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Sexual and reproductive health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324794/the-socio-political-context-of-migration-and-reproductive-health-disparities-the-case-of-early-sexual-initiation-among-mexican-origin-immigrant-young-women
#1
Kate Coleman-Minahan
Prior research often explains the lower risk of early sexual initiation among foreign-born Mexican-origin young women by a patriarchal and sexually conservative "traditional Latino culture." This definition overlooks structural factors such as exploitation of migrant workers, and conflates gender inequality and sexual expectations. I use an intersectional framework and the theory of gender and power to explore how gender inequality and sexual expectations are both influenced by structural factors and affect reproductive health outcomes...
March 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314704/over-the-counter-access-to-oral-contraceptives-for-adolescents
#2
REVIEW
Krishna K Upadhya, John S Santelli, Tina R Raine-Bennett, Melissa J Kottke, Daniel Grossman
Oral contraceptives (OCs) are used by millions of women in the U.S. The requirement to obtain OCs by prescription from a clinician may serve as a barrier to contraceptive initiation and continuation for women, in particular adolescents. Over-the-counter (OTC) availability would reduce this barrier and could further reduce unintended pregnancy rates. This review explores the scientific issues and regulatory processes involved in switching OCs to OTC status for minor adolescents. We review: (1) the regulatory criteria for switching a drug to OTC status; (2) risk of pregnancy and safety during use of OCs including combined oral contraceptives and progestin-only pills for adolescents; (3) the ability of adolescents to use OCs consistently and correctly; (4) OTC access to OCs and potential effect on sexual risk behaviors; and (5) the potential for reduced opportunities for clinicians to counsel and provide recommended reproductive health care to adolescents...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299966/family-planning-services-for-incarcerated-women-models-for-filling-an-unmet-need
#3
Carolyn Sufrin, Sara Baird, Jennifer Clarke, Elizabeth Feldman
Purpose Incarcerated women around the globe are predominantly of reproductive age. Most of these women have been pregnant before, and many want to be sexually active and avoid pregnancy upon release. Yet few of these women are on a regular method of contraception. Providing contraceptive services for women in custody benefits individual and public health goals of reducing unintended pregnancy. This policy briefing reviews evidence for an unmet need for family planning in the correctional setting, and policy implications for expanding services...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296626/multiple-levels-of-social-influence-on-adolescent-sexual-and-reproductive-health-decision-making-and-behaviors-in-ghana
#4
Sneha Challa, Abubakar Manu, Emmanuel Morhe, Vanessa K Dalton, Dana Loll, Jessica Dozier, Melissa K Zochowski, Andrew Boakye, Richard Adanu, Kelli Stidham Hall
Little is known about the multi-level social determinants of adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) that shape the use of family planning (FP) among young women in Africa. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured, qualitative interviews with 63 women aged 15-24 years in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana. We used purposive, stratified sampling to recruit women from community-based sites. Interviews were conducted in English or local languages, recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Grounded theory-guided thematic analysis identified salient themes...
March 15, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292457/sexuality-and-disability-in-adolescents
#5
REVIEW
Cynthia Holland-Hall, Elisabeth H Quint
Healthy sexual development is important for adolescents with and without disabilities, yet the topic of sexuality is often ignored in the disabled population. Adolescents with mild or moderate degrees of disability have rates of sexual activity and reproductive health needs comparable to their typically developing peers. Their need for support, risk reduction, and education in sexual health may exceed that of their peers. The medical provider may support healthy sexual development through education, anticipatory guidance, menstrual and contraceptive management, and by expanding the notion of sexuality to include a broader conceptualization of sexual behavior and expression...
April 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292296/sexual-and-reproductive-health-experience-knowledge-and-problems-among-university-students-in-ambo-central-ethiopia
#6
Abenezer Yared, Zekariyas Sahile, Mulugeta Mekuria
BACKGROUND: Youths in universities are at high risk of STIs and SRH problems in Ethiopia. However, students did not perceive themselves at risk of STI/HIV infection though reports showed they were sexually active, had multiple sexual partners and reported symptoms of STIs. Having recognized the threat posed by SRH problems, this study aimed to assess the SRH experiences, knowledge, and problems among university students at Ambo University in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ambo University main campus from January to February 2015 using mixed approach of quantitative (survey) and qualitative (in-depth interview) methods...
March 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290256/preparing-the-sexual-health-workforce-to-deliver-integrated-services-is-education-the-answer-a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-impact-of-sexual-health-education-on-developing-integrated-policy-and-practice
#7
Judy Brook, Debra Salmon, Rachael-Anne Knight
Aim This study aimed to explore the ability of sexual health nurses working in the South West of England, to implement new learning within existing sexual health service delivery models. Drawing on Lipsky's account of street-level bureaucracy to conceptualise policy implementation, the impact of workforce learning on the development of integrated services across this region of the United Kingdom was assessed. BACKGROUND: In order to achieve the United Nations' goal of universal access to sexual health, it is essential for reproductive and sexual health, including HIV provision, to integrate into a single service...
