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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324252/spatial-interpolation-methods-and-geostatistics-for-mapping%C3%A2-groundwater-contamination-in-a-coastal-area
#1
Vetrimurugan Elumalai, K Brindha, Bongani Sithole, Elango Lakshmanan
Mapping groundwater contaminants and identifying the sources are the initial steps in pollution control and mitigation. Due to the availability of different mapping methods and the large number of emerging pollutants, these methods need to be used together in decision making. The present study aims to map the contaminated areas in Richards Bay, South Africa and compare the results of ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation techniques. Statistical methods were also used for identifying contamination sources...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319703/impacts-of-human-activities-on-nutrient-transport-in-the-yellow-river-the-role-of-the-water-sediment-regulation-scheme
#2
Xinyu Li, Hontao Chen, Xueyan Jiang, Zhigang Yu, Qingzhen Yao
Anthropogenic activities alter the natural states of large rivers and their surrounding environment. The Yellow River is a well-studied case of a large river with heavy human control. An artificial managed water and sediment release system, known as the Water-Sediment Regulation Scheme (WSRS), has been carried out annually in the Yellow River since 2002. Nutrient concentrations and composition display significant time and space variations during the WSRS period. To figure out the anthropogenic impact of nutrient changes and transport in the Yellow River, biogeochemical observations were carried out in both middle reaches and lower reaches of the Yellow River during 2014 WSRS period...
March 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315438/rectorite-intercalated-nanoparticles-for-improving-controlled-release-of-doxorubicin-hydrochloride
#3
Jian Jin, Hu Tu, Jiajia Chen, Gu Cheng, Xiaowen Shi, Hongbing Deng, Zubing Li, Yumin Du
Controlled release of drugs has been widely researched in biomedical area. Nanoparticles (NPs) as ideal drug carriers are often used to facilitate improvements in the therapeutic index of drugs. In this study, natural polymers carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and lysozyme (LY) were mixed to prepare CMC-LY NPs by electrostatic self-assembly interactions. In addition, layered silicate rectorite (REC) was introduced into NPs to explore the effect on the encapsulation efficacy and controlled release of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX)...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314361/hepatotoxicity-and-drug-chemical-interaction-toxicity-of-nanoclay-particles-in-mice
#4
Katsuhiro Isoda, Ryutaro Nagata, Tomoya Hasegawa, Yuichiro Taira, Ikuko Taira, Yoshimi Shimizu, Kazuo Isama, Tetsuji Nishimura, Isao Ishida
Nanomaterials are relatively new and unconventional materials with many useful properties, but their effects on biological systems are poorly understood. Nanoclay is a general term for layered mineral silicate nanoparticles that are ideally suited for use in clay-based nanocomposites. The potential biological hazards of nanoclays have not been addressed, however. Therefore, we investigated the in vivo effects and drug interactions of nanoclays. In mice, administration of nanoclay particles via the tail vein led to acute liver injury...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303946/preparation-of-ho-3-tm-3-co-doped-lanthanum-tungsten-germanium-tellurite-glass-fiber-and-its-laser-performance-for-2-0%C3%A2-%C3%AE-m
#5
Dechun Zhou, Xuemei Bai, Hang Zhou
Ho(3+)/Tm(3+) co-doped 50TeO2-25GeO2-3WO3-5La2O3-3Nb2O5-5Li2O-9BaF2 glass fiber is prepared with the rod-tube drawing method of 15 μm core diameter and 125 μm inner cladding diameter applied in the 2.0 μm-infrared laser. The 2.0 μm luminescence properties of the core glass are researched and the fluorescence intensity variation for different Tm(3+) doping concentration is systematically analyzed. The results show that the 2.0 μm luminescence of Ho(3+) is greatly influenced by the doping concentration ratio of Ho(3+) to Tm(3+) and that the maximum fluorescence intensity of the core glass can be obtained and its emission cross section can reach 0...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303943/increased-chemical-weathering-during-the-deglacial-to-mid-holocene-summer-monsoon-intensification
