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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794104/prenatal-hypoxia-and-placental-oxidative-stress-linkages-to-developmental-origins-of-cardiovascular-disease
#1
Mais M Aljunaidy, Jude S Morton, Christy-Lynn Cooke, Sandra T Davidge
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, a pregnancy complication where the fetus does not reach its genetic growth potential) is a leading cause of fetal morbidity and mortality with a significant impact on population health. IUGR is associated with gestational hypoxia; which can lead to placental oxidative stress and fetal programming of cardiovascular disease. Mitochondria are a major source of placental oxidative stress and may provide a therapeutic target to mitigate the detrimental effects of placental oxidative stress on pregnancy outcomes...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783237/for-emergency-contraception-political-gaps-are-not-scientific-gaps
#2
D K Turok
Emergency contraception (EC) is the only opportunity for women to prevent an unwanted pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. Simple compassion for women who are in this situation combined with solid scientific data to support the safety of oral EC should be enough to promote strategies to expand access to these medications as well as the most effective method of EC, the copper IUD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 7, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761227/acute-kidney-injury-in-pregnancy-specific-disorders
#3
REVIEW
J Prakash, V C Ganiger
The incidence of acute kidney injury in pregnancy (P-AKI) has declined significantly over the last three decades in developing countries. However, it is still associated with significant fetomaternal mortality and morbidity. The diagnosis of P-AKI is based on the serum creatinine increase. The usual formulas for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are not validated in this population. The incidence of P-AKI with respect to total AKI cases has decreased in the last three decades from 25% in 1980s to 9% in 2000s at our centre...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748588/implementation-of-the-risk-and-harm-reduction-strategy-against-unsafe-abortion-in-uruguay-from-a-university-hospital-to-the-entire-country
#4
Ana Labandera, Monica Gorgoroso, Leonel Briozzo
The history of the creation of the risk and harm reduction model applied to unsafe abortion is reviewed, from its initial implementation by a small group of gynecologists at the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center in Uruguay to its spread to the rest of the country. Its ethical rationale, its successful application in the hospital, the decision to disseminate it with the cooperation of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), and the intervention procedures are explained. It was evaluated from the epidemiological and anthropological viewpoints, from the changes in professionals' and users' perception of the care offered and its impact on complications and maternal deaths...
August 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739514/inhibition-of-blood-brain-barrier-efflux-transporters-promotes-seizure-in-pregnant-rats-role-of-circulating-factors
#5
Abbie C Johnson, Erica S Hammer, Sophie Sakkaki, Sarah M Tremble, Gregory L Holmes, Marilyn J Cipolla
Seizure-provoking factors circulate late in gestation during normal pregnancy, but do not readily gain access to the brain due to the protective nature of the blood-brain barrier. In particular, efflux transporters are powerful ATP-driven pumps that actively prevent unwanted compounds from entering the brain. We hypothesized that acute inhibition of efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier would result in spontaneous seizures in pregnant rats. We further hypothesized that the blood-brain barrier protects the maternal brain from seizure by increasing expression and/or activity of p-glycoprotein (P-gp), a major efflux transporter...
July 21, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682221/factors-related-to-unwanted-pregnancies-and-abortion-in-the-northern-district-of-the-city-of-tehran-iran
#6
Masoumeh Mirzamoradi, Masoumeh Saleh, Marzieyeh Jamali, Mahmood Bakhtiyari, Parichehr Pooransari, Soraya Saleh Gargari
The aim of this study was to investigate the levels and determinants of unwanted pregnancies and therapeutic and elective induced abortions in an Iranian sample of women. This study was conducted from the beginning of 2013 to the end of July 2013, using data from 950 women aged 15-45 years. To evaluate the relationship of independent variables to the number of unwanted pregnancies, a negative binomial regression model was used. A multinomial logistic model was used to investigate the relationship of the history of at least one unwanted pregnancy to therapeutic and elective induced abortion...
July 6, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679389/fertility-intentions-and-contraceptive-practices-among-clinic-users-living-with-hiv-in-kenya-a-mixed-methods-study
#7
Susannah H Mayhew, Manuela Colombini, James Kelly Kimani, Keith Tomlin, Charlotte E Warren, Richard Mutemwa
BACKGROUND: Preventing unwanted pregnancies in Women Living with HIV (WLHIV) is a recognised HIV-prevention strategy. This study explores the fertility intentions and contraceptive practices of WLHIV using services in Kenya. METHODS: Two hundred forty women self-identifying as WLHIV who attended reproductive health services in Kenya were interviewed with a structured questionnaire in 2011; 48 were also interviewed in-depth. STATA SE/13.1, Nvivo 8 and thematic analysis were used...
