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Bernd Schmidt, Felix Wolf, Christopher Ehlert
alpha-Methylene-gamma-butyrolactone and alpha-methylene-delta-valerolactone undergo Pd-catalyzed Matsuda-Heck couplings with arene diazonium salts to alpha-benzyl butenolides or pentenolides, respectively, or to alpha-benzylidene lactones. The observed regioselectivity is strongly ring size dependent, with six-membered rings giving exclusively alpha-benzyl pentenolides, whereas the fivemembered alpha-methylene lactone reacts to mixtures of regioisomers with a high proportion of E-alpha-benzylidene-gamma-butyrolactones...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Renée J Roberts, Ashley E Wilson, Zenaide Quezado
Six Sigma and Lean methodologies are effective quality improvement tools in many health care settings. We applied the DMAIC methodology (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) to address deficiencies in our pediatric anesthesia supply chain. We defined supply chain problems by mapping existing processes and soliciting comments from those involved. We used daily distance walked by anesthesia technicians and number of callouts for missing supplies as measurements that we analyzed before and after implementing improvements (anesthesia cart redesign)...
October 3, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Vikash Kapoor, Daipayan Chatterjee, Sutanu Hazra, Anirban Chatterjee, Parag Garg, Kaustav Debnath, Soham Mandal, Sudipto Sarkar
INTRODUCTION: Patient satisfaction after total knee replacement (TKR) depends on the amount of pain relief and the functional activities achieved. An important criterion of good functional outcome is the amount of flexion achieved and whether the patient can manage high flexion activities. In order to increase the amount of safe flexion, various implant designs have been developed. This study aims to compare the outcome after TKR using two contemporary high flexion knee designs: Sigma CR150 High Flex Knee prosthesis (Depuy, Warsaw, Indiana) and NexGen High Flex Knee prosthesis (Zimmer, Warsaw, Indiana)...
2016: SICOT-J
Jin-Bo Han, Guo-Qing Li, Pin-Jun Wan, Tao-Tao Zhu, Qing-Wei Meng
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) is a family of multifunctional enzymes that are involved in detoxification of poisonous compounds. In the present paper, the Leptinotarsa decemlineata genome and transcriptome dataset were mined and 30 GST genes were identified. These GSTs belonged to cytosolic (29 genes) and microsomal (1 gene) classes. Among them 3 GSTs (LdGSTe2, LdGSTs4, and LdGSTo3) possessed splice variants. Of the 29 cytosolic LdGSTs, 3, 10, 5, 4, 4, and 1 members were classified as delta, epsilon, omega, sigma, theta, and zeta subclasses respectively, along with 2 unclassified genes...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Rohan Kapoor, Subramanian Ramasamy, Alessandro Gardi, Chad Bieber, Larry Silverberg, Roberto Sabatini
Navigation and guidance systems are a critical part of any autonomous vehicle. In this paper, a novel sensor grid using 40 KHz ultrasonic transmitters is presented for adoption in indoor 3D positioning applications. In the proposed technique, a vehicle measures the arrival time of incoming ultrasonic signals and calculates the position without broadcasting to the grid. This system allows for conducting silent or covert operations and can also be used for the simultaneous navigation of a large number of vehicles...
October 8, 2016: Sensors
Edward C Lauterbach
Dextromethorphan (DM) may have ketamine-like rapid-acting, treatment-resistant, and conventional antidepressant effects.(1,2) This reports our initial experience with DM in unipolar Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A patient with treatment-resistant MDD (failing adequate trials of citalopram and vortioxetine) with loss of antidepressant response (to fluoxetine and bupropion) twice experienced a rapid-acting antidepressant effect within 48 hours of DM administration and lasting 7 days, sustained up to 20 days with daily administration, then gradually developing labile loss of antidepressant response over the ensuing 7 days...
August 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Minhan Ka, Yeon-Hee Kook, Ke Liao, Shilpa Buch, Woo-Yang Kim
Cocaine is a highly addictive narcotic associated with dendritic spine plasticity in the striatum. However, it remains elusive whether cocaine modifies spines in a cell type-specific or region-specific manner or whether it alters different types of synapses in the brain. In addition, there is a paucity of data on the regulatory mechanism(s) involved in cocaine-induced modification of spine density. In the current study, we report that cocaine exposure differentially alters spine density, spine morphology, and the types of synapses in hippocampal and cortical neurons...