#6
Pavan Miriyala, N P Sukumaran, B Nagender Nath, P B Ramamurty, A V Sijinkumar, B Vijayagopal, V Ramaswamy, Tyson Sebastian
Chemical weathering and the ensuing atmospheric carbon dioxide consumption has long been considered to work on geological time periods until recently when some modelling and natural records have shown that the weathering-related CO2 consumption can change at century to glacial-interglacial time scale. Last glacial to interglacial transition period is a best test case to understand the interplay between Pco2-temperature-chemical weathering when a pulse of rapid chemical weathering was initiated. Here we show, from a high resolution 54 ka record from the Andaman Sea in the northern Indian Ocean, that the chemical weathering responds to deglacial to mid-Holocene summer monsoon intensification in the Myanmar watersheds...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301020/cytotoxicity-and-bioactivity-of-calcium-silicate-cements-combined-with-niobium-oxide-in-different-cell-lines
#7
Leticia Boldrin Mestieri, Ana Lívia Gomes-Cornélio, Elisandra Márcia Rodrigues, Gisele Faria, Juliane Maria Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Mário Tanomaru-Filho
The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and bioactivity of calcium silicate-based cements combined with niobium oxide (Nb2O5) micro and nanoparticles, comparing the response in different cell lines. This evaluation used four cell lines: two primary cultures (human dental pulp cells - hDPCs and human dental follicle cells - hDFCs) and two immortalized cultures (human osteoblast-like cells - Saos-2 and mouse periodontal ligament cells - mPDL). The tested materials were: White Portland Cement (PC), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), white Portland cement combined with microparticles (PC/Nb2O5µ) or nanoparticles (PC/Nb2O5n) of niobium oxide (Nb2O5)...
January 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301018/physicochemical-properties-and-dentin-bond-strength-of-a-tricalcium-silicate-based-retrograde-material
#8
Camila de Paula Telles Pires Lucas, Raqueli Viapiana, Roberta Bosso-Martelo, Juliane Maria Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Josette Camilleri, Mário Tanomaru-Filho
The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties and the apical dentin bond strength of the tricalcium silicate-based Biodentine in comparison to white MTA and zinc oxide eugenol-based cement (ZOE). Setting time and radiopacity were evaluated according to ISO 6876:2012 specification. Final setting time, compressive strength and pH were also assessed. Material's bond strength to the apical root canal dentin was measured by the push-out assay. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey-Krammer post-hoc test...
January 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300729/comparison-of-silicon-nanoparticles-and-silicate-treatments-in-fenugreek
#9
Sanam Nazaralian, Ahmad Majd, Saeed Irian, Farzaneh Najafi, Farrokh Ghahremaninejad, Tommy Landberg, Maria Greger
Silicon (Si) fertilization improves crop cultivation and is commonly added in the form of soluble silicates. However, most natural plant-available Si originates from plant formed amorphous SiO2 particles, phytoliths, similar to SiO2-nanoparticles (SiNP). In this work we, therefore, compared the effect by sodium silicate and that of SiNP on Si accumulation, activity of antioxidative stress enzymes catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, lignification of xylem cell walls and activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) as well as expression of genes for the putative silicon transporter (PST), defensive (Tfgd 1) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and protein in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L...
