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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096211/primate-embryogenesis-predicts-the-hallmarks-of-human-na%C3%A3-ve-pluripotency
#1
REVIEW
Thorsten Boroviak, Jennifer Nichols
Naïve pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) resemble the preimplantation epiblast and efficiently contribute to chimaeras. Primate ESCs correspond to the postimplantation embryo and fail to resume development in chimaeric assays. Recent data suggest that human ESCs can be 'reset' to an earlier developmental stage, but their functional capacity remains ill defined. Here, we discuss how the naïve state is inherently linked to preimplantation epiblast identity in the embryo. We hypothesise that distinctive features of primate development provide stringent criteria to evaluate naïve pluripotency in human and other primate cells...
January 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092779/aberrant-spontaneous-neural-activity-and-correlation-with-evoked-brain-potentials-in-first-episode-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-deficit-and-non-deficit-schizophrenia
#2
Zhe Li, Wei Lei, Wei Deng, Zhong Zheng, Mingli Li, Xiaohong Ma, Qiang Wang, Chaohua Huang, Na Li, David A Collier, Qiyong Gong, Tao Li
The goals of the study were to analyze spontaneous neural activity between deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia (DS, NDS) using resting-state fMRI, and to investigate the correlation of fMRI with clinical features and evoked brain potentials. The amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was measured in 41 DS participants, 42 NDS participants, and 42 healthy controls. ALFF in the bilateral cerebellum posterior lobe was significantly decreased in patients, while ALFF in the right fusiform gyrus and the bilateral putamen was significantly increased...
January 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090297/exhaled-nitric-oxide-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-associated-with-systemic-sclerosis
#3
Zeling Cao, Stephen C Mathai, Laura K Hummers, Ami A Shah, Fredrick M Wigley, Noah Lechtzin, Paul M Hassoun, Reda E Girgis
The fractional exhaled concentration of nitric oxide (FENO) has been shown to be reduced in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) but has not been adequately studied in PAH associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc). We measured FENO at an expiratory flow rate of 50 mL/s in 21 treatment-naive patients with SSc-associated PAH (SSc-PAH), 94 subjects with SSc without pulmonary involvement, and 84 healthy volunteers. Measurements of FENO at additional flow rates of 100, 150, and 250 mL/s were obtained to derive the flow-independent nitric oxide exchange parameters of maximal airway flux (J'awNO) and steady-state alveolar concentration (CANO)...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077583/a-live-attenuated-chimeric-west-nile-virus-vaccine-rwn-den4%C3%AE-30-is-well-tolerated-and-immunogenic-in-flavivirus-naive-older-adult-volunteers
#4
Kristen K Pierce, Stephen S Whitehead, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Palmtama L Grier, Adrienne Jarvis, Heather Kenney, Marya P Carmolli, Cynthia Reynolds, Cecilia M Tibery, Janece Lovchik, Anna Janiak, Catherine J Luke, Anna P Durbin, Alexander G Pletnev
West Nile virus (WNV) is a major cause of mosquito-borne illness in the United States. Human disease ranges from mild febrile illness to severe fatal neurologic infection. Adults aged >60 years are more susceptible to neuroinvasive disease accompanied by a high mortality rate or long-lasting neurologic sequelae. A chimeric live attenuated West Nile virus vaccine, rWN/DEN4Δ30, was shown to be safe and immunogenic in healthy adults aged 18-50 years. This study evaluated rWN/DEN4Δ30 in flavivirus-naive adults aged 50-65 years and found it to be safe and immunogenic...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077120/altered-fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-associated-with-cognitive-dysfunction-in-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-major-depressive-disorder-patients
#5
Manli Huang, Shaojia Lu, Liang Yu, Lingjiang Li, Peng Zhang, Jianbo Hu, Weihua Zhou, Shaohua Hu, Ning Wei, Jinwen Huang, Jian Weng, Yi Xu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that abnormities of both resting-state brain activity and cognitive dysfunction are frequently observed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the underlying relationship between these two aspects is less investigated. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cognitive dysfunction and altered resting-state brain function in first-episode drug-naïve MDD patients. METHODS: Twenty-five drug-naïve MDD patients and twenty-six age-, sex-, and education-matched normal controls were recruited in this study...