October 13, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Laam Li, Sébastien P Faucher
The water-borne pathogen Legionella pneumophila (Lp) strongly expresses the lpg1659 gene in water. This gene encodes a hypothetical protein predicted to be a membrane protein using in silico analysis. While no conserved domains were identified in Lpg1659, similar proteins are found in many Legionella species and other aquatic bacteria. RT-qPCR showed that lpg1659 is positively regulated by the alternative sigma factor RpoS, which is essential for Lp to survive in water. These observations suggest an important role of this novel protein in the survival of Lp in water...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Alexander R Siegel, David E Wemmer
Bacterial sigma factors are subunits of RNA polymerase that direct the holoenzyme to specific sets of promoters in the genome, and are a central element of regulating transcription. Most polymerase holoenzymes open the promoter and initiate transcription rapidly after binding. However, polymerase containing members of the σ(54) family must be acted on by a transcriptional activator before DNA opening and initiation occur. A key domain in these transcriptional activators forms a hexameric AAA+ ATPase that acts through conformational changes brought on by ATP hydrolysis...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
Xia Zhao, Canhuang Chen, Xingyu Jiang, Wei Shen, Guangtao Huang, Shuai Le, Shuguang Lu, Lingyun Zou, Qingshan Ni, Ming Li, Yan Zhao, Jing Wang, Xiancai Rao, Fuquan Hu, Yinling Tan
The impact of phage infection on the host cell is severe. In order to take over the cellular machinery, some phage proteins were produced to shut off the host biosynthesis early in the phage infection. The discovery and identification of these phage-derived inhibitors have a significant prospect of application in antibacterial treatment. This work presented a phage protein, gp70.1, with non-specific inhibitory effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Gp70.1 was encoded by early gene - orf 70...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Paul Sotiriadis
All-digital frequency synthesis using band-pass sigma-delta modulation to achieve spectrally clean single-bit output is presented and mathematically analyzed resulting in a complete model to predict stability and output spectrum. The quadrature homodyne filter architecture is introduced resulting in efficient implementations of carrier-frequency centred bandpass filters for the modulator. A multiplier-less version of the quadrature homodyne filter architecture is also introduced to reduce complexity maintaining clean in-band spectrum...
October 5, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Ricardo F Sousa-Santos, Rui F Miguelote, Ricardo J Cruz-Correia, Cristina C Santos, João F M A L Bernardes
INTRODUCTION: Fetal growth charts are often used in clinical practice. It is important to understand the usefulness and the pitfalls associated with these tools. Without validation, it is difficult to ascertain if the cutoffs we intend are the ones we actually select. We developed a national standard for birthweight (BW) and compared it with other published reference values. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective study. We collected data on live births, including first trimester ultrasound and pathology, from 23 to 42 weeks' gestational age (GA)...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Beatriz B Lustosa, Bertha Polegato, Marcos Minicucci, Bruna Rafacho, Priscila P Santos, Ana Angélica Fernandes, Katashi Okoshi, Diego Batista, Pamela Modesto, Andrea Gonçalves, Elenize J Pereira, Vanessa Pires, Sergio Paiva, Leonardo Zornoff, Paula S Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Considering the high morbidity and mortality after myocardial infarction (MI), the study of compounds with potential benefits for cardiac remodeling is reasonable. Green tea (GT) (Cammellia sinensis) is the most consumed beverage in the world. The potential action mechanisms of GT include anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the effects of GT on cardiac remodeling following coronary occlusion in rats...
October 2, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Mark Rishniw, Paul D Pion
BACKGROUND: A previous study provided information regarding the quality of in-clinic veterinary biochemistry testing. However, no similar studies for in-clinic veterinary hematology testing have been conducted. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the quality of hematology testing in veterinary in-clinic laboratories using results obtained from testing 3 levels of canine EDTA blood samples. METHODS: Clinicians prepared blood samples to achieve measurand concentrations within, below, and above their RIs and evaluated the samples in triplicate using their in-clinic analyzers...
