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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936808/impact-of-tocilizumab-monotherapy-on-clinical-and-patient-reported-quality-of-life-outcomes-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#1
Leslie R Harrold, Ani John, George W Reed, Tmirah Haselkorn, Chitra Karki, YouFu Li, Jennie Best, Steve Zlotnick, Joel M Kremer, Jeffrey D Greenberg
INTRODUCTION: Tocilizumab (TCZ) monotherapy has been proven as an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical trials. However, there are limited data available regarding the effectiveness of TCZ monotherapy in real-world clinical settings in the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of TCZ monotherapy on disease activity and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in a US-based observational cohort of patients with RA seen in routine clinical practice...
September 21, 2017: Rheumatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936606/denosumab-significantly-improves-bone-mineral-density-with-or-without-bisphosphonate-pre-treatment-in-osteoporosis-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-denosumab-improves-bone-mineral-density-in-osteoporosis-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
Yukio Nakamura, Takako Suzuki, Hiroyuki Kato
Bone mineral density (BMD) sometimes cannot be improved by long-term bisphosphonate (BP) therapy in osteoporosis (OP) patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study showed that BMD significantly increased after denosumab treatment in patients with long-term BP pre-treatment as much as in treatment-naïve patients. Thus, denosumab can be a strong OP treatment option for long-term BP pre-treated RA patients. INTRODUCTION: The aim of this 24-month retrospective study was to evaluate differences in outcomes of denosumab with or without bisphosphonate (BP) pre-treatment in osteoporosis (OP) patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
September 21, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934479/targeted-reconstruction-of-t-cell-receptor-sequence-from-single-cell-rna-seq-links-cdr3-length-to-t-cell-differentiation-state
#3
Shaked Afik, Kathleen B Yates, Kevin Bi, Samuel Darko, Jernej Godec, Ulrike Gerdemann, Leo Swadling, Daniel C Douek, Paul Klenerman, Eleanor J Barnes, Arlene H Sharpe, W Nicholas Haining, Nir Yosef
The T cell compartment must contain diversity in both T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and cell state to provide effective immunity against pathogens. However, it remains unclear how differences in the TCR contribute to heterogeneity in T cell state. Single cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) can allow simultaneous measurement of TCR sequence and global transcriptional profile from single cells. However, current methods for TCR inference from scRNA-seq are limited in their sensitivity and require long sequencing reads, thus increasing the cost and decreasing the number of cells that can be feasibly analyzed...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931220/race-ethnicity-and-the-pharmacogenetics-of-reported-suicidality-with-efavirenz-among-clinical-trials-participants
#4
Katie R Mollan, Camlin Tierney, Jacklyn N Hellwege, Joseph J Eron, Michael G Hudgens, Roy M Gulick, Richard Haubrich, Paul E Sax, Thomas B Campbell, Eric S Daar, Kevin R Robertson, Diana Ventura, Qing Ma, Digna R Velez Edwards, David W Haas
Background: We examined associations between suicidality and genotypes that predict plasma efavirenz exposure among AIDS Clinical Trials Group study participants in the United States. Methods: Four clinical trials randomly assigned treatment-naive participants to efavirenz-containing regimens; suicidality was defined as reported suicidal ideation or attempted or completed suicide. Genotypes that predict plasma efavirenz exposure were defined by CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 polymorphisms...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923098/patient-reported-outcomes-of-baricitinib-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-no-or-limited-prior-disease-modifying-antirheumatic-drug-treatment
#5
Michael Schiff, Tsutomu Takeuchi, Roy Fleischmann, Carol L Gaich, Amy M DeLozier, Douglas Schlichting, Wen-Ling Kuo, Ji-Eon Won, Tara Carmack, Terence Rooney, Patrick Durez, Saeed Shaikh, Rodolfo Pardo Hidalgo, Ronald van Vollenhoven, Cristiano A F Zerbini
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in a double-blind, phase III study of baricitinib as monotherapy or combined with methotrexate (MTX) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with no or minimal prior conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and naïve to biological DMARDs. METHODS: Patients were randomized 4:3:4 to MTX administered once weekly (N = 210), baricitinib monotherapy (4 mg once daily (QD), N = 159), or combination of baricitinib (4 mg QD) and MTX (baricitinib + MTX, N = 215)...