March 14, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298979/bonding-to-silicate-ceramics-conventional-technique-compared-with-a-simplified-technique
#10
Juan-Luis Román-Rodríguez, Jorge-Alonso Perez-Barquero, Eva Gonzalez-Angulo, Antonio Fons-Font, Jose-Luis Bustos-Salvador
BACKGROUND: Silicate ceramic bonding is carried out by acid-etching with hydrofluoric acid (HF) followed by an application of silane. By replacing HF with ammonium polyfluoride, contained in the same flask as the silane, the number of steps in this clinical procedure, can be reduced, while maintaining bond strength values, and reducing toxicity. A shear bond test was performed to compare the conventional and the simplified surface treatment techniques. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty ceramic samples were fabricated from IPS emax CAD® ceramic (Ivoclar Vivadent) and divided into two groups (G1 and G2) (n=10)...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297708/ultra-selective-high-flux-membranes-from-directly-synthesized-zeolite-nanosheets
#11
Mi Young Jeon, Donghun Kim, Prashant Kumar, Pyung Soo Lee, Neel Rangnekar, Peng Bai, Meera Shete, Bahman Elyassi, Han Seung Lee, Katabathini Narasimharao, Sulaiman Nasir Basahel, Shaeel Al-Thabaiti, Wenqian Xu, Hong Je Cho, Evgenii O Fetisov, Raghuram Thyagarajan, Robert F DeJaco, Wei Fan, K Andre Mkhoyan, J Ilja Siepmann, Michael Tsapatsis
A zeolite with structure type MFI is an aluminosilicate or silicate material that has a three-dimensionally connected pore network, which enables molecular recognition in the size range 0.5-0.6 nm. These micropore dimensions are relevant for many valuable chemical intermediates, and therefore MFI-type zeolites are widely used in the chemical industry as selective catalysts or adsorbents. As with all zeolites, strategies to tailor them for specific applications include controlling their crystal size and shape...
March 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292596/why-biphasic-assessment-of-the-effect-on-cell-proliferation-and-expression
#12
Pierre Schembri-Wismayer, Josette Camilleri
INTRODUCTION: Tricalcium silicate (TCS)-based materials are used in endodontics because they are hydraulic and interact with blood, tissue fluids, and phosphate-based root canal irrigants, resulting in biomineralization. Newer-generation materials are biphasic; calcium phosphate is added to the TCS; thus, the material has 2 cementitious phases. The effect of this addition is not known; thus, the aim of this study was to characterize biphasic cements and assess cellular proliferation and expression...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290474/abrupt-response-of-chemical-weathering-to-late-quaternary-hydroclimate-changes-in-northeast-africa
#13
Luc Bastian, Marie Revel, Germain Bayon, Aurélie Dufour, Nathalie Vigier
Chemical weathering of silicate rocks on continents acts as a major sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide and has played an important role in the evolution of the Earth's climate. However, the magnitude and the nature of the links between weathering and climate are still under debate. In particular, the timescale over which chemical weathering may respond to climate change is yet to be constrained at the continental scale. Here we reconstruct the relationships between rainfall and chemical weathering in northeast Africa for the last 32,000 years...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289289/evidence-for-a-fe-3-rich-pyrolitic-lower-mantle-from-al-fe-bearing-bridgmanite-elasticity-data
#14
A Kurnosov, H Marquardt, D J Frost, T Boffa Ballaran, L Ziberna
The chemical composition of Earth's lower mantle can be constrained by combining seismological observations with mineral physics elasticity measurements. However, the lack of laboratory data for Earth's most abundant mineral, (Mg,Fe,Al)(Al,Fe,Si)O3 bridgmanite (also known as silicate perovskite), has hampered any conclusive result. Here we report single-crystal elasticity data on (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite (Mg0.9Fe0.1Si0.9Al0.1)O3 measured using high-pressure Brillouin spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Our measurements show that the elastic behaviour of (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite is markedly different from the behaviour of the MgSiO3 endmember...
March 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287261/three-dimensional-encapsulation-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-in-silicate-matrices-creates-distinct-metabolic-states-as-revealed-by-gene-chip-analysis
#15
Zeeshan Fazal, Jennifer Pelowitz, Patrick E Johnson, Jason Carl Harper, C Jeffrey Brinker, Eric Jakobsson
In order to design hybrid cellular/synthetic devices such as sensors and vaccines, it is important to understand how the metabolic state of living cells changes upon physical confinement within three-dimensional matrices. We analyze the gene expression patterns of stationary phase Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) cells encapsulated within three distinct nanostructured silica matrices and relate those patterns to known naturally occurring metabolic states. Silica encapsulation methods employed were lipid-templated mesophase silica thin films formed by cell-directed assembly (CDA), lipid-templated mesophase silica particles formed by spray drying (SD), and glycerol doped silica gel monoliths prepared from an aqueous silicate (AqS+g) precursor solution...