October 7, 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Fiona E Belbin, Zeenat B Noordally, Sarah J Wetherill, Kelly A Atkins, Keara A Franklin, Antony N Dodd
We investigated the signalling pathways that regulate chloroplast transcription in response to environmental signals. One mechanism controlling plastid transcription involves nuclear-encoded sigma subunits of plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase. Transcripts encoding the sigma factor SIG5 are regulated by light and the circadian clock. However, the extent to which a chloroplast target of SIG5 is regulated by light-induced changes in SIG5 expression is unknown. Moreover, the photoreceptor signalling pathways underlying the circadian regulation of chloroplast transcription by SIG5 are unidentified...
September 15, 2016: New Phytologist
Sara Magalhães, Élio Sucena
One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to unravel the genetic basis of adaptation. This issue has been gaining momentum in recent years with the accelerated development of novel genetic and genomic techniques and resources. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cogni et al. (2016) address the genetic basis of resistance to two viruses in Drosophila melanogaster using a panel of recombinant inbred lines with unprecedented resolution allowing detection of rare alleles and/or alleles of small effect...
October 2016: Molecular Ecology
Trent Conroy, Madhura Manohar, Yu Gong, Shane M Wilkinson, Michael Webster, Brian P Lieberman, Samuel D Banister, Tristan A Reekie, Robert H Mach, Louis M Rendina, Michael Kassiou
The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has attracted a great deal of attention as a prospective drug target due to its involvement in numerous neurological disorders and, more recently, for its therapeutic potential in neuropathic pain. As there was no crystal structure of this membrane-bound protein reported until 2016, ligand generation was driven by pharmacophore refinements to the general model suggested by Glennon and co-workers. The generalised S1R pharmacophore comprises a central region where a basic amino group is preferred, flanked by two hydrophobic groups...
October 4, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Ryo Iikubo, Taro Sekikawa, Yu Harabuchi, Tetsuya Taketsugu
Femtosecond ring-opening dynamics of 1,3-cyclohexadiene (CHD) in gas phase upon two-photon excitation at 400 nm (=3.1 eV) was investigated by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using 42 nm (=29.5 eV) high harmonic photons probing the dynamics of the lower-lying occupied molecular orbitals (MOs), which are the fingerprints of the molecular structure. After 500 fs, the photoelectron intensity of the MO constituting the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C sigma bond (σC[double bond, length as m-dash]C) of CHD was enhanced, while that of the MO forming the C-C sigma bond (σCC) of CHD was decreased...
September 16, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Atsushi Tahara, Hiromasa Tanaka, Yusuke Sunada, Yoshihito Shiota, Kazunari Yoshizawa, Hideo Nagashima
The mechanisms associated with the hydrogenation of alkenes catalyzed by the iron complex Fe(cis-CO)2{o-(SiMe2)2C6H4}2(H)2 (1) were investigated by DFT calculations. The complex 1 has a structure in which the iron center is bonded to four silicon atoms and two hydrides. Secondary Si…H…Si interactions were also observed. The exchange of a 1,2-bis(dimethylsilyl)benzene ligand with ethylene and hydrogen gives a disilaferracycle bearing Eta2-(CH2=CH2) and Eta2-H2 ligands. The catalytic cycle initiated from the disilaferracycle involves cleavage of a H-H linkage assisted by an Fe-Si bond to form Fe-H and Eta1-(H-Si) moieties (step 1), hydrogen migration from the Fe-H group to the Eta2-(CH2=CH2) ligand which accomplishes the insertion of ethylene into the Fe-H bond (step 2) and reaction of the resulting beta-agostic ethyl moiety with the Eta2-(H-Si) group to form ethane on the iron atom (step 3)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Melissa S D'Andrea, P Marco Fisichella
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain remains undertreated in critically ill patients. We hypothesized that the adequacy of pain control in our Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) was above the reported average of 71 % in the literature and that the introduction of the critical care pain observation tool (CPOT) could improve it. We used a Lean Six Sigma methodology to improve our processes and quantify our improvement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively review 713 consecutive veterans admitted to our SICU...
October 4, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
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