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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651339/formation-of-silica-aggregates-in-sorghum-root-endodermis-is-predetermined-by-cell-wall-architecture-and-development
#1
Milan Soukup, Michal Martinka, Dragana Bosnic, Mária Caplovicová, Rivka Elbaum, Alexander Lux
Background and Aims: Deposition of silica in plant cell walls improves their mechanical properties and helps plants to withstand various stress conditions. Its mechanism is still not understood and silica-cell wall interactions are elusive. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of silica deposition on the development and structure of sorghum root endodermis and to identify the cell wall components involved in silicification. Methods: Sorghum bicolor seedlings were grown hydroponically with (Si+) or without (Si-) silicon supplementation...
June 22, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649791/bioactivity-and-biomineralization-ability-of-calcium-silicate-based-pulp-capping-materials-after-subcutaneous-implantation
#2
G Hinata, K Yoshiba, L Han, N Edanami, N Yoshiba, T Okiji
AIM: To evaluate the abilities of three calcium silicate-based pulp-capping materials (ProRoot MTA, TheraCal LC, and a prototype tricalcium silicate cement) to produce apatite-like precipitates after being subcutaneously implanted into rats. METHODOLOGY: Polytetrafluoroethylene tubes containing each material were subcutaneously implanted into the backs of Wistar rats. At 7, 14, and 28 days post-implantation, the implants were removed together with the surrounding connective tissue, and fixed in 2...
June 26, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647239/fluoride-removal-by-al-ti-and-fe-hydroxides-and-coexisting-ion-effect
#3
Jianfeng Zhang, Timothy E Brutus, Jiemin Cheng, Xiaoguang Meng
Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate fluoride removal by Al, Fe, and Ti-based coagulants and adsorbents, as well as the effects of coexisting ions and formation of aluminum-fluoride complexes on fluoride removal by co-precipitation with alum (Al2(SO4)3·18H2O). Aluminum sulfate was more efficient than the other coagulants for fluoride removal in the pH range between 6 and 8. Nano-crystalline TiO2 was more effective for fluoride removal than Al and Fe hydroxides in a pH range of 3-5. Coexisting anions in water decreased the removal of fluoride in the order: phosphate (2...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645637/antimicrobial-and-biological-activity-of-leachate-from-light-curable-pulp-capping-materials
#4
Maria Teresa Arias-Moliz, Cher Farrugia, Christie Y K Lung, Pierre Schembri Wismayer, Josette Camilleri
OBJECTIVES: Characterization of a number of pulp capping materials and assessment of the leachate for elemental composition, antimicrobial activity and cell proliferation and expression. METHODOLOGY: Three experimental light curable pulp-capping materials, Theracal and Biodentine were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The elemental composition of the leachate formed after 24hours was assessed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645048/phytolith-carbon-sequestration-in-global-terrestrial-biomes
#5
Zhaoliang Song, Hongyan Liu, Caroline A E Strömberg, Xiaomin Yang, Xiaodong Zhang
Terrestrial biogeochemical carbon (C) sequestration is coupled with the biogeochemical silicon (Si) cycle through mechanisms such as phytolith C sequestration, but the size and distribution of the phytolith C sink remain unclear. Here, we estimate phytolith C sequestration in global terrestrial biomes. We used biome data including productivity, phytolith and silica contents, and the phytolith stability factor to preliminarily determine the size and distribution of the phytolith C sink in global terrestrial biomes...
June 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644023/kinetics-of-interlayer-expansion-of-a-layered-silicate-driven-by-caffeine-intercalation-in-the-water-phase-using-transmission-x-ray-diffraction
#6
Tomohiko Okada, Takumi Yoshida, Taku Iiyama
The kinetics of caffeine uptake into the interlayer nanospace of silicate nanosheets modified with benzylammonium was evaluated by in situ monitoring the basal spacing in aqueous media using transmission X-ray diffraction. An interlayer spacing of 0.58 nm in water before caffeine uptake indicates a monomolecular layer of benzylammonium and a few water layers in each interlayer. The interlayer space expanded by 0.10 nm upon caffeine uptake (intercalation) and saturated even in the presence of excess caffeine...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643130/retreatability-of-three-calcium-silicate-containing-sealers-and-one-epoxy-resin-based-root-canal-sealer-with-four-different-root-canal-instruments
#7
David Donnermeyer, Clarissa Bunne, Edgar Schäfer, Till Dammaschke
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to compare the retreatability of three calcium silicate-containing sealers (BioRoot RCS, MTA Fillapex, Endo C.P.M.) and an epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus) with different root canal instruments (Hedström files, Reciproc R40, Mtwo retreatment file R 25/.05 + Mtwo 40/.06, and F6 SkyTaper) concerning sealer remnants and retreatment time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Root canals of 192 teeth were instrumented with Reciproc R40...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642768/silicon-transporters-and-effects-of-silicon-amendments-in-strawberry-under-high-tunnel-and-field-conditions
#8
Samuel Ouellette, Marie-Hélène Goyette, Caroline Labbé, Joan Laur, Linda Gaudreau, André Gosselin, Martine Dorais, Rupesh K Deshmukh, Richard R Bélanger
Together with longer production periods, the commercial transition to day-neutral strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) varieties has favored the development of diseases such as powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis) that thrives in late summer-early fall. In an attempt to find alternative solutions to fungicides currently employed to curb the disease, we wanted to investigate the potential of silicon (Si) amendments that have been associated with prophylactic properties against powdery mildews. To this end, our first objective was to determine if strawberry was a Si-competent species following the recent characterization of the properties of Si transporters that plants must carry to uptake silicic acid...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641944/effect-of-antimony-oxide-on-the-shielding-properties-of-some-sodium-boro-silicate-glasses
#9
A M Zoulfakar, A M Abdel-Ghany, T Z Abou-Elnasr, A G Mostafa, S M Salem, H H El-Bahnaswy
Some sodium-silicate-boro-antimonate glasses having the molecular composition [(20) Na2O - (20) SiO2 - (60-x) B2O3 - (x) Sb2O3 (where x takes the values 0, 5 … or 20)] have been prepared by the melt quenching method. The melting and annealing temperatures were 1500 and 650K respectively. The amorphous nature of the prepared samples was confirmed by using X-ray diffraction analysis. Both the experimental and empirical density and molar volume values showed gradual increase with increasing Sb2O3 content. The empirical densities showed higher values than those obtained experimentally, while the empirical molar volume values appeared lower than those obtained experimentally, which confirm the amorphous nature and randomness character of the studied samples...