March 13, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287084/temporal-controls-on-silicic-acid-utilisation-along-the-west-antarctic-peninsula
#16
George E A Swann, Jennifer Pike, Melanie J Leng, Hilary J Sloane, Andrea M Snelling
The impact of climatic change along the Antarctica Peninsula has been widely debated in light of atmospheric/oceanic warming and increases in glacial melt over the past half century. Particular concern exists over the impact of these changes on marine ecosystems, not only on primary producers but also on higher trophic levels. Here we present a record detailing of the historical controls on the biogeochemical cycling of silicic acid [Si(OH)4] on the west Antarctica Peninsula margin, a region in which the modern phytoplankton environment is constrained by seasonal sea ice...
March 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287077/bone-regeneration-in-3d-printing-bioactive-ceramic-scaffolds-with-improved-tissue-material-interface-pore-architecture-in-thin-wall-bone-defect
#17
Huifeng Shao, Xiurong Ke, An Liu, Miao Sun, Yong He, Xianyan Yang, Jianzhong Fu, Yanming Liu, Lei Zhang, Guojing Yang, Sanzhong Xu, Zhongru Gou
Three-dimensional (3D) printing bioactive ceramics have demonstrated alternative approaches to bone tissue repair, but an optimized materials system for improving the recruitment of host osteogenic cells into the bone defect and enhancing targeted repair of the thin-wall craniomaxillofacial defects remains elusive. Herein we systematically evaluated the role of side-wall pore architecture in the direct-ink-writing bioceramic scaffolds on mechanical properties and osteogenic capacity in rabbit calvarial defects...
March 13, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285078/biodegradable-inorganic-organic-hybrids-of-methacrylate-star-polymers-for-bone-regeneration
#18
Justin J Chung, Yuki Fujita, Siwei Li, Molly M Stevens, Toshihiro Kasuga, Theoni K Georgiou, Julian R Jones
Hybrids that are molecular scale co-networks of organic and inorganic components are promising biomaterials, improving the brittleness of bioactive glass and the strength of polymers. Methacrylate polymers have high potential as the organic source for hybrids since they can be produced, through controlled polymerization, with sophisticated polymer architectures that can bond to silicate networks. Previous studies showed the mechanical properties of hybrids can be modified by polymer architecture and molar mass (MM)...
March 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284102/g-protein-coupled-calcium-sensing-receptor-is-a-crucial-mediator-of-mta-induced-biological-activities
#19
Jin Man Kim, Seulki Choi, Kyu Hwan Kwack, Sun-Young Kim, Hyeon-Woo Lee, Kyungpyo Park
Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a calcium silicate-based bioactive material that has been extensively used in dentistry. MTA has been highlighted in its diverse biological functions and excellent clinical outcomes. However, limited insight into the intracellular signaling pathways has been provided to explain the biological activities of MTA. Here, we firstly elucidate that the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a major signaling mediator of MTA-induced biological reactions through versatile live imaging techniques of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs)...
February 28, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283900/specific-fluorescence-probe-for-direct-recognition-of-dimethoate-using-molecularly-imprinting-polymer-on-zno-quantum-dots
#20
Behrouz Vahid
ZnO quantum dots (QDs) based molecularly imprinting polymer (MIP)-coated composite was described for specific detection of the dimethoate (DM) as a template. The MIP was synthesized by simple self-assembly of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) monomers and tetraethyl ortho-silicate as cross linking agent in the presence of template molecules. The used imprinting course can improve the tendency of the prepared QDs toward the DM template molecules. The MIP-coated ZnO QDs showed a strong fluorescence emission which undergoes a quenching effect in the presence of DM...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
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