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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730732/shared-atypical-default-mode-and-salience-network-functional-connectivity-between-autism-and-schizophrenia
#1
Heng Chen, Lucina Q Uddin, Xujun Duan, Junjie Zheng, Zhiliang Long, Youxue Zhang, Xiaonan Guo, Yan Zhang, Jingping Zhao, Huafu Chen
Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are two prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders sharing some similar genetic basis and clinical features. The extent to which they share common neural substrates remains unclear. Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 35 drug-naïve adolescent participants with first-episode schizophrenia (15.6 ± 1.8 years old) and 31 healthy controls (15.4 ± 1.6 years old). Data from 22 participants with ASD (13.1 ± 3.1 years old) and 21 healthy controls (12...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729021/ascend-8-a-randomized-phase-1-study-of-ceritinib-450-mg-or-600-mg-taken-with-a-low-fat-meal-versus-750-mg-in-fasted-state-in-patients-with-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-alk-rearranged-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc
#2
Byoung Chul Cho, Dong-Wan Kim, Alessandra Bearz, Scott A Laurie, Mark McKeage, Gloria Borra, Keunchil Park, Sang-We Kim, Marwan Ghosn, Andrea Ardizzoni, Evaristo Maiello, Alastair Greystoke, Richard Yu, Karen Osborne, Wen Gu, Jeffrey W Scott, Vanessa Q Passos, Yvonne Y Lau, Anna Wrona
INTRODUCTION: Ceritinib 750 mg fasted is approved for treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged (ALK+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients previously treated with crizotinib. Part 1 of ASCEND-8 study determined whether administering ceritinib 450 mg or 600 mg with a low-fat meal may enhance gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability vs 750 mg fasted in ALK+ NSCLC patients while maintaining similar exposure. METHODS: ASCEND-8 is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase 1 study...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727712/intervertebral-foramen-injection-of-ozone-relieves-mechanical-allodynia-and-enhances-analgesic-effect-of-gabapentin-in-animal-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#3
Wen-Jun Luo, Fan Yang, Fei Yang, Wei Sun, Wei Zheng, Xiao-Liang Wang, Fang-Fang Wu, Jiang-Lin Wang, Jia-Shuang Wang, Su-Min Guan, Jun Chen
BACKGROUND: In a 5-year follow-up study in a hospital in southern China, it was shown that intervertebral foramen (IVF) injection of ozone at the involved segmental levels could significantly alleviate paroxysmal spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia in patients with chronic, intractable postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and improve the quality of life. However, so far no proof-of-concept studies in animals have been available. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate whether IVF ozone has an analgesic effect on animal models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain...
July 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721059/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-dolutegravir-plus-backbone-compared-with-raltegravir-plus-backbone-darunavir-ritonavir-plus-backbone-and-efavirenz-tenofovir-emtricitabine-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-and-experienced-hiv-positive-patients
#4
Umberto Restelli, Giuliano Rizzardini, Andrea Antinori, Adriano Lazzarin, Marzia Bonfanti, Paolo Bonfanti, Davide Croce
BACKGROUND: In January 2014, the European Medicines Agency issued a marketing authorization for dolutegravir (DTG), a second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor for HIV treatment. The study aimed at determining the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the use of DTG+backbone compared with raltegravir (RAL)+backbone, darunavir (DRV)+ritonavir(r)+backbone and efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine (EFV/TDF/FTC) in HIV-positive treatment-naïve patients and compared with RAL+backbone in treatment-experienced patients, from the Italian National Health Service's point of view...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712121/motor-symptom-laterality-affects-acquisition-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-cognitive-and-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#5
Pei Huang, Yu-Yan Tan, Dong-Qiang Liu, Mohammad M Herzallah, Elizabeth Lapidow, Ying Wang, Yu-Feng Zang, Mark A Gluck, Sheng-Di Chen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Asymmetric onset of motor symptoms in PD can affect cognitive function. We examined whether motor-symptom laterality could affect feedback-based associative learning and explored its underlying neural mechanism by functional magnetic resonance imaging in PD patients. METHODS: We recruited 63 early-stage medication-naïve PD patients (29 left-onset medication-naïve patients, 34 right-onset medication-naïve patients) and 38 matched normal controls...
