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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352186/glycolysis-promotes-caspase-3-activation-in-lipid-rafts-in-t-cells
#1
Michael A Secinaro, Karen A Fortner, Oliver Dienz, Angela Logan, Michael P Murphy, Vikas Anathy, Jonathan E Boyson, Ralph C Budd
Resting T cells undergo a rapid metabolic shift to glycolysis upon activation in the presence of interleukin (IL)-2, in contrast to oxidative mitochondrial respiration with IL-15. Paralleling these different metabolic states are striking differences in susceptibility to restimulation-induced cell death (RICD); glycolytic effector T cells are highly sensitive to RICD, whereas non-glycolytic T cells are resistant. It is unclear whether the metabolic state of a T cell is linked to its susceptibility to RICD. Our findings reveal that IL-2-driven glycolysis promotes caspase-3 activity and increases sensitivity to RICD...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347645/geometry-and-the-onset-of-rigidity-in-a-disordered-network
#2
Mathijs F J Vermeulen, Anwesha Bose, Cornelis Storm, Wouter G Ellenbroek
Disordered spring networks that are undercoordinated may abruptly rigidify when sufficient strain is applied. Since the deformation in response to applied strain does not change the generic quantifiers of network architecture, the number of nodes and the number of bonds between them, this rigidity transition must have a geometric origin. Naive, degree-of-freedom-based mechanical analyses such as the Maxwell-Calladine count or the pebble game algorithm overlook such geometric rigidity transitions and offer no means of predicting or characterizing them...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347403/influence-of-periodic-external-fields-in-multiagent-models-with-language-dynamics
#3
Filippo Palombi, Stefano Ferriani, Simona Toti
We investigate large-scale effects induced by external fields, phenomenologically interpreted as mass media, in multiagent models evolving with the microscopic dynamics of the binary naming game. In particular, we show that a single external field, broadcasting information at regular time intervals, can reverse the majority opinion of the population, provided the frequency and the effectiveness of the sent messages lie above well-defined thresholds. We study the phase structure of the model in the mean field approximation and in numerical simulations with several network topologies...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345736/palbociclib-in-combination-with-letrozole-as-first-line-treatment-for-advanced-breast-cancer-a-japanese-phase-ii-study
#4
Norikazu Masuda, Reiki Nishimura, Masato Takahashi, Kenichi Inoue, Shinji Ohno, Hiroji Iwata, Yuko Mori, Satoshi Hashigaki, Yasuaki Muramatsu, Takashi Nagasawa, Yoshiko Umeyama, Masakazu Toi
This single-arm, open-label, phase II study in 42 Japanese postmenopausal patients with estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (ER+/HER2-) advanced breast cancer evaluated the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of first-line palbociclib (125 mg once daily, 3 weeks on/1 week off) coadministered with letrozole (2.5 mg once daily). The primary endpoint of investigator-assessed 1-year progression-free survival probability was 75.0% (90% CI, 61.3%-84.4%), far surpassing the 40% lower limit of the 90% CI supporting efficacy...
January 18, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335008/multi-omics-differentially-classify-disease-state-and-treatment-outcome-in-pediatric-crohn-s-disease
#5
Gavin M Douglas, Richard Hansen, Casey M A Jones, Katherine A Dunn, André M Comeau, Joseph P Bielawski, Rachel Tayler, Emad M El-Omar, Richard K Russell, Georgina L Hold, Morgan G I Langille, Johan Van Limbergen
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) has an unclear etiology, but there is growing evidence of a direct link with a dysbiotic microbiome. Many gut microbes have previously been associated with CD, but these have mainly been confounded with patients' ongoing treatments. Additionally, most analyses of CD patients' microbiomes have focused on microbes in stool samples, which yield different insights than profiling biopsy samples. RESULTS: We sequenced the 16S rRNA gene (16S) and carried out shotgun metagenomics (MGS) from the intestinal biopsies of 20 treatment-naïve CD and 20 control pediatric patients...
January 15, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332301/evaluating-risk-tolerance-from-a-systematic-review-of-preferences-the-case-of-patients-with-psoriasis
#6
REVIEW
Juan Marcos Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Stated-preference methods have been widely used to evaluate patient-relative preferences for the benefits and potential harms of psoriasis treatments. However, risk tolerance measures for treatment-related harms, a corollary of preferences, are rare despite their critical role in shared decision making and regulatory benefit-risk evaluations. This article presents a method to enhance information on patient risk tolerance through previously published preference results. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article was to conduct the first meta-analysis of preferences to characterize the distribution of patients' maximum acceptable risk of harms associated with psoriasis treatments...
January 13, 2018: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331064/controlling-the-temporal-structure-of-brain-oscillations-by-focused-attention-meditation
#7
Mona Irrmischer, Simon J Houtman, Huibert D Mansvelder, Michael Tremmel, Ulrich Ott, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen
Our focus of attention naturally fluctuates between different sources of information even when we desire to focus on a single object. Focused attention (FA) meditation is associated with greater control over this process, yet the neuronal mechanisms underlying this ability are not entirely understood. Here, we hypothesize that the capacity of attention to transiently focus and swiftly change relates to the critical dynamics emerging when neuronal systems balance at a point of instability between order and disorder...
