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Maria A Schumacher, Matthew J Bush, Maureen J Bibb, Félix Ramos-León, Govind Chandra, Wenjie Zeng, Mark J Buttner
Streptomyces are filamentous bacteria with a complex developmental life cycle characterized by the formation of spore-forming aerial hyphae. Transcription of the chaplin and rodlin genes, which are essential for aerial hyphae production, is directed by the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factor BldN, which is in turn controlled by an anti-σ factor, RsbN. RsbN shows no sequence similarity to known anti-σ factors and binds and inhibits BldN in an unknown manner. Here we describe the 2.23 Å structure of the RsbN-BldN complex...
June 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Diego Bernal-Bernal, Javier Abellón-Ruiz, Antonio A Iniesta, Elena Pajares-Martínez, Eva Bastida-Martínez, Marta Fontes, S Padmanabhan, Montserrat Elías-Arnanz
Expression of CRISPR-Cas systems is a prerequisite for their defensive role against invading genetic elements. Yet, much remains unknown about how this crucial step is regulated. We describe a new mechanism controlling CRISPR-cas expression, which requires an extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factor (DdvS), its membrane-bound anti-σ (DdvA) and a global regulatory complex (CarD-CarG). Transcriptomic analyses revealed that the DdvS/CarD/CarG-dependent regulon comprises a type III-B CRISPR-Cas system in Myxococcus xanthus...
June 9, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Jordi Gonzalez-Molina, Xiaoli Zhang, Michela Borghesan, Joana Mendonça da Silva, Maooz Awan, Barry Fuller, Núria Gavara, Clare Selden
The extracellular fluid (ECF) is a crowded environment containing macromolecules that determine its characteristic density, osmotic pressure, and viscosity, which greatly differ between tissues. Precursors and products of degradation of biomaterials enhance ECF crowding and often increase its viscosity. Also, increases in ECF viscosity are related to mucin-producing adenocarcinomas. However, the effect of ECF viscosity on cells remains largely unexplored. Here we show that viscosity-enhancing polymer solutions promote mesenchymal-like cell migration in liver cancer cell lines...
June 2, 2018: Biomaterials
Aung Win Tin, Eleanor Smith, Rebecca Hepworth, Julie Walker, David Wilson, Nick Wadd
INTRODUCTION: Perioperative epirubicin, cisplatin and 5-FU or capecitabine (ECF/X) chemotherapy is recognised as a standard of care for patients with resectable gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma; however, there is limited evidence regarding its use in older patients. The aims of this study were to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of perioperative ECX chemotherapy in patients aged ≥70 years-old (group 1) compared with a younger population (group 2), and to assess differences in the histology of these groups...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
Jana H Johansson, Yali Shi, Matthew Salter, Ian T Cousins
To evaluate the relevance of different proposed sources of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to air, their isomer patterns were analyzed in deposition samples collected from five geographical locations: two urban sites in China (>360 km from known operational fluorochemical manufacturing facilities), one remote marine site in the Azores archipelago and two Swedish sites representing urban and background conditions. Despite variable contributions from linear perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the samples, the pattern of branched PFOA isomers was similar to those of technical standards manufactured using electrochemical fluorination (ECF)...
June 5, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Margarida D Amaral, Sylvia F Boj, James Shaw, Jens Leipziger, Jeffrey M Beekman
The European Cystic Fibrosis Society (ECFS) Basic Science Working Group (BSWG) organized a session on the topic "Cystic Fibrosis: Beyond the Airways", within the 15th ECFS Basic Science Conference which gathered around 200 researchers working in the basic science of CF. The session was organized and chaired by Margarida Amaral (BioISI, University of Lisboa, Portugal) and Jeffrey Beekman (University Medical Centre Utrecht, Netherlands) as Chair and Vice-Chair of the BSWG and its purpose was to bring attention of participants of the ECFS Basic Science Conference to "more forgotten" organs in CF disease...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Joana A Santos, Stephan Rempel, Sandra T M Mous, Cristiane T Pereira, Josy Ter Beek, Jan-Willem de Gier, Albert Guskov, Dirk Slotboom
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is the most complex B-type vitamin and is synthetized exclusively in a limited number of prokaryotes. Its biologically active variants contain rare organometallic bonds, which are used by enzymes in a variety of central metabolic pathways such as L-methionine synthesis and ribonucleotide reduction. Although its biosynthesis and role as co-factor are well understood, knowledge about uptake of cobalamin by prokaryotic auxotrophs is scarce. Here, we characterize a cobalamin-specific ECF-type ABC transporter from Lactobacillus delbrueckii , ECF-CbrT, and demonstrate that it mediates the specific, ATP-dependent uptake of cobalamin...