January 11, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074746/oncology-s-trojan-horse-using-viruses-to-battle-cancer
#6
Heena J Mavani, Jeannette Y Wick
: In 2016, the American health care system was faced with more than 1.6 million new cases of cancer, and individuals older than 65 years of age will be affected disproportionately. Many older individuals are poor candidates for traditional treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) because of actual or potential treatment-related adverse events. Researchers continuously look for novel therapeutic strategies, and an exciting new one is on the horizon: virotherapy. Viruses' ability to infect and kill human cells makes them promising cancer treatments...
December 1, 2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073317/activation-of-kcnq-channels-suppresses-spontaneous-activity-in-drg-neurons-and-reduces-chronic-pain-after-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Zizhen Wu, Lin Li, Fuhua Xie, Junhui Du, Yan Zuo, Jeffrey A Frost, Susan M Carlton, Edgar T Walters, Qing Yang
A majority of people who have sustained spinal cord injury (SCI) experience chronic pain after injury, and this pain is highly resistant to available treatments. Contusive SCI in rats at T10 results in hyperexcitability of primary sensory neurons, which contributes to chronic pain. KCNQ channels are widely expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, are important for controlling their excitability, and their activation has proven effective in reducing pain in peripheral nerve injury and inflammation models...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069687/adaptive-resistance-of-melanoma-cells-to-raf-inhibition-via-reversible-induction-of-a-slowly-dividing-de-differentiated-state
#8
Mohammad Fallahi-Sichani, Verena Becker, Benjamin Izar, Gregory J Baker, Jia-Ren Lin, Sarah A Boswell, Parin Shah, Asaf Rotem, Levi A Garraway, Peter K Sorger
Treatment of BRAF-mutant melanomas with MAP kinase pathway inhibitors is paradigmatic of the promise of precision cancer therapy but also highlights problems with drug resistance that limit patient benefit. We use live-cell imaging, single-cell analysis, and molecular profiling to show that exposure of tumor cells to RAF/MEK inhibitors elicits a heterogeneous response in which some cells die, some arrest, and the remainder adapt to drug. Drug-adapted cells up-regulate markers of the neural crest (e.g., NGFR), a melanocyte precursor, and grow slowly...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062258/mice-subjected-to-uncontrollable-electric-shocks-show-depression-like-behaviors-irrespective-of-their-state-of-helplessness
#9
Jin Yong Kim, Soo Hyun Yang, Jihyun Kwon, Hyun Woo Lee, Hyun Kim
The unpredictable and inescapable electric shock-induced "learned helplessness" paradigm has long been used to produce an animal model of depression to identify the molecules associated with depressive symptoms or to assess the efficacy of pharmacological treatments for depression. After exposure to unpredictable and inescapable shocks (uncontrollable stress), most of mice showed defect in escape behavior in active avoidance test (learned helplessness, LH), while others did not (non-learned helplessness, NLH)...
January 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061351/new-insights-into-early-human-development-lessons-for-stem-cell-derivation-and-differentiation
#10
REVIEW
Janet Rossant, Patrick P L Tam
Pathways underlying mouse embryonic development have always informed efforts to derive, maintain, and drive differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. However, direct application of mouse embryology to the human system has not always been successful because of fundamental developmental differences between species. The naive pluripotent state of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), in particular, has been difficult to capture in human ESCs, and appears to be transitory in the human embryo itself. Further studies of human and non-human primate embryo development are needed to untangle the complexities of pluripotency networks across mammalian species...