June 19, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638554/effect-of-professional-dental-prophylaxis-on-the-surface-gloss-and-roughness-of-cad-cam-restorative-materials
#10
Toshiko Sugiyama, Atsushi Kameyama, Tomoka Enokuchi, Akiko Haruyama, Aoi Chiba, Setsuko Sugiyama, Makoto Hosaka, Toshiyuki Takahashi
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dental prophylaxis on the surface gloss and roughness of different indirect restorative materials for computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM): two types of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks (Shofu Block HC and Estelite Block) and two types of CAD/CAM ceramic blocks (IPS Empress CAD and Celtra DUO). MATERIAL AND METHODS: After polishing the CAD/CAM blocks and applying prophylaxis pastes, professional dental prophylaxis was performed using four different experimental protocols (n = 5 each): mechanical cleaning with Merssage Regular for 10 s four times (Group 1); four cycles of mechanical cleaning with Merssage Regular for 10 s and Merssage Fine for 10 s (Group 2); four cycles of mechanical cleaning with Merssage Regular for 10 s and Merssage Fine for 30 s (Group 3); and mechanical cleaning with Merssage Fine for 10 s four times (Group 4)...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638074/geochemical-constraints-on-the-hadean-environment-from-mineral-fingerprints-of-prokaryotes
#11
Alexey A Novoselov, Dailto Silva, Jerusa Schneider, Ximena Celeste Abrevaya, Michael S Chaffin, Paloma Serrano, Margareth Sugano Navarro, Maria Josiane Conti, Carlos Roberto de Souza Filho
The environmental conditions on the Earth before 4 billion years ago are highly uncertain, largely because of the lack of a substantial rock record from this period. During this time interval, known as the Hadean, the young planet transformed from an uninhabited world to the one capable of supporting, and inhabited by the first living cells. These cells formed in a fluid environment they could not at first control, with homeostatic mechanisms developing only later. It is therefore possible that present-day organisms retain some record of the primordial fluid in which the first cells formed...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633093/fracture-resistance-of-ceramic-and-polymer-based-occlusal-veneer-restorations
#12
Majed Al-Akhali, Mohamed Sad Chaar, Adham Elsayed, Abdulaziz Samran, Matthias Kern
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of thermodynamic loading on the durability and fracture resistance behavior of occlusal veneers fabricated from different biomedical dental CAD/CAM materials. METHODS: The occlusal surfaces of 64 extracted premolars were prepared in the enamel layer and restored with occlusal veneers with a fissure/cusp thickness of 0.5/0.8mm made from four different dental CAD/CAM materials: group LD lithium disilicate (e...