May 29, 2018: ELife
Wilhelmus E A de Witte, Vivi Rottschäfer, Meindert Danhof, Piet H van der Graaf, Lambertus A Peletier, Elizabeth C M de Lange
Drug-target binding kinetics (as determined by association and dissociation rate constants, k on and k off ) can be an important determinant of the kinetics of drug action. However, the effect compartment model is used most frequently instead of a target binding model to describe hysteresis. Here we investigate when the drug-target binding model should be used in lieu of the effect compartment model. The utility of the effect compartment (EC), the target binding kinetics (TB) and the combined effect compartment-target binding kinetics (EC-TB) model were tested on either plasma (ECPL , TBPL and EC-TBPL ) or brain extracellular fluid (ECF) (ECECF , TBECF and EC-TBECF ) morphine concentrations and EEG amplitude in rats...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Xian-Feng Zhong, Yu-Bo Zhang, Gui-Dong Huang, Yong-Zhong Ouyang, Dong-Jiang Liao, Jia-Wei Peng, Wei-Zhi Huang
Stachyose is a functional oligosaccharide, acting as a potential prebiotic for colonic fermentation. To understand the mechanism of how stachyose promotes the growth of probiotic bacterium, we analyzed the differences of the proteome of Lactobacillus acidophilus grown on stachyose or glucose. By a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis, we observed 16 proteins differentially abundant under these two conditions and identified 9 protein spots. Six of these proteins were highly abundant when stachyose was used as the sole carbon source...
May 16, 2018: Food & Function
Hamza Rahimi, Anthony C Venbrux, Vincent Obias
Enterocutaneous fistulas (ECFs) can be one of the complications found after surgical intervention for rectal cancer. Interventional modalities consisting of surgical, endoscopic, and radiological methods are often implemented to treat postoperative symptomatic complications. We present the case of 61-year-old Caucasian man who presented to us with a recent diagnosis of rectal cancer that had invaded the levators as well as anteriorly into the prostate, and who underwent low anterior resection with a diverting loop ileostomy...
June 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Yu Du, Yi Mou, Jin Liu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effectiveness and safety of the individual-specific rapid potassium supplementation strategy, and to provide experimental basis for treating fatal severe hypokalemia. METHODS: An acute fatal severe hypokalemia model was reproduced in 20 healthy adult Japanese big ear white rabbits with half lethal dose (LD50) of barium chloride (BaCl2 ) solution 168 mg×5 mL-1 ×kg-1 . The rabbits were divided into conventional potassium supplementation group and individual-specific rapid potassium supplementation group according to random number table method with 10 rabbits in each group...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Qiao Xiong, Xinglin Tong, Chengwei Deng, Cui Zhang, Pengfei Wang, Zhiyuan Zheng, Fang Liu
A novel Mach-Zehnder interferometer using eccentric-core fiber (ECF) design for optical coherence tomography (OCT) is proposed and demonstrated. Instead of the commercial single-mode fiber (SMF), the ECF is used as one interference arm of the implementation. Because of the offset location of the eccentric core, it is sensitive to directional bending and the optical path difference (OPD) of two interference arms can be adjusted with high precision. The birefringence of ECF is calculated and experimentally measured, which demonstrates the polarization sensitivity of the ECF proposed in the paper is similar to that of SMF...
May 13, 2018: Sensors
Felix C Sokolowski, Philipp Karius, Alejandra Rodríguez, Alexander Lembcke, Moritz Wagner, Bernd Hamm, Marc Dewey
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and significance of extracardiac findings (ECF) in a large set of cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examinations. METHODS: The institutional review board (IRB) of the Charité approved this retrospective, single-centre study. A total of 4376 cardiac MR imaging reports of 3553 patients (age 37.4 ± 20 years, 60.8 % male) examined from 2000 to 2014 were included. Findings with a recommendation for follow-up were considered "major ECF"...