September 18, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921873/diagnostic-specificity-of-the-african-swine-fever-virus-antibody-detection-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-in-feral-and-domestic-pigs-in-the-united-states
#6
H C Bergeron, P S Glas, K R Schumann
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious haemorrhagic disease of pigs that has the potential to cause mortality nearing 100% in naïve animals. While an outbreak of ASF in the United States' pig population (domestic and feral) has never been reported, an introduction of the disease has the potential to cause devastation to the pork industry and food security. During the recovery phase of an outbreak, an antibody detection diagnostic assay would be required to prove freedom of disease within the previously infected zone and eventually nationwide...
September 18, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919206/pluripotency-surveillance-by-myc-driven-competitive-elimination-of-differentiating-cells
#7
Covadonga Díaz-Díaz, Laura Fernandez de Manuel, Daniel Jimenez-Carretero, María Concepción Montoya, Cristina Clavería, Miguel Torres
The mammalian epiblast is formed by pluripotent cells able to differentiate into all tissues of the new individual. In their progression to differentiation, epiblast cells and their in vitro counterparts, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), transit from naive pluripotency through a differentiation-primed pluripotent state. During these events, epiblast cells and ESCs are prone to death, driven by competition between Myc-high cells (winners) and Myc-low cells (losers). Using live tracking of Myc levels, we show that Myc-high ESCs approach the naive pluripotency state, whereas Myc-low ESCs are closer to the differentiation-primed state...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917194/selective-functional-dysconnectivity-of-the-dorsal-anterior-subregion-of-the-precuneus-in-drug-naive-major-depressive-disorder
#8
Jiajia Zhu, Xiaodong Lin, Chongguang Lin, Chuanjun Zhuo, Yongqiang Yu
BACKGROUND: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have shown altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the precuneus; however, it is unknown whether rsFC of the precuneus subregions is differentially affected in this disorder. METHODS: In this study, we aimed to clarify this issue by comparing rsFC of each precuneus subregion between patients with MDD and healthy controls. Forty-seven drug-naive patients with MDD and 47 sex-, age- and education-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915836/changes-in-dna-methylation-in-na%C3%A3-ve-t-helper-cells-regulate-the-pathophysiological-state-in-minimal-change-nephrotic-syndrome
#9
Yasuko Kobayashi, Akira Aizawa, Takumi Takizawa, Katsuhide Igarashi, Izuho Hatada, Hirokazu Arakawa
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation plays a crucial role in regulating transcription, and changes in DNA methylation affect gene expression and disease development. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) has been reported to involve immunological disturbances. Since the characteristic features of the disease include recurrent relapse and sex and age preference, the disease pathogenesis may be partly related to epigenetic changes. However, little is known about these changes. METHODS: We analyzed genome-wide DNA methylation using the microarray-based integrated analysis of methylation by isoschizomers method...
September 15, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915082/a-combined-study-of-slc6a15-gene-polymorphism-and-the-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-first-episode-drug-naive-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Lijuan Wang, Zhifen Liu, Xiaohua Cao, Jianying Li, Aixia Zhang, Ning Sun, Chunxia Yang, Kerang Zhang
AIMS: The SLC6A15 gene has been identified as a novel candidate gene for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the mechanism underlying the effects of how the SLC6A15 gene affects functional brain activity of patients with MDD remains unknown. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the effect of the SLC6A15 gene polymorphism, rs1545843, on resting-state brain function in MDD with the imaging genomic technology and the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method...