July 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711596/the-relevance-of-contact-independent-cell-to-cell-transfer-of-tdp-43-and-sod1-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Maya A Hanspal, Christopher M Dobson, Justin J Yerbury, Janet R Kumita
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease involving the formation of cytoplasmic aggregates by proteins including TDP-43 and SOD1, in affected cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Pathology spreads from an initial site of onset to contiguous anatomical regions. There is evidence that for disease-associated proteins, including TDP-43 and SOD1, non-native protein conformers can promote misfolding of the natively folded counterparts, and cell-to-cell transfer of pathological aggregates may underlie the spread of the disease throughout the CNS...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709213/when-memory-pays-discord-in-hidden-markov-models
#7
Emma Lathouwers, John Bechhoefer
When is keeping a memory of observations worthwhile? We use hidden Markov models to look at phase transitions that emerge when comparing state estimates in systems with discrete states and noisy observations. We infer the underlying state of the hidden Markov models from the observations in two ways: through naive observations, which take into account only the current observation, and through Bayesian filtering, which takes the history of observations into account. Defining a discord order parameter to distinguish between the different state estimates, we explore hidden Markov models with various numbers of states and symbols and varying transition-matrix symmetry...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708055/prion-disease-pathogenesis-in-the-absence-of-the-commensal-microbiota
#8
Barry M Bradford, Laura Tetlow, Neil A Mabbott
Prion diseases are a unique group of transmissible, typically sub-acute, neurodegenerative disorders. During central nervous system (CNS) prion disease, the microglia become activated and are thought to provide a protective response by scavenging and clearing prions. The mammalian intestine is host to a large burden of commensal micro-organisms, especially bacteria, termed the microbiota. The commensal microbiota has beneficial effects on host health, including through the metabolism of essential nutrients, regulation of host development and protection against pathogens...
July 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700903/computer-based-classification-of-chromoendoscopy-images-using-homogeneous-texture-descriptors
#9
Hussam Ali, Muhammad Sharif, Mussarat Yasmin, Mubashir Husain Rehmani
Computer-aided analysis of clinical pathologies is a challenging task in the field of medical imaging. Specifically, the detection of abnormal regions in the frames collected during an endoscopic session is difficult. The variations in the conditions of image acquisition, such as field of view or illumination modification, make it more demanding. Therefore, the design of a computer-assisted diagnostic system for the recognition of gastric abnormalities requires features that are robust to scale, rotation, and illumination variations of the images...
July 5, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697696/processing-intonationally-implicated-contrast-versus-negation-in-american-english
#10
Heeyeon Dennison, Amy J Schafer
Certain English intonational contours facilitate a conversational implicature that a relevant alternative to the stated proposition does not hold true. We evaluated how frequently and how quickly naïve participants achieved such pragmatically enriched meanings when their attention had not already been drawn to a set of alternatives. Sentences with L+H* L-H% intonational contours, along with broad focus affirmative and negative counterparts, were tested in a pair of experiments. Experiment 1 revealed that most interpretations of the L+H* L-H% sentences evidenced the expected implicature, but a substantial number did not...
June 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695241/-metastatic-prostate-cancer-update-position-paper-for-the-use-of-chemotherapy
#11
REVIEW
C-H Ohlmann, P J Goebell, M-O Grimm, J Klier, F König, S Machtens, M Schostak, A-J Schrader, P Albers
BACKGROUND: Taxen-based chemotherapy has been established as an effective treatment option in castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer (mCRPC). Randomized phase III studies, however, have shown that even in the hormone-naïve metastatic state, the early use of chemotherapy in addition to the classical androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) approach leads to a significant increase in median overall survival. OBJECTIVE: This position paper aims to provide current data and orientation in the evidence-based treatment of mPC patients in daily clinical practice...
July 10, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692532/cardiovascular-outcomes-among-hiv-infected-veterans-receiving-atazanavir-a-us-national-historical-cohort-study
#12
Joanne Lafleur, Adam P Bress, Lisa Rosenblatt, Jacob Crook, Paul E Sax, Joel Myers, Corey Ritchings
OBJECTIVE: Patients with HIV infection have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared with uninfected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy with atazanavir delays progression of atherosclerosis markers; whether this reduces cardiovascular disease event risk compared with other antiretroviral regimens is currently unknown. DESIGN: Population-based, non-interventional, historical cohort study conducted from July 1, 2003, through December 31, 2015. SETTING: Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals and clinics throughout the United States...
July 7, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684794/altered-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-children-with-early-tourette-syndrome-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#13
Yue Liu, Jieqiong Wang, Jishui Zhang, Hongwei Wen, Yue Zhang, Huiying Kang, Xu Wang, Wenfeng Li, Huiguang He, Yun Peng
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset chronic disorder characterized by the presence of multiple motor and vocal tics. This study investigated the alterations of spontaneous brain activities in children with TS by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). We obtained rs-fMRI scans from 21 drug-naïve and pure TS children and 29 demographically matched healthy children. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), fractional ALFF (fALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) of rs-fMRI data were calculated to measure spontaneous brain activity...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684247/inhibition-of-cell-division-and-dna-replication-impair-mouse-na%C3%A3-ve-pluripotency-exit
#14
Ariel Waisman, Camila Vazquez Echegaray, Claudia Solari, María Soledad Cosentino, Iain Martyn, Alessia Deglincerti, Mohammad Zeeshan Ozair, Albert Ruzo Matias, Lino Barañao, Santiago Miriuka, Ali Brivanlou, Alejandra Guberman
The cell cycle has gained attention as a key determinant for cell fate decisions, but the contribution of DNA replication and mitosis in stem cell differentiation has not been extensively studied. To understand if these processes act as 'windows of opportunity' for changes in cell identity, we established synchronized cultures of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) as they exit the ground state of pluripotency. We show that initial transcriptional changes in this transition do not require passage through mitosis, and that conversion to primed pluripotency is linked to lineage priming in the G1 phase...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681703/hybrid-approach-to-model-the-spatial-regulation-of-t-cell-responses
#15
Anass Bouchnita, Gennady Bocharov, Andreas Meyerhans, Vitaly Volpert
BACKGROUND: Moving from the molecular and cellular level to a multi-scale systems understanding of immune responses requires the development of novel approaches to integrate knowledge and data from different biological levels into mechanism-based integrative mathematical models. The aim of our study is to present a methodology for a hybrid modelling of immunological processes in their spatial context. METHODS: A two-level hybrid mathematical model of immune cell migration and interaction integrating cellular and organ levels of regulation for a 2D spatial consideration of idealized secondary lymphoid organs is developed...