April 30, 2018: European Radiology
Joshua Caballero, Raymond L Ownby, Robin J Jacobs, Naushira Pandya, Patrick C Hardigan, Lazara C Ricabal
PURPOSE: Potential cognitive and demographic correlates of medication nonadherence in older Hispanic adults with type 2 diabetes were investigated. METHODS: Forty community-dwelling participants 65 years of age or older were recruited. Executive control function (ECF) was assessed using the executive clock drawing task (CLOX 1) test and the 25-item Executive Interview. Self-reported medication adherence was measured on a visual analog scale (VAS); measures of glycemic control included glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c ) concentration...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
James Nyagwange, Vishvanath Nene, Stephen Mwalimu, Sonal Henson, Lucilla Steinaa, Benjamin Nzau, Edwin Tijhaar, Roger Pelle
East Coast fever (ECF) caused by Theileria parva kills cattle in East, Central and Southern Africa leading to significant economic losses. Vaccination is used as a control strategy against ECF and is presently dependent on deliberate infection with live sporozoites and simultaneous treatment with a long-acting oxytetracycline. Although effective, this method has serious limitations; the immunity is parasite strain specific and immunized cattle can become life-long asymptomatic carriers of the parasite, posing risk for the spread of the disease...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
K Govind Babu, Tamojit Chaudhuri, K C Lakshmaiah, Lokanatha Dasappa, Linu Abraham Jacob, M C Suresh Babu, A H Rudresha, K N Lokesh, L K Rajeev
Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important oncologic end point for upper gastrointestinal malignancies. Unfortunately, till date, there is no published prospective data from India, comparing the HRQOL parameters between first-line chemotherapy regimens in advanced/metastatic gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: The present study aimed to compare the HRQOL of first-line systemic chemotherapy with epirubicin, cisplatin plus 5-FU (ECF) and docetaxel, cisplatin plus 5-FU (DCF) regimens in patients with locally advanced inoperable or metastatic gastric or gastro-esophageal junction adenocarcinoma...
January 2018: South Asian Journal of Cancer
David Goltzman, Michael Mannstadt, Claudio Marcocci
Classic endocrine feedback loops ensure the regulation of blood calcium. Calcium in the extracellular fluid (ECF) binds and activates the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) on the parathyroid cells, leading to an increase in intracellular calcium. This in turn leads to a reduced parathyroid hormone (PTH) release. Hypocalcemia leads to the opposite sequence of events, namely, lowered intracellular calcium and increased PTH production and secretion. PTH rapidly increases renal calcium reabsorption and, over hours to days, enhances osteoclastic bone resorption and liberates both calcium and phosphate from the skeleton...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
M C Pensel, M Daamen, L Scheef, H U Knigge, S Rojas Vega, J A Martin, H H Schild, H K Strüder, H Boecker
Cardiovascular training has been associated with neuroimaging correlates of executive control functions (ECF) in seniors and children/adolescents, while complementary studies in middle-aged populations are lacking. Ascribing a prominent role to cardiorespiratory fitness improvements, most studies concentrated on training-induced gains in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), although other fitness indices may provide complementary information. Here, we investigated the impact of long-term sub-maximal exercise training on interference control, considering individual training-induced shifts in blood lactate profile curves (BLC) and VO2 max...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Diaeldin A Salih, Joram M Mwacharo, Roger Pelle, Moses N Njahira, David O Odongo, Mary N Mbole-Kariuki, Wani L Marcellino, Agol K Malak, Henary Kiara, Abdel Rahim M El Hussein, Richard P Bishop, Robert A Skilton
Theileria parva is a parasitic protozoan that causes East Coast fever (ECF), an economically important disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa. In South Sudan, ECF is considered a major constraint for livestock development in regions where the disease is endemic. To obtain insights into the dynamics of T. parva in South Sudan, population genetic analysis was performed. Out of the 751 samples included in this study, 178 blood samples were positive for T. parva by species-specific PCR, were collected from cattle from four regions in South Sudan (Bor = 62; Juba = 45; Kajo keji = 41 and Yei = 30) were genotyped using 14 microsatellite markers spanning the four chromosomes...
May 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Mark Yulis, Miguel Quiros, Roland Hilgarth, Charles A Parkos, Asma Nusrat
Desmosomal cadherins mediate intercellular adhesion and have also been shown to regulate homeostatic signaling in epithelial cells. We have previously reported that select pro-inflammatory cytokines induce Dsg2 ectodomain cleavage and shedding from intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Dsg2 extracellular cleaved fragments (Dsg2 ECF) function to induce paracrine pro-proliferative signaling in epithelial cells. In this study, we show that exposure of IECs to pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) resulted in Dsg2 intracellular cleavage and generation of a ~55 kDa fragment (Dsg2 ICF)...
March 9, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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