July 5, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672413/long-acting-reversible-contraception
#8
Rogerio Bonassi Machado, Ilza Maria Urbano Monteiro, Jarbas Magalhães, Cristina Aparecida Falbo Guazzelli, Milena Bastos Brito, Marta Franco Finotti, Jaqueline Neves Lubianca, Luis Carlos Sakamoto, Silvio Antonio Franceschini
Unwanted pregnancy is a major public health problem both in developed and developing countries. Although the reduction in the rates of these pregnancies requires multifactorial approaches, increasing access to long-acting contraceptive methods can contribute significantly to change this scenario. In Brazil, gynecologists and obstetricians play a key role in contraceptive counseling, being decisive in the choice of long-acting reversible methods, characterized by intrauterine devices (IUDs) and the contraceptive implant...
June 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642961/female-sexual-dysfunction-with-combined-oral-contraceptive-use
#9
Jean Jasmin M L Lee, Thiam Chye Tan, Seng Bin Ang
Combined oral contraceptive pills (COCs) remain one of the most popular forms of contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancy in women. While it is known that COCs can cause sexual dysfunction in women, there is currently no recommendation to screen for sexual function before and after initiation of COCs. We propose that, based on the evidence available, assessment of sexual function should be done at initiation of COCs, as well as at regular intervals thereafter. This would allow COC-related sexual dysfunction to be managed early, such as by switching the patient to newer-generation COCs or other forms of contraception...
June 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630538/abortion-law-and-policy-around-the-world-in-search-of-decriminalization
#10
Marge Berer
The aim of this paper is to provide a panoramic view of laws and policies on abortion around the world, giving a range of country-based examples. It shows that the plethora of convoluted laws and restrictions surrounding abortion do not make any legal or public health sense. What makes abortion safe is simple and irrefutable-when it is available on the woman's request and is universally affordable and accessible. From this perspective, few existing laws are fit for purpose. However, the road to law reform is long and difficult...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625180/abortion-and-subsequent-depressive-symptoms-an-analysis-of-the-national-longitudinal-study-of-adolescent-health
#11
A M Gomez
BACKGROUND: Twenty states currently require that women seeking abortion be counseled on possible psychological responses, with six states stressing negative responses. The majority of research finds that women whose unwanted pregnancies end in abortion do not subsequently have adverse mental health outcomes; scant research examines this relationship for young women. METHODS: Four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed...
June 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610898/immediate-versus-delayed-postpartum-use-of-levonorgestrel-contraceptive-implants-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-uganda
#12
Sarah Averbach, Othman Kakaire, Herbert Kayiga, Felicia Lester, Abby Sokoloff, Josaphat Byamugisha, Christine Dehlendorf, Jody Steinauer
BACKGROUND: Use of long-acting, highly effective contraception has the potential to improve women's ability to avoid short interpregnancy intervals, which are associated with an increased risk of maternal morbidity and mortality, and preterm delivery. In Uganda, contraceptive implants are not routinely available during the immediate postpartum period. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the proportion of women using levonorgestrel contraceptive implants at 6 months after delivery in women randomized to immediate or delayed insertion...
June 10, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610653/prospective-cohort-study-of-childhood-behaviour-problems-and-adolescent-sexual-risk-taking-gender-matters
#13
S Rachel Skinner, Jennifer Marino, Susan L Rosenthal, Jeffrey Cannon, Dorota A Doherty, Martha Hickey
Background: Externalising (delinquent, aggressive) and internalising (anxious/depressed, withdrawn) behaviour problems are prevalent in childhood. Few studies have prospectively measured relationships between childhood behaviour problems and adolescent health risk behaviour, a major predictor of morbidity and mortality. This study sought to determine relationships, by gender, between childhood behaviour problems and adolescent risky sexual behaviours and substance use. Methods: In a population-based birth cohort [The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study], total, externalising and internalising behaviour problems (domain-specific T≥60) were calculated from parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist at ages 2, 5, 8, 10 and 14 years...
June 14, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606153/pregnancy-risk-during-menstrual-cycle-misconceptions-among-urban-men-in-india
#14
Prashant Verma, Kaushalendra Kumar Singh, Anjali Singh
BACKGROUND: In India, where men take most decisions in the family, it is useful that they have adequate knowledge about pregnancy risks during women's menstrual cycles. Since traditional contraceptive methods are still employed by a large population in India, the knowledge regarding the pregnancy risk during the menstrual cycle is indispensable. This research paper attempts to assess the knowledge among urban men in Uttar Pradesh, India about the fertile window of the menstrual cycle; it also attempts to discover the rationales behind the misconceptions about the concept...