June 21, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677020/treatment-discontinuation-adherence-and-real-world-effectiveness-among-patients-treated-with-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-the-united-states
#16
Amy Puenpatom, Michael Hull, Jeffrey McPheeters, Kay Schwebke
INTRODUCTION: Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment provides an oral interferon-free treatment regimen with high rates of sustained virologic response (SVR). This study assessed treatment discontinuation, factors associated with treatment completion, and real-world effectiveness. METHODS: Patients with HCV treated with LDV/SOF between October 2014 and June 2015 and enrolled in a large US health plan were identified. Expected treatment duration was calculated based on IDSA/AASLD treatment guidelines and US labels using data for genotype, initial treatment regimen, baseline cirrhosis, and prior treatments...
July 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675106/west-nile-virus-infection-in-ruffed-grouse-bonasa-umbellus-experimental-infection-and-protective-effects-of-vaccination
#17
Nicole M Nemeth, Angela M Bosco-Lauth, Lisa M Williams, Richard A Bowen, Justin D Brown
Ruffed grouse ( Bonasa umbellus) population numbers in Pennsylvania dramatically declined during the early 2000s and have subsequently remained depressed throughout much of the state. While this decline has been temporally associated with the presence of West Nile virus (WNV), lack of information on the WNV susceptibility of this popular game bird species has limited the ability to interpret the potential impacts of WNV. To address this knowledge gap, virologic, immunologic, pathologic, and clinical responses as well as protective effects of vaccination following experimental WNV inoculation in ruffed grouse were assessed...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674400/endotoxin-tolerance-in-mast-cells-its-consequences-for-ige-mediated-signalling-and-the-effects-of-bcl3-deficiency
#18
Magdalena Poplutz, Maryna Levikova, Juliane Lüscher-Firzlaff, Marina Lesina, Hana Algül, Bernhard Lüscher, Michael Huber
Stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; endotoxin) not only causes rapid production of proinflammatory cytokines, but also induces a state of LPS hypo-responsiveness to a second LPS stimulation (endotoxin tolerance (ET)). Murine bone marrow-derived MCs (BMMCs) and peritoneal MCs (PMCs) developed ET as shown by an abrogated production of Il6/Tnf RNAs and IL-6/TNF-α proteins. In naive BMMCs, LPS stimulation induced a transient decline in the trimethylation of lysine 9 of the core histone H3 (H3K9me3), a suppressive chromatin mark, at the Il6/Tnf promoters, which correlated with p50(NFκB) and p65(NFκB) binding...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672048/slfn2-mutation-induced-loss-of-t-cell-quiescence-leads-to-elevated-de-novo-sterol-synthesis
#19
Ibrahim Omar, Oren Rom, Michael Aviram, Leonor Cohen-Daniel, Abraham K Gebre, John S Parks, Michael Berger
Acquisition of a "quiescence program" by naïve T cells is important to provide a stress-free environment and resistance to apoptosis while preserving their responsiveness to activating stimuli. Therefore, the survival and proper function of naïve T cells depends on their ability to maintain quiescence. Recently we demonstrated that by preventing chronic unresolved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Schlafen2 (Slfn2) maintains a stress-free environment to conserve a pool of naïve T cells ready to respond to a microbial invasion...
July 3, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669774/how-well-do-patients-with-a-first-episode-of-schizophrenia-respond-to-antipsychotics-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Yikang Zhu, Chunbo Li, Maximilian Huhn, Philipp Rothe, Marc Krause, Irene Bighelli, Johannes Schneider-Thoma, Stefan Leucht
It is often stated that first-episode patients tend to respond better to antipsychotics than chronic patients, but the exact numbers and moderators of response in this population are unclear. We, therefore, present the first systematic review on response rates of first episode patients with schizophrenia in randomized trials. We searched multiple databases for randomized-controlled trials of antipsychotics in acutely ill patients with a first episode of schizophrenia (last search: November 17, 2016). The outcomes were response rate based on two criteria, at least 50% PANSS or BPRS total score reduction from baseline and at least 20% reduction...
June 29, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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