September 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910390/identify-changes-of-brain-regional-homogeneity-in-early-and-later-adult-onset-patients-with-first-episode-depression-using-resting-state-fmri
#11
Zonglin Shen, Linling Jiang, Shuran Yang, Jing Ye, Nan Dai, Xiaoyan Liu, Na Li, Jin Lu, Fang Liu, Yi Lu, Xuejin Sun, Yuqi Cheng, Xiufeng Xu
OBJECTIVE: Previous work exhibited different brain grey matter volume (GMV) changes between patients with early adult onset depression (EOD, age 18-29) and later adult onset depression (LOD, age 30-44) by using 30-year-old as the cut-off age. To identify whether regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes are also different between EOD and LOD by using same cut-off age, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect the abnormal ReHo between patients with EOD and LOD in the present study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910347/high-hpgv-replication-is-associated-with-improved-surrogate-markers-of-hiv-progression
#12
Gibran Horemheb-Rubio, Pilar Ramos-Cervantes, Hugo Arroyo-Figueroa, Santiago Ávila-Ríos, Claudia García-Morales, Gustavo Reyes-Terán, Galileo Escobedo, Gloria Estrada, Trinidad García-Iglesias, Nayeli Muñoz-Saucedo, David Kershenobich, Patricia Ostrosky-Wegman, Guillermo M Ruiz-Palacios
BACKGROUND: Human Pegivirus (HPgV) may have a beneficial effect on HIV disease progression in co-infected patients; however, the virologic characteristics of this infection are not well defined. In this study, we determined HPgV viremia prevalence in Mexico and provide new insights to understand HPgV infection and HPgV/HIV co-infection. METHODS: We analyzed and quantified 7,890 serum samples for HPgV viremia by One-Step RT-Real-Time PCR, 6,484 from healthy blood donors and 1,406 from HIV-infected patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902472/the-mushroom-body-d1-dopamine-receptor-controls-innate-courtship-drive
#13
Junghwa Lim, Ana I Fernandez, Samantha J Hinojos, Gissel P Aranda, Jacqueline James, Chang-Soo Seong, Kyung-An Han
Mating is critical for species survival and is profoundly regulated by neuromodulators and neurohormones to accommodate internal states and external factors. To identify the underlying neuromodulatory mechanisms, we investigated the roles of dopamine receptors in various aspects of courtship behavior in Drosophila. Here we report that the D1 dopamine receptor dDA1 regulates courtship drive in naïve males. The wild-type naïve males actively courted females regardless their appearance or mating status. On the contrary, the dDA1 mutant (dumb) males exhibited substantially reduced courtship toward less appealing females including decapitated, leg-less and mated females...
September 13, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899017/cortical-functional-hyperconnectivity-in-a-mouse-model-of-depression-and-selective-network-effects-of-ketamine
#14
Alexander McGirr, Jeffrey LeDue, Allen W Chan, Yicheng Xie, Timothy H Murphy
See Huang and Liston (doi:10.1093/awx166) for a scientific commentary on this article.Human depression is associated with glutamatergic dysfunction and alterations in resting state network activity. However, the indirect nature of human in vivo glutamate and activity assessments obscures mechanistic details. Using the chronic social defeat mouse model of depression, we determine how mesoscale glutamatergic networks are altered after chronic stress, and in response to the rapid acting antidepressant, ketamine...
August 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893133/rale051-a-novel-established-cell-line-of-sporadic-burkitt-lymphoma
#15
Alberto L'Abbate, Ilaria Iacobucci, Angelo Lonoce, Antonella Turchiano, Elisa Ficarra, Giulia Paciello, Federica Cattina, Anna Ferrari, Enrica Imbrogno, Claudio Agostinelli, Pierluigi Zinzani, Giovanni Martinelli, Enrico Derenzini, Clelia Tiziana Storlazzi
To date, the lack of chemo-naive cell models limited exploratory studies to define novel therapies for Burkitt lymphoma (BL). To obtain a useful tool for biological and translational studies for this tumor, we established the RALE051 cell line from the malignant ascitic fluid cells of a patient at initial diagnosis, not previously exposed to any treatment. The cell line was characterized by karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, immunohistochemistry, and RNA-Seq, revealing the persistence of biological and molecular features observed in the primary ascitic fluid, such as the cell morphology and immunophenotype, the occurrence of a t(8;22) translocation deregulating MYC, knock-out ID3 mutations in a compound homozygous state, and a mutated TP53...