March 14, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286546/contraceptive-availability-leads-to-increase-in-use-in-conflict-affected-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-evidence-from-cross-sectional-cluster-surveys-facility-assessments-and-service-statistics
#8
Sara E Casey, Martin Tshipamba
BACKGROUND: Humanitarian assistance standards mandate specific attention to address the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs of conflict-affected populations. Despite these internationally recognised standards, access to SRH services is still often compromised in conflict settings. CARE in collaboration with the RAISE Initiative strengthened the Ministry of Health (MOH) to provide contraceptive services in Maniema province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. This study evaluated the effectiveness of this support for MOH health facility provision of contraception...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283466/comparison-of-different-recruitment-methods-for-sexual-and-reproductive-health-research-social-media-based-versus-conventional-methods
#9
Yoko Motoki, Etsuko Miyagi, Masataka Taguri, Mikiko Asai-Sato, Takayuki Enomoto, John Dennis Wark, Suzanne Marie Garland
BACKGROUND: Prior research about the sexual and reproductive health of young women has relied mostly on self-reported survey studies. Thus, participant recruitment using Web-based methods can improve sexual and reproductive health research about cervical cancer prevention. In our prior study, we reported that Facebook is a promising way to reach young women for sexual and reproductive health research. However, it remains unknown whether Web-based or other conventional recruitment methods (ie, face-to-face or flyer distribution) yield comparable survey responses from similar participants...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281918/lifetime-sexual-assault-and-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-women-veterans
#10
Vinita Goyal, Michelle A Mengeling, Brenda M Booth, James C Torner, Craig H Syrop, Anne G Sadler
OBJECTIVE: Women veterans report a high prevalence of sexual assault. Unfortunately, there are limited data on the reproductive health sequelae faced by these women. Our objective was to evaluate the association between completed lifetime sexual assault (LSA) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among a cohort of women veterans, adjusting for sexual risk behaviors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study among women veterans aged 51 years or younger who enrolled for care at two Veterans Administration (VA) healthcare sites between 2000 and 2008...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278564/multilevel-influences-on-acceptance-of-medical-male-circumcision-in-rakai-district-uganda
#11
Pamela S Lilleston, Arik V Marcell, Neema Nakyanjo, Lori Leonard, Maria J Wawer
Despite access to safe medical male circumcision (MMC) and proven effectiveness of the procedure in reducing acquisition of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, uptake remains suboptimal in many settings in sub-Saharan Africa, including Rakai District, Uganda. This study explored multilevel barriers and facilitators to MMC in focus group discussions (FGDs) (n = 35 groups) in Rakai. Focus groups were conducted from May through July 2012 with adolescent and adult males, with a range of HIV risk and reproductive health service use profiles, and with adolescent and adult females...
March 1, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278277/women-view-key-sexual-behaviours-as-the-trigger-for-the-onset-and-recurrence-of-bacterial-vaginosis
#12
Jade E Bilardi, Sandra M Walker, Meredith J Temple-Smith, Ruth P McNair, Julie Mooney-Somers, Lenka A Vodstrcil, Clare E Bellhouse, Christopher K Fairley, Catriona S Bradshaw
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) affects a third of women of reproductive age in the US and there is increasing evidence to suggest it may be sexually transmitted. This study aimed to extend and validate the findings of our earlier smaller qualitative study by exploring in detail women's views and experiences of the triggering factors associated with BV onset and recurrence. METHODS: Women aged 20-49, who had experienced one or more symptomatic episode of BV within 6 months, were opportunistically recruited to complete a 38-item questionnaire on their experience of BV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278210/sexual-learning-among-east-african-adolescents-in-the-context-of-generalized-hiv-epidemics-a-systematic-qualitative-meta-synthesis
#13
Amelia S Knopf, Kim R McNealy, Halima Al-Khattab, Lisa Carter-Harris, Ukamaka Marian Oruche, Violet Naanyu, Claire Burke Draucker
BACKGROUND: AIDS-related illness is the leading cause of mortality for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Together, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda account for 21% of HIV-infected adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The United Nations framework for addressing the epidemic among adolescents calls for comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education. These HIV prevention efforts could be informed by a synthesis of existing research about the formal and informal sexual education of adolescents in countries experiencing generalized epidemics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278143/confidentiality-issues-and-use-of-sexually-transmitted-disease-services-among-sexually-experienced-persons-aged-15-25-years-united-states-2013-2015
#14
Jami S Leichliter, Casey Copen, Patricia J Dittus
National-level data are limited regarding confidentiality-related issues and the use of sexually transmitted disease (STD) services for adolescents and young adults. Changes in the U.S. health care system have permitted dependent children to remain on a parent's health insurance plan until the child's 26th birthday and required coverage of certain preventive services, including some STD services, without cost sharing for most plans (1,2). Although these provisions likely facilitate access to the health care system, adolescents and young adults might not seek care or might delay seeking care for certain services because of concerns about confidentiality, including fears that their parents might find out (3,4)...
