present work, a novel bioactive calcium phosphate silicate ceramic (CPS) was coated on the surface of PLGA films using electron beam evaporation (EBE) technique to prepare a tailorable composite film with layered chemical composition similar to tendon-bone interface. The physicochemical behaviors of the CPS-PLGA composite films were characterized and the cytocompatibility were also investigated...
February 4, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Guangrui Gao, Ying Li, Dan Hu, Zhengping Xi
Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) ceramic coatings were formed on TC4 alloy surface in silicate and metaphosphate electrolytes based with K₂ZrF₆ for various concentrations. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the phase composition, microstructure and chemical compositions of the coatings. The infrared emissivity of the coatings was measured at 50 °C in a wavelength range of 8-20 µm. The microstructural observations all revealed the typical porousstructures...
February 7, 2018: Materials
Yanguang Chen, Shuli Cong, Qiqi Wang, Hongjing Han, Jia Lu, Yue Kang, Wei Kang, Haiying Wang, Shuyu Han, Hua Song, Jiaojing Zhang
A novel approach was proposed to prepare ZSM-5 zeolite via hydrothermal synthesis by using Al(OH)3, which was extracted from fly ash by a staged treatment, as an aluminum source. The synthesis parameters and crystal growth of ZSM-5 were optimized. The optimization of crystal growth for ZSM-5 was investigated under the effect of organic steric-hindrance agents. The crystal phase and morphology of the ZSM-5 were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy, and the particle size distribution was measured by laser particle-size analyzer...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Yorck F Adrian, Uwe Schneidewind, Scott A Bradford, Jirka Simunek, Tomas M Fernandez-Steeger, Rafig Azzam
Packed column experiments were conducted to investigate the transport and blocking behavior of surfactant- and polymer-stabilized engineered silver nanoparticles (Ag-ENPs) in saturated natural aquifer media with varying content of material < 0.063 mm in diameter (silt and clay fraction), background solution chemistry, and flow velocity. Breakthrough curves for Ag-ENPs exhibited blocking behavior that frequently produced a delay in arrival time in comparison to a conservative tracer that was dependent on the physicochemical conditions, and then a rapid increase in the effluent concentration of Ag-ENPs...
January 30, 2018: Environmental Pollution
F Ehré, C Labbé, C Dufour, W M Jadwisienczak, J Weimmerskirch-Aubatin, X Portier, J-L Doualan, J Cardin, A L Richard, D C Ingram, C Labrugère, F Gourbilleau
Ce-Doped SiOxNy films are deposited by magnetron reactive sputtering from a CeO2 target under a nitrogen reactive gas atmosphere. Visible photoluminescence measurements regarding the nitrogen gas flow reveal a large emission band centered at 450 nm for a sample deposited under a 2 sccm flow. Special attention is paid to the origin of such an emission at high nitrogen concentration. Different emitting centers are suggested in Ce doped SiOxNy films (e.g. band tails, CeO2, Ce clusters, Ce3+ ions), with different activation scenarios to explain the luminescence...
February 7, 2018: Nanoscale
Evelin Rauscher, Gábor Schuszter, Bíborka Bohner, Ágota Tóth, Dezső Horváth
We have produced hollow copper-containing precipitate tubes using a flow-injection technique, and characterized their linear and volume growth. It is shown that the ratio of the volume increase rate to that of pumping is constant independent of the chemical composition. It is also found that osmosis significantly contributes to the tube growth, since the inward flux of chemical species dominates during the precipitate pattern formation. The asymmetric hydrodynamic field coupled with the inherent concentration and pH gradients results in different particle morphology on the two sides of the precipitate membrane...
February 7, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Peisi Le, Emiliano Fratini, Sow-Hsin Chen
HYPOTHESIS: In a saturated cement paste, there are three different types of water: the structural water chemically reacted with cement, the constrained water absorbed to the surface of the pores, and the free water in the center of the pores. Each type has different physicochemical state and unique relation to cement porosity. The different water types have different dynamics which can be detected using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). Since the porosity of a hardened cement paste is impacted strongly by the water to cement ratio (w/c), it should be possible to extract the hydration dependence of the pores by exploiting the dynamical parameters of the confined water...
February 2, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Samia A Ahmed, Faten A Mostafa, Mona A Ouis
α-Amylase enzyme was immobilized on bioactive phospho-silicate glass (PS-glass) as a novel inorganic support by physical adsorption and covalent binding methods using glutaraldehyde and poly glutaraldehyde as a spacer. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies confirmed the glass-enzyme linkage. Dissolution of PS-glass in acidic and neutral pH is higher than that of alkaline pH. Some immobilization variables were optimized using statistical factorial design (Central Composite Design)...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Chao Shan, Jiajia Chen, Zhe Yang, Huichao Jia, Xiaohong Guan, Weiming Zhang, Bingcai Pan
Although the removal of Se(VI) from water by using zero-valent iron (ZVI) is a promising method, passivation of ZVI severely inhibits its performance. To overcome such issue, we proposed an efficient technique to enhance Se(VI) removal via pre-corrosion of ZVI with H2O2/HCl in a short time (15 min). The resultant pcZVI suspension was weakly acidic (pH 4.56) and contained abundant aqueous Fe2+. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that pcZVI mainly consisted of Fe0 (66.2%), hydrated ferric oxide (26.3%), and Fe3O4 (7...
January 19, 2018: Water Research
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