September 11, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891536/urine-osmolality-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-positive-subjects-in-southeast-nigeria
#16
E N Anyabolu, I I Chukwuonye, I Ezeani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Urine osmolality varies over a wide range of values in a healthy state. Dilute urine or concentrated urine may be observed in many environmental, physiologic, and disease conditions. Urine osmolality is not commonly evaluated in routine clinical practice and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subjects. The factors that influence urine osmolality have not been completely identified. The aim of this study was to evaluate urine osmolality in treatment-naïve HIV subjects and to identify the factors that may influence dilute and concentrated urine in this group of patients...
August 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890132/motor-abnormalities-in-first-episode-psychosis-patients-and-long-term-psychosocial-functioning
#17
Manuel J Cuesta, Elena García de Jalón, M Sol Campos, Lucía Moreno-Izco, Ruth Lorente-Omeñaca, Ana M Sánchez-Torres, Víctor Peralta
Motor abnormalities (MAs) are highly prevalent in patients with first-episode psychosis both before any exposure and after treatment with antipsychotic drugs. However, the extent to which these abnormalities have predictive value for long-term psychosocial functioning is unknown. One hundred antipsychotic-naive first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients underwent extensive motor evaluation including catatonic, parkinsonism, dyskinesia, akathisia and neurological soft signs. Patients were assessed at naïve state and 6months later...
September 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889062/affective-dysregulation-predicts-incident-nonmedical-prescription-analgesic-use-among-college-students
#18
Christine K Morioka, Donna E Howard, Kimberly M Caldeira, Min Qi Wang, Amelia M Arria
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the relationship between four suspected risk factors-affective dysregulation, conduct problems, depressive symptoms, and psychological distress-and incident nonmedical prescription analgesic (NPA) use among college students. METHODS: The sample was derived from 929 college students from a large, mid-Atlantic university who completed the third annual College Life Study assessment (Y3) and were NPA use naïve at baseline (Y1)...
September 1, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888219/factor-xa-inhibition-by-rivaroxaban-in-the-trough-steady-state-can-significantly-reduce-thrombin-generation
#19
Shigeo Horinaka, Rie Sugawara, Yutaka Yonezawa, Toshihiko Ishimitsu
AIMS: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate evidence of reduced thrombin generation at the trough plasma rivaroxaban concentration. METHODS: A single-centre, prospective, non-randomised, drug intervention, self-controlled study was conducted in 51 anticoagulation therapy-naïve patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Plasma rivaroxaban concentration was measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and anti-factor Xa chromogenic assay...
September 9, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884840/hydroxycarbamide-in-children-with-sickle-cell-anemia-after-first-dose-vs-chronic-therapy-pharmacokinetics-and-predictive-models-for-drug-exposure
#20
Jeremie H Estepp, Paweł Wiczling, Joseph Moen, Guolian Kang, Joana Marie Mack, Robert Liem, Julie A Panepinto, Uttam Garg, Gregory Kearns, Kathleen A Neville
AIMS: The purpose of this work was to (1) compare pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters for hydroxycarbamide in children receiving their first dose (HCnew ) versus those receiving chronic therapy (HCchronic ), (2) assess the external validity of a published PK dosing strategy, and (3) explore the accuracy of dosing strategies based on a limited number of HC measurements. METHODS: Utilizing data from two prospective, multicenter trials of hydroxycarbamide (Pharmacokinetics of Liquid Hydroxyurea in Pediatric Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia; NCT01506544 and Single-Dose (SD) and Steady-State (SS) Pharmacokinetics of Hydroxyurea in Children and Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease), plasma drug concentration versus time profiles were evaluated with a model independent approach in the HCnew and HCchronic groups...
September 8, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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