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Sexual and reproductive health

V Rougeron, T De Meeûs, A-L Bañuls
One key process of the life cycle of pathogens is their mode of reproduction. Indeed, this fundamental biological process conditions the multiplication and the transmission of genes and thus the propagation of diseases in the environment. Reproductive strategies of protozoan parasites have been a subject of debate for many years, principally due to the difficulty in making