March 10, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277350/vaginal-microbiome-and-its-relationship-to-behavior-sexual-health-and-sexually-transmitted-diseases
#15
Felicia M T Lewis, Kyle T Bernstein, Sevgi O Aral
The vaginal microbiota has great significance in maintaining vaginal health and protecting the host from disease. Recent advances in molecular techniques and informatics allow researchers to explore microbial composition in detail and to compare the structure of vaginal microbial communities with behavior and health outcomes, particularly acquisition and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and poor birth outcomes. Vaginal flora have been found to cluster into a limited number of communities, although community structure is dynamic...
March 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276918/perceived-anticipated-and-experienced-stigma-exploring-manifestations-and-implications-for-young-people-s-sexual-and-reproductive-health-and-access-to-care-in-north-western-tanzania
#16
Laura Nyblade, Melissa Stockton, Daniel Nyato, Joyce Wamoyi
Young people - particularly girls and young women in sub-Saharan Africa - face significant challenges accessing sexual and reproductive health information and services. These challenges are shaped in part by sociocultural factors, including stigma. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study that explored the micro-level social process of stigma surrounding young people's sexual and reproductive health in two communities in Tanzania. Respondents described an environment of pervasive stigma surrounding the sexual and reproductive health of unmarried young people...
February 22, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273129/quality-of-reproductive-healthcare-for-adolescents-a-nationally-representative-survey-of-providers-in-mexico
#17
Aremis Villalobos, Betania Allen-Leigh, Javier Salazar-Alberto, Filipa De Castro, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Ahideé Leyva-López, Rosalba Rojas-Martínez
OBJECTIVE: Adolescents need sexual and reproductive health services but little is known about quality-of-care in lower- and middle-income countries where most of the world's adolescents reside. Quality-of-care has important implications as lower quality may be linked to higher unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection rates. This study sought to generate evidence about quality-of-care in public sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study had a complex, probabilistic, stratified sampling design, representative at the national, regional and rural/urban level in Mexico, collecting provider questionnaires at 505 primary care units in 2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270214/research-capacity-strengthening-for-sexual-and-reproductive-health-a-case-study-from-latin-america
#18
REVIEW
Rita Kabra, Marco Castillo, Mercedes Melián, Moazzam Ali, Lale Say, A Metin Gulmezoglu
An essential, but often overlooked part of health promotion and development support to achieve self-sufficiency in developing countries is the concomitant need to build and strengthen research capacity. This is even more challenging and critical in the area of sexual and reproductive health because of diverse interplay of socio cultural, religious, economic factors in relation to reproductive health.This paper presents the case study of HRP's efforts to build research capacity in Latin America by studying and analyzing the 5-year history of institutional development support to an institution in Paraguay...
March 7, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266874/development-and-validation-of-a-scale-to-measure-adolescent-sexual-and-reproductive-health-stigma-results-from-young-women-in-ghana
#19
Kelli Stidham Hall, Abubakar Manu, Emmanuel Morhe, Lisa H Harris, Dana Loll, Elizabeth Ela, Giselle Kolenic, Jessica L Dozier, Sneha Challa, Melissa K Zochowski, Andrew Boakye, Richard Adanu, Vanessa K Dalton
Young women's experiences with sexual and reproductive health (SRH) stigma may contribute to unintended pregnancy. Thus, stigma interventions and rigorous measures to assess their impact are needed. Based on formative work, we generated a pool of 51 items on perceived stigma around different dimensions of adolescent SRH and family planning (sex, contraception, pregnancy, childbearing, abortion). We tested items in a survey study of 1,080 women ages 15 to 24 recruited from schools, health facilities, and universities in Ghana...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263396/pregnancy-experiences-of-female-sex-workers-in-adama-city-ethiopia-complexity-of-partner-relationships-and-pregnancy-intentions
#20
Eileen A Yam, Aklilu Kidanu, Brady Burnett-Zieman, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Jerry Okal, Assefa Bekele, Daniel Gudeta, Georgina Caswell
Research and programs for female sex workers (FSWs) tend to focus exclusively on HIV prevention, with little attention paid to how pregnancy affects their lives. We examine the circumstances surrounding pregnancy and childbirth among women selling sex in Ethiopia. In Adama City, researchers asked 30 FSWs aged 18 and older who had ever been pregnant to participate in in-depth interviews. The women reported on pregnancies experienced both before and after they had begun selling sex. They identified some of the fathers as clients, former partners, and current partners, but they did not know the identities of the other fathers...
March 6, 2017: Studies in Family Planning
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