June 13, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629013/a-novel-bioactive-vaterite-containing-tricalcium-silicate-bone-cement-by-self-hydration-synthesis-and-its-biological-properties
#13
Yin Zhang, Zhenning Wu, Yan Shu, Fei Wang, Weijing Cao, Wenhui Li
A novel bioactive vaterite-containing tricalcium silicate bone cement (V5) was successfully synthesized through self hydration and carbonization, by introducing CO2 into the hydration process of Ca3SiO5 (C3S). The purpose of this work is to reduce the adverse effect of the hydration products Ca(OH)2 on the C3S bone cement, and improve further the bioactivity of the C3S bone cement. XRD and FT-IR analysis indicated that vaterite was successfully formed in tricalcium silicate bone cement. The in vitro bioactivity of V5 was investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various periods (1, 3, 7days), in addition to setting time, compressive strength and cell behavior...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627883/mechanism-of-vanadium-leaching-during-surface-weathering-of-basic-oxygen-furnace-steel-slag-blocks-a-%C3%A2%C2%B5xanes-and-sem-study
#14
Andrew James Hobson, Douglas I Stewart, Andrew William Bray, Robert J G Mortimer, William Matthew Mayes, Michael Rogerson, Ian T Burke
Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking slag is enriched in potentially toxic V which may become mobilised in high pH leachate during weathering. BOF slag was weathered under aerated and air-excluded conditions for 6 months prior to SEM/EDS and µXANES analysis to determine V host phases and speciation in both primary and secondary phases. Leached blocks show development of an altered region in which free lime and dicalcium silicate phases were absent and Ca-Si-H was precipitated (CaCO3 was also present under aerated conditions)...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622750/preparation-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-evaluation-of-a-silicate-based-composite-bone-cement
#15
Bing Ma, Zhiguang Huan, Chen Xu, Nan Ma, Haibo Zhu, Jipin Zhong, Jiang Chang
Silicate-based cements have been developed as a class of bioactive and biodegradable bone cements owing to their good in vitro bioactivity and ability to dissolve in a simulated body fluid. Until recently, however, the in vivo evidence of their ability to support bone regeneration is still scarce. In the present study, a pilot in vivo evaluation of a silicate-based composite bone cement (CSC) was carried out in a rabbit femur defect model. The cement was composed of tricalcium silicate, 45S5 bioglass and calcium sulfate, and the self-setting properties of the material were established...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619940/rapid-cooling-and-cold-storage-in-a-silicic-magma-reservoir-recorded-in-individual-crystals
#16
Allison E Rubin, Kari M Cooper, Christy B Till, Adam J R Kent, Fidel Costa, Maitrayee Bose, Darren Gravley, Chad Deering, Jim Cole
Silicic volcanic eruptions pose considerable hazards, yet the processes leading to these eruptions remain poorly known. A missing link is knowledge of the thermal history of magma feeding such eruptions, which largely controls crystallinity and therefore eruptability. We have determined the thermal history of individual zircon crystals from an eruption of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Results show that although zircons resided in the magmatic system for 10(3) to 10(5) years, they experienced temperatures >650° to 750°C for only years to centuries...
June 16, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618586/pattern-of-a-confined-chemical-garden-controlled-by-injection-speed
#17
Shu Wagatsuma, Takuro Higashi, Yutaka Sumino, Ayumi Achiwa
Pattern of confined chemical garden was controlled by the speed of injected fluid, and their mechanism is discussed. A confined chemical garden system was constructed where an aqueous solution of cobalt chloride was injected into a cell filled with sodium silicate solution. The reaction of these two solutions resulted in the formation of precipitation. The viscosities of the prepared aqueous solutions were set to be similar in order to rule out the possibility of Saffman-Taylor instability. The injection front showed three distinctive patterns: algaes, shells, and filaments, which were dependent on injection speed...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616960/functional-build-in-template-directed-siliceous-fluorescent-supramolecular-vesicles-as-diagnostics
#18
Jie Li, Kaerdun Liu, Hengyu Chen, Ruoyan Li, Markus Drechsler, Fan Bai, Jianbin Huang, Ben Zhong Tang, Yun Yan
Functional template directed synthesis of hybrid siliceous fluorescent vesicle (HSFV) is fabricated by using fluorescent vesicle as a build-in template. The template vesicle is the ionic self-assembly of an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) fluorogen. Upon depositing folic acid modified silica shell on its surface, the obtained HSFVs display low cytotoxicity, significant fluorescence and targeted drug delivery toward cancer cells. Furthermore, the wall-thickness of the HSFVs can be controlled via altered concentration of silica source...
June 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612872/methane-adsorption-in-ador-zeolites-a-combined-experimental-and-dft-cc-study
#19
M Rubeš, M Trachta, E Koudelková, R Bulánek, V Kasneryk, O Bludský
Physical adsorption of methane in purely siliceous molecular sieves prepared by a recently discovered synthetic pathway using 2D zeolites as nanoscale building blocks has been investigated by means of combined experimental and theoretical approaches. The DFT/CC-based method has been tested on ADOR zeolites of the UTL family and a few experimentally well-characterized siliceous zeolites. Excellent agreement between theoretical and experimental heats of adsorption has been found for OKO, PCR, MFI, CHA and AEI zeolites...
June 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611362/zinc-modified-calcium-silicate-coatings-promote-osteogenic-differentiation-through-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-pathway-and-osseointegration-in-osteopenic-rabbits
#20
Jiangming Yu, Lizhang Xu, Kai Li, Ning Xie, Yanhai Xi, Yang Wang, Xuebin Zheng, Xiongsheng Chen, Meiyan Wang, Xiaojian Ye
Surface-modified metal implants incorporating different ions have been employed in the biomedical field as bioactive dental implants with good osseointegration properties. However, the molecular mechanism through which surface coatings exert the biological activity is not fully understood, and the effects have been difficult to achieve, especially in the osteopenic bone. In this study, We examined the effect of zinc-modified calcium silicate coatings with two different Zn contents to induce osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived pericytes (BM-PCs) and osteogenetic efficiency in ovariectomised rabbits...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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