January 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320691/network-features-and-dynamical-landscape-of-naive-and-primed-pluripotency
#8
Benjamin Pfeuty, Clémence Kress, Bertrand Pain
Although the broad and unique differentiation potential of pluripotent stem cells relies on a complex transcriptional network centered around Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog, two well-distinct pluripotent states, called "naive" and "primed", have been described in vitro and markedly differ in their developmental potential, their expression profiles, their signaling requirements, and their reciprocal conversion. Aiming to determine the key features that segregate and coordinate these two states, data-driven optimization of network models is performed to identify relevant parameter regimes and reduce network complexity to its core structure...
January 9, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316519/the-regional-homogeneity-of-cingulate-precuneus-regions-the-putative-biomarker-for-depression-and-anxiety
#9
Chien-Han Lai
OBJECTIVES: In addition to clinical interview, the modern putative biomarker to differentiate depression and anxiety would be warranted. The translational medicine characteristics of neuroimaging, such as the regional homogeneity (ReHo), is an option for depression and anxiety. Therefore we designed this study trying to identify the biomarker pattern for depression and anxiety. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired for 53 patients with first-episode medicine-naïve major depressive disorder (MDD), 53 first-episode medicine-naïve patients with panic disorder (PD) and 54 controls...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315416/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-male-infertility-an-overview-of-current-progress-and-perspectives
#10
Fang Fang, Zili Li, Qian Zhao, Honggang Li, Chengliang Xiong
Recently, significant progress has been made in ART for the treatment of male infertility. However, current ART has failed to help infertile patients with non-obstructive azoospermia, unless donor sperm is used. In fact, most couples wish to have their own genetically related child. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be generated from patients' somatic cells and in vitro derivation of functional germ cells from patient-specific iPSCs may provide new therapeutic strategies for infertile couples...
January 5, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305655/chrfam7a-gene-expression-in-schizophrenia-clinical-correlates-and-the-effect-of-antipsychotic-treatment
#11
Sunil V Kalmady, Rimjhim Agrawal, Deepthi Venugopal, Venkataram Shivakumar, Anekal C Amaresha, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Manjula Subbanna, Ashwini Rajasekaran, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Monojit Debnath, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Earlier studies have implicated CHRNA7, coding α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR), and its partially duplicated chimeric gene CHRFAM7A in schizophrenia. However, the relationship between the alterations in peripheral gene expression of CHRFAM7A and severity of clinical symptoms has not been examined. Furthermore, potential influence of the antipsychotic medication on CHRFAM7A expression in drug-naive or drug-free schizophrenia is an unexplored area. CHRFAM7A gene expression in lymphocytes was analyzed in 90 antipsychotic-naïve or free schizophrenia patients using TaqMan-based quantitative RT-PCR...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304418/cortical-sources-of-resting-state-electroencephalographic-rhythms-probe-brain-function-in-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-individuals
#12
Claudio Babiloni, Giuseppe Noce, Alfredo Pennica, Paolo Onorati, Paolo Capotosto, Claudio Del Percio, Paolo Roma, Valentina Correr, Elisa Piccinni, Ginevra Toma, Andrea Soricelli, Francesco Di Campli, Laura Gianserra, Lorenzo Ciullini, Antonio Aceti, Elisabetta Teti, Loredana Sarmati, Gloria Crocetti, Raffaele Ferri, Valentina Catania, Maria Teresa Pascarelli, Massimo Andreoni, Stefano Ferracuti
OBJECTIVE: Here we evaluated the hypothesis that resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) cortical sources correlated with cognitive functions and discriminated asymptomatic treatment-naïve HIV subjects (no AIDS). METHODS: EEG, clinical, and neuropsychological data were collected in 103 treatment-naïve HIV subjects (88 males; mean age 39.8 years ± 1.1 standard error of the mean, SE). An age-matched group of 70 cognitively normal and HIV-negative (Healthy; 56 males; 39...
December 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298337/evaluating-the-influential-priority-of-the-factors-on-insurance-loss-of-public-transit
#13
Wenhui Zhang, Yongmin Su, Ruimin Ke, Xinqiang Chen
Understanding correlation between influential factors and insurance losses is beneficial for insurers to accurately price and modify the bonus-malus system. Although there have been a certain number of achievements in insurance losses and claims modeling, limited efforts focus on exploring the relative role of accidents characteristics in insurance losses. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the influential priority of transit accidents attributes, such as the time, location and type of accidents...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290627/trim28-regulated-transposon-repression-is-required-for-human-germline-competency-and-not-primed-or-naive-human-pluripotency
#14
Yu Tao, Ming-Ren Yen, Tsotne Chitiashvili, Haruko Nakano, Rachel Kim, Linzi Hosohama, Yao Chang Tan, Atsushi Nakano, Pao-Yang Chen, Amander T Clark
Transition from primed to naive pluripotency is associated with dynamic changes in transposable element (TE) expression and demethylation of imprinting control regions (ICRs). In mouse, ICR methylation and TE expression are each regulated by TRIM28; however, the role of TRIM28 in humans is less clear. Here, we show that a null mutation in TRIM28 causes significant alterations in TE expression in both the naive and primed states of human pluripotency, and phenotypically this has limited effects on self-renewal, instead causing a loss of germline competency...