January 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056112/association-of-delayed-adjuvant-chemotherapy-with-survival-after-lung-cancer-surgery
#11
Michelle C Salazar, Joshua E Rosen, Zuoheng Wang, Brian N Arnold, Daniel C Thomas, Roy S Herbst, Anthony W Kim, Frank C Detterbeck, Justin D Blasberg, Daniel J Boffa
Importance: Adjuvant chemotherapy offers a survival benefit to a number of staging scenarios in non-small-cell lung cancer. Variable recovery from lung cancer surgery may delay a patient's ability to tolerate adjuvant chemotherapy, yet the urgency of chemotherapy initiation is unclear. Objective: To assess differences in survival according to the time interval between non-small-cell lung cancer resection and the initiation of postoperative chemotherapy to determine the association between adjuvant treatment timing and efficacy...
January 5, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054639/rapid-recall-ability-of-memory-t-cells-is-encoded-in-their-epigenome
#12
Artem Barski, Suresh Cuddapah, Andrey V Kartashov, Chong Liu, Hiromi Imamichi, Wenjing Yang, Weiqun Peng, H Clifford Lane, Keji Zhao
Even though T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation together with co-stimulation is sufficient for the activation of both naïve and memory T cells, the memory cells are capable of producing lineage specific cytokines much more rapidly than the naïve cells. The mechanisms behind this rapid recall response of the memory cells are still not completely understood. Here, we performed epigenetic profiling of human resting naïve, central and effector memory T cells using ChIP-Seq and found that unlike the naïve cells, the regulatory elements of the cytokine genes in the memory T cells are marked by activating histone modifications even in the resting state...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053234/tcr-signaling-and-cd28-ctla-4-signaling-cooperatively-modulate-t-regulatory-cell-homeostasis
#13
Michael P Holt, George A Punkosdy, Deborah D Glass, Ethan M Shevach
Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs), conventional CD4(+)Foxp3(-) T cells, and CD8(+) T cells represent heterogeneous populations composed of naive phenotype (NP, CD44(low)) and memory phenotype (MP, CD44(high)) subpopulations. NP and MP subsets differ in their activation state, contribution to immune function, and capacity to proliferate in vivo. To further understand the factors that contribute to the differential homeostasis of NP/MP subsets, we examined the differential effects of CD28 and CTLA-4 interaction with CD80/CD86, as well as MHC class II-TCR interaction within mouse Treg pools and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell pools...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052074/distinction-between-neural-and-vascular-bold-oscillations-and-intertwined-heart-rate-oscillations-at-0-1-hz-in-the-resting-state-and-during-movement
#14
Gert Pfurtscheller, Andreas Schwerdtfeger, Clemens Brunner, Christoph Aigner, David Fink, Joana Brito, Marciano P Carmo, Alexandre Andrade
In the resting state, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) oscillations with a frequency of about 0.1 Hz are conspicuous. Whether their origin is neural or vascular is not yet fully understood. Furthermore, it is not clear whether these BOLD oscillations interact with slow oscillations in heart rate (HR). To address these two questions, we estimated phase-locking (PL) values between precentral gyrus (PCG) and insula in 25 scanner-naïve individuals during rest and stimulus-paced finger movements in both hemispheres...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051320/correlation-of-antibody-responses-to-a-peptide-antigen-gp120-c5-sup-501-512-sup-gp41-sup-732-744-sup-with-hiv-disease-progression
#15
Birger Sørensen, Maja A Sommerfelt, Grete Stjernholm, Peter Lawrence Smith, Mats Ökvist, Arnt-Ove Hovden, Gunnar Hoddevik, Robert R Redfield, Valentina Ustina, Øyvind Jelmert, Jerome Zeldis, Angus Dalgleish
Antibodies to the carboxyterminal constant (C5) region 5 of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 have previously been associated with slow disease progression. This is one of the regions on gp120 that interact with the transmembrane glycoprotein, gp41, anchoring it to the viral and infected cell membrane. This study analyzed humoral responses to a novel heterodimeric peptide construct comprising the C5<sup>501-512</sup> region and a compatible region on gp41<sup>732-744</sup>. Antibody prevalence to C5<sup>501-512</sup>/gp41<sup>732-744</sup> was associated with slow disease progression in a treatment naive historical longitudinal cohort from Norway (n=32; p=0...