June 12, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606062/unmet-need-for-contraception-and-its-association-with-unintended-pregnancy-in-bangladesh
#15
Ghose Bishwajit, Shangfeng Tang, Sanni Yaya, Zhanchun Feng
BACKGROUND: Unmet need for contraception and unintended pregnancy are important public health concerns both in developing and developed countries. Previous researches have attempted to study the factors that influence unintended pregnancy. However, the association between unmet need for contraception and unwanted pregnancy is not studied adequately. The aim of the present study was to measure the prevalence of unmet need for contraception and unwanted pregnancy, and to explore the association between these two in a nationally representative sample in Bangladesh...
June 12, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598550/sexual-orientation-disparities-in-mistimed-and-unwanted-pregnancy-among-adult-women
#16
Bethany G Everett, Katharine F McCabe, Tonda L Hughes
CONTEXT: Many sexual minority women, regardless of sexual identity, engage in heterosexual behavior across the life course, which provides them opportunities to experience an unintended pregnancy. In addition, sexual minority women are more likely than others to report characteristics that may make them vulnerable to unintended pregnancy. Little research, however, has examined whether the risk of unintended pregnancy is elevated among these women. METHODS: Using data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, logistic regression models were fitted to examine sexual orientation disparities in mistimed and unwanted pregnancies among 9,807 women aged 20-45; mixed-effects hazard models assessed disparities in the intention status of 5,238 pregnancies among these women by maternal sexual orientation...
June 9, 2017: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578152/examining-intendedness-among-pregnancies-ending-in-spontaneous-abortion
#17
Rachel Flink-Bochacki, Leslie A Meyn, Beatrice A Chen, Sharon L Achilles, Judy C Chang, Sonya Borrero
OBJECTIVES: Spontaneous abortion (SAB) affects over 1 million US women each year, yet little is known about the intendedness of these pregnancies. We examined prevalence and correlates of unintended and unwanted pregnancies ending in SAB. STUDY DESIGN: We used nationally-representative cross-sectional data of US women aged 15-44 from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth to examine pregnancies ending in SAB. We used modified Poisson regression models to evaluate associations between demographic and pregnancy characteristics with unintended and unwanted pregnancy...
May 31, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545584/can-community-health-workers-play-a-greater-role-in-increasing-access-to-medical-abortion-services-a-qualitative-study
#18
Pallavi Gupta, Sharad D Iyengar, Bela Ganatra, Heidi Bart Johnston, Kirti Iyengar
BACKGROUND: Despite being legally available in India since 1971, barriers to safe and legal abortion remain, and unsafe and/or illegal abortion continues to be a problem. Community health workers have been involved in improving access to health information and care for maternal and child health in resource poor settings, but their role in facilitating accurate information about and access to safe abortion has been relatively unexplored. A qualitative study was conducted in Rajasthan, India to study acceptability, perspectives and preferences of women and community health workers, regarding the involvement of community health workers in medical abortion referrals...
May 25, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510591/the-case-for-investing-in-the-male-condom
#19
John Stover, James E Rosen, Maria Nadia Carvalho, Eline L Korenromp, Howard S Friedman, Matthew Cogan, Bidia Deperthes
When used correctly and consistently, the male condom offers triple protection from unintended pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, with health funding levels stagnant or falling, it is important to understand the cost and health impact associated with prevention technologies. This study is one of the first to attempt to quantify the cost and combined health impact of condom use, as a means to prevent unwanted pregnancy and to prevent transmission of STIs including HIV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506217/association-between-maternal-social-deprivation-and-prenatal-care-utilization-the-precare-cohort-study
#20
Clémentine Gonthier, Candice Estellat, Catherine Deneux-Tharaux, Béatrice Blondel, Toni Alfaiate, Thomas Schmitz, Jean-François Oury, Laurent Mandelbrot, Dominique Luton, Philippe Ravaud, Elie Azria
BACKGROUND: Maternal social deprivation is associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Inadequate prenatal care utilization (PCU) is likely to be an important intermediate factor. The health care system in France provides essential health services to all pregnant women irrespective of their socioeconomic status. Our aim was to assess the association between maternal social deprivation and PCU. METHODS: The analysis was performed in the database of the multicenter prospective PreCARE cohort study...
May 16, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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