December 26, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290177/health-care-resource-utilization-and-costs-among-newly-diagnosed-and-oral-anticoagulant-naive-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation-patients-treated-with-dabigatran-or-warfarin-in-the-united-states
#15
Rahul Jain, An-Chen Fu, Jonathan Lim, Cheng Wang, Jessica Elder, Stephen D Sander, Hiangkiat Tan
BACKGROUND: Warfarin has a long history of use to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but it requires frequent laboratory monitoring to maintain international normalized ratio levels in the therapeutic range. Dabigatran, a novel oral anticoagulant (OAC), has demonstrated efficacy in reducing the risk of stroke and systemic embolism and does not require laboratory monitoring. OBJECTIVE: To compare health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs of OAC-naive patients newly diagnosed with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), using dabigatran or warfarin...
January 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288207/newly-generated-cd4-t-cells-acquire-metabolic-quiescence-after-thymic-egress
#16
Shusong Zhang, Xinwei Zhang, Ke Wang, Xi Xu, Mingyang Li, Jun Zhang, Yan Zhang, Jie Hao, Xiuyuan Sun, Yingyu Chen, Xiaohui Liu, Yingjun Chang, Rong Jin, Hounan Wu, Qing Ge
Mature naive T cells circulate through the secondary lymphoid organs in an actively enforced quiescent state. Impaired cell survival and cell functions could be found when T cells have defects in quiescence. One of the key features of T cell quiescence is low basal metabolic activity. It remains unclear at which developmental stage T cells acquire this metabolic quiescence. We compared mitochondria among CD4 single-positive (SP) T cells in the thymus, CD4+ recent thymic emigrants (RTEs), and mature naive T cells in the periphery...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282114/risk-factors-for-addiction-among-patients-receiving-prescribed-opioids-a-systematic-review-protocol
#17
Amber Cragg, Jeffrey P Hau, Stephanie A Woo, Christine Liu, Mary M Doyle-Waters, Corinne M Hohl
BACKGROUND: Opioid addiction prevention has become an urgent public health priority, with several countries declaring a state of emergency due to rising death tolls from opioid abuse. Reducing the risk of developing addiction among opioid-naïve patients exposed to prescribed opioids during the process of medical care may be an important primary prevention strategy. Our objective is to synthesize the available evidence about factors associated with the development of addiction among patients first exposed to prescribed opioids, with a focus on opioid-naïve patients...
December 28, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275591/-dysfunctional-resting-state-connectivity-of-default-mode-network-in-adolescent-patients-with-first-episode-drug-naive-major-depressive-disorder
#18
S Y Li, Y Zhu, Y L Wang, P P Lü, W B Zuo, F Y Li
Objective: To study resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of default mode network (DMN) in adolescent patients with first-episode drug-naive major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: We enrolled thirty first-episode and drug-naive adolescent MDD patients and twenty-nine adolescent healthy control (HC) participants in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. There were no differences in age, sex, and education between the MDD and HC group. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) was performed...
December 5, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259496/immunosenescence-in-aging-between-immune-cells-depletion-and-cytokines-up-regulation
#19
REVIEW
Maria Teresa Ventura, Marco Casciaro, Sebastiano Gangemi, Rosalba Buquicchio
Background: The immunosenescence is a relatively recent chapter, correlated with the linear extension of the average life began in the nineteenth century and still in progress. The most important feature of immunosenescence is the accumulation in the "immunological space" of memory and effector cells as a result of the stimulation caused by repeated clinical and subclinical infections and by continuous exposure to antigens (inhalant allergens, food, etc.). This state of chronic inflammation that characterizes senescence has a significant impact on survival and fragility...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251846/neurobiology-of-substance-use-in-adolescents-and-potential-therapeutic-effects-of-exercise-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-substance-use-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Nora L Nock, Sonia Minnes, Jay L Alberts
Substance use (e.g., alcohol, marijuana, opioids, cocaine., etc,) use often initiates during adolescence, a critical period of physiological and social development marked by an increase in risk-taking due, in part, to heightened motivation to obtain arousal from rewards. Substance use during adolescence has been associated with a greater risk of substance use disorders (SUD) in adulthood. Although use rates for most substances have remained relatively stable, the frequency of marijuana use and the perception that regular marijuana use is not harmful has increased in adolescents...
December 1, 2017: Birth defects research
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