January 4, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047334/su-f-j-02-flexible-training-of-mr-guided-laser-ablation-models-via-global-optimization
#16
S J Fahrenholtz, R J Stafford, R Madankan, J D Hazle, D Fuentes
PURPOSE: MR-guided laser ablation is currying interest in neurosurgery as a minimally invasive procedure. The procedure is planned via an assumed lesion overlaid on various anatomic and functional images. Computational models of heat transfer may further inform planning the intervention, reducing surgical morbidity and ensuring therapeutic effect. These models require physical parameter data, via less relevant literature values. Using commercialized laser ablation equipment combined with MR temperature imaging (MRTI) feedback, recent work has demonstrated the use of inverse problems as a means to gain the necessary information via retrospective analysis...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041878/epigenetic-modifiers-facilitate-induction-and-pluripotency-of-porcine-ipscs
#17
Jian Mao, Qian Zhang, Wei Deng, Hua Wang, Kai Liu, Haifeng Fu, Qiang Zhao, Xumin Wang, Lin Liu
Inadequate silencing of exogenous genes represents a major obstacle to complete epigenetic reprogramming of porcine-induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) by conventional pluripotency transcription factors (OSKM). We tested the hypothesis that epigenetic modification by active DNA or histone demethylation or by inhibition of histone deacetylase would enhance reprogramming and exogenous gene silencing in piPSCs. piPSCs induced by OSKM in combination with epigenetic factors, specifically Ten-Eleven Translocation (Tet1 or Tet3) or lysine (K)-specific demethylase 3A (Kdm3a), expressed higher levels of Rex1 and other genes representing naive state and exhibited more open chromatin status, compared with those of OSKM controls...
January 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036214/diffusiophoretic-focusing-of-suspended-colloids
#18
Nan Shi, Rodrigo Nery-Azevedo, Amr I Abdel-Fattah, Todd M Squires
Using a microfluidic system to impose and maintain controlled, steady-state multicomponent pH and electrolyte gradients, we present systems where the diffusiophoretic migration of suspended colloids leads them to focus at a particular position, even in steady-state gradients. We show that naively superpositing effects of each gradient may seem conceptually and qualitatively reasonable, yet is invalid due to the coupled transport of these multicomponent electrolytes. In fact, reformulating the classic theories in terms of the flux of each species (rather than local gradients) reveals rather stringent conditions that are necessary for diffusiophoretic focusing in steady gradients...
December 16, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034288/the-non-genomic-effects-of-the-ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-agonist-gw0742-on-stz-treated-rat-aorta
#19
Noelia Perez-Diaz, Igor Pushkarskya, Nadia Oweisa, Lisa A Lionea, Louise S Mackenzie
BACKGROUND: The ubiquitous nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ is increasingly being studied in regards to numerous diseases including diabetes following on the finding that PPARβ/δ agonist GW0742 controls Type 1 Diabetes in rats. Studies have shown that GW0742 has off target, non- PPARβ/δ effects in the cell although there are some key questions that remain to be addressed in respect to the significance of this control on vascular tone. METHODS: Using isometric organ baths, rat aorta rings were exposed to ROCK inhibitors and the changes in contraction and dilation measured...
December 29, 2016: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032006/brain-functional-connectivity-abnormalities-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
Richard B Silberstein, Andrew Pipingas, Maree Farrow, Florence Levy, Con K Stough, David A Camfield
INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence suggests that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with brain functional connectivity (FC) abnormalities. METHODS: In this study, we use steady-state visually evoked potential event-related partial coherence as a measure of brain FC to examine functional connectivity differences between a typically developing (TD) group of 25 boys and an age/IQ-matched group of 42 drug naive boys newly diagnosed with ADHD (ADHD group)...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
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