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Sanaa E Tork, Magda M Aly, Omar Elsemin
In the current study, the purified l-glutaminase from Streptomyces pratensis NRC10 (GenBank number KC857622) was characterized. Its molecular weight was estimated to be 46 kDa and isoelectric point 7.4. Its Vmax was calculated to be 2.19 U/mg/min, while Km was 0.175 mM. The optimum pH and temperature were 9 and 45 °C, respectively. It was thermostable at 45 °C but thermally inactivated at 60 °C after 50 min. Moreover, its enzymatic activity was enhanced by K+ ions and inhibited by Mg2+ , Cu2+ , Ag+ , Hg2+ , Ni2+ , Fe2+ , Cr2 , Na+ , Ca2+ , and EDTA...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jin Park, Marta Dies, Yihan Lin, Sahand Hormoz, Stephanie E Smith-Unna, Sofia Quinodoz, María Jesús Hernández-Jiménez, Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo, James C W Locke, Michael B Elowitz
In cells, specific regulators often compete for limited amounts of a core enzymatic resource. It is typically assumed that competition leads to partitioning of core enzyme molecules among regulators at constant levels. Alternatively, however, different regulatory species could time share, or take turns utilizing, the core resource. Using quantitative time-lapse microscopy, we analyzed sigma factor activity dynamics, and their competition for RNA polymerase, in individual Bacillus subtilis cells under energy stress...
January 29, 2018: Cell Systems
Miguel Á Tejada, Ángeles Montilla-García, Rafael González-Cano, Inmaculada Bravo-Caparrós, M Carmen Ruiz-Cantero, Francisco R Nieto, Enrique J Cobos
Immune cells have a known role in pronociception, since they release a myriad of inflammatory algogens which interact with neurons to facilitate pain signaling. However, these cells also produce endogenous opioid peptides with analgesic potential. The sigma-1 receptor is a ligand-operated chaperone that modulates neurotransmission by interacting with multiple protein partners, including the μ-opioid receptor. We recently found that sigma-1 antagonists are able to induce opioid analgesia by enhancing the action of endogenous opioid peptides of immune origin during inflammation...
February 15, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Emmanouil Bastakis, Boris Hedtke, Carina Klermund, Bernhard Grimm, Claus Schwechheimer
Chlorophyll accumulation and chloroplast development are regulated at multiple levels during plant development. The paralogous LLM-domain B-GATA transcription factors GNC and GNL contribute to chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast formation in light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Whereas there is already ample knowledge about the transcriptional regulation of GNC and GNL, the identity of their downstream targets is largely unclear. Here, we identified genes controlling greening directly downstream of the GATAs by integrating data from RNA-sequencing and microarray datasets...
February 16, 2018: Plant Cell
Ahmed Farouk, Ahmed Tawfick, Mohamed Shoeb, Mahmoud A Mahmoud, Diaa Eldin Mostafa, Mohamed Hasan, Hany M Abdalla
PURPOSE: The extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) remains the most common first line of treatment for renal stones in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the outcomes of the ESWL and mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 108 patients younger than 12 years of age with 1-2 cm single renal stone (pelvic or calyceal) were randomized into two groups, each containing 54 patients...
February 15, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Shu-Ju Tu, Chih-Wei Wang, Kuang-Tse Pan, Yi-Cheng Wu, Chen-Te Wu
Lung cancer screening aims to detect small pulmonary nodules and decrease the mortality rate. However, studies from large-scale clinical trials of lung cancer screening showed false-positive rate is high and positive predictive value is low. To address these problems, it is highly needed to have a technical approach for accurate malignancy differentiation among these early-detected nodules. We studied the clinical feasibility of an additional protocol of localized thin-section CT for further assessment on these recalled patients from lung cancer screening tests...
February 15, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Allison A Baczynski, Pratigya J Polissar, Dieter Juchelka, Johannes Schwieters, Andreas Hilkert, Roger E Summons, Katherine H Freeman
RATIONALE: We report modifications to compound-specific isotope analyses (CSIA) to enable high-precision isotopic analysis of picomoles of carbon for intact organic molecules. This sample size is two orders of magnitude below the amounts required for commercial systems. The greatly enhanced sensitivity of this system expands molecular isotope studies and applications previously prohibited by low concentrations and small samples. METHODS: We utilize the resolving power and low volumetric flow rates of narrow-bore capillary GC to improve sample transfer efficiency while maintaining narrow peak widths...
February 15, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Pablo G Jambrina, Marta Menendez, Alexandre Zanchet, Ernesto Garcia, F Javier Aoiz
This work present scattering calculations for the O($^3P$) + N$_2$($^1\Sigma$) $\rightarrow$ NO($^2\Pi$) + N($^4$S) and for the O($^3P$) + HCl($^1\Sigma$) $\rightarrow$ OH($^2\Pi$) + Cl($^2$P) reactions with the focus on the prediction of the $\Lambda$-doublet populations in which NO and OH are produced. Both reactions can take place on two competing potential energy surfaces of symmetries $^3A'$ and $^3A''$ that correlate reagents with products but with very distinct topographies. As a result, they exhibit very different dynamical behaviors and total reactivity...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Yu-Tong Sun, Gui-Fei Wang, Yi-Qiu Yang, Fujun Jin, Yifei Wang, Xiao-Yang Xie, Robert H Mach, Yun-Sheng Huang
Increasing evidences have implicated that sigma-2 receptor is a biomarker and significantly over-expressed in many proliferative cancer cells with no or low expression in normal cells. Sigma-2 receptor selective ligands have been successfully used as valuable tools to study its pharmacological functions, tumor imaging, and cancer therapeutics or adjuvants. 6,7-Dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinylalkyl benzamides are among a few categories of structures that have demonstrated high affinities and selectivities for sigma-2 receptor and been used extensively as study tools in various tumor imaging and therapy...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Tao Su, Meiru Si, Yunfeng Zhao, Yan Liu, Shumin Yao, Chengchuan Che, Can Chen
Peroxiredoxin Q (PrxQ) that belonged to the cysteine-based peroxidases has long been identified in numerous bacteria, but the information on the physiological and biochemical functions of PrxQ remain largely lacking in Corynebacterium glutamicum. To better systematically understand PrxQ, we reported that PrxQ from model and important industrial organism C. glutamicum, encoded by the gene ncgl2403 annotated as a putative PrxQ, played important roles in adverse stress resistance. The lack of C. glutamicum prxQ gene resulted in enhanced cell sensitivity, increased ROS accumulation, and elevated protein carbonylation levels under adverse stress conditions...
2018: PloS One
Paresh Kumar Majhi, Takahiro Sasamori
Tetrylones (ylidones) represent a class of zero-valent group-14 compounds with the general formula EL2 (E = C, Si, Ge, Sn, or Pb; L = neutral sigma-donating ligand), wherein the tetrel atom, E(0), possess its four valence electrons in the form of two electron lone pairs, and is moreover coordinated by two ligands (L) via donor-acceptor interactions (LEL). This review focuses on the synthesis, structure, reactivity, and computational examination of the isolable heavier tetrylones (Si, Ge, Sn) that have been discovered recently...
February 13, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Karina Lebel, Christian Duval, Hung Phuc Nguyen, Réjean Plamondon, Patrick Boissy
Background: Turning is a challenging mobility task requiring proper planning, coordination, and postural stability to be executed efficiently. Turn deficits can impair mobility and lead to falls in patients with neurodegenerative disease, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). It was previously shown that the cranio-caudal sequence involved during a turn (i.e., motion is initiated by the head, followed by the trunk) exhibits a signature that can be captured using an inertial system and analyzed through the Kinematics Theory...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Atefeh Goshvarpour, Ataollah Abbasi, Ateke Goshvarpour
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm in emotion recognition. METHODS: Electrocardiogram (ECG) and galvanic skin responses (GSR) of 11 healthy students were collected while subjects were listening to emotional music clips. Applying three dictionaries, including two wavelet packet dictionaries (Coiflet, and Daubechies) and discrete cosine transform, MP coefficients were extracted from ECG and GSR signals...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
Marcel Imber, Vu Van Loi, Sylvia Reznikov, Verena Nadin Fritsch, Agnieszka J Pietrzyk-Brzezinska, Janek Prehn, Chris Hamilton, Markus C Wahl, Agnieszka K Bronowska, Haike Antelmann
Staphylococcus aureus produces bacillithiol (BSH) as major low molecular weight (LMW) thiol which functions in thiol-protection and redox-regulation by protein S-bacillithiolation under hypochlorite stress. The aldehyde dehydrogenase AldA was identified as S-bacillithiolated at its active site Cys279 under NaOCl stress in S. aureus. Here, we have studied the expression, function, redox regulation and structural changes of AldA of S. aureus. Transcription of aldA was previously shown to be regulated by the alternative sigma factor SigmaB...
February 5, 2018: Redox Biology
Yi-Ling Lo, Chyi-Liang Chen, Lunda Shen, Ying-Ching Chen, Yi-Hsin Wang, Chung-Chan Lee, Lian-Chen Wang, Chih-Hsien Chuang, Rajendra Prasad Janapatla, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Hwan-You Chang
FliA is known to be a sigma factor that regulates bacterial flagella gene expression. Accumulating evidence suggests that FliA is involved in bacterial behavior other than motility. To elucidate the contribution of FliA to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathophysiology, we analyzed the biological properties and gene expression profiles of a ΔfliA mutant. Transcriptome analysis results demonstrated that the expression levels of flagella biogenesis genes decreased dramatically in the mutant; consequently, the ΔfliA mutant failed to synthesize flagella and exhibited reduced motility...
February 9, 2018: Research in Microbiology
J J A A M Hoeboer, G Ongena, M Krijger-Hombergen, E Stolk, G J P Savelsbergh, S I de Vries
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the presented study is to provide age- and gender-related normative values and MQ values for a motor skills test, the Athletic Skills Track, among 4- to 12-year-old children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: In 2016, a total of 7977 Dutch children, 4036 boys (mean age 8.6 years, SD 2.1) and 3941 girls (mean age 8.6 years, SD 2.1), performed an age-related version of the Athletic Skills Track (AST). The AST is a track consisting of 5-7 fundamental movement skill tasks that should be completed as fast as possible...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Sudip Mondal, Evan Hegarty, James J Sahn, Luisa L Scott, Sertan K Gökçe, Christopher Martin, Navid Ghorashian, Praveen Navoda Satarasinghe, Sangeetha Iyer, Wisath Sae-Lee, Timothy Hodges, Jonathan T Pierce, Stephen F Martin, Adela Ben-Yakar
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, with tractable genetics and a well-defined nervous system, provides a unique whole-animal model system to identify novel drug targets and therapies for neurodegenerative diseases. Large-scale drug or target screens in models that recapitulate the subtle age- and cell-specific aspects of neurodegenerative diseases are limited by a technological requirement for high-throughput analysis of neuronal morphology. Recently we developed a model of amyloid precursor protein-induced neurodegeneration that exhibits progressive degeneration of select cholinergic neurons...
February 9, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Jiahong Qin, Peng Wang, Yi Li, Lan Yao, Yuanshan Liu, Tao Yu, Jiali Lin, Xiangshao Fang, Zitong Huang
BACKGROUND: Global cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury after cardiac arrest (CA) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in survivors of resuscitation. We utilized a rat model of asphyxia CA to explore the functional effects and mechanisms of Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) activation in cerebral protection using the Sig-1R agonist cutamesine (SA-4503). METHODS: After resuscitation, the surviving rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 18 each): (1) the CPR group (0...
February 8, 2018: Shock
Xiaolei Wang, Chang Feng, Yong Qiao, Xin Zhao
No study has been conducted to examine the interactions of sigma-1 receptor (Sigma-1R) and high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) in the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Thus, we examined the effects of streptozotocin (STZ) treatment on expression of HMGB1 in subcellular levels in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in both wild-type and Sigma-1R-/- mice and evaluated the effects of repeated intrathecal administrations of selective Sigma-1R antagonists BD1047, agonist PRE-084, or HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizin on peripheral neuropathy in wild-type mice...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Kouki Tadai, Tatsumasa Shioiri, Jun Tsuchimoto, Naoko Nagai, Hideto Watanabe, Nobuo Sugiura
Receptor type of protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTPσ) functions as a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) receptor of neuronal cells in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Both chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) are important constituents of GAG ligands for RPTPσ, although they have opposite effects on neuronal cells. CS inhibits neurite outgrowth and neural regeneration through RPTPσ, whereas HS enhances them. We prepared recombinant RPTPσ N-terminal fragment containing the GAG binding site and various types of biotin-conjugated GAG (CS and HS) with chemical modification and chemo-enzymatic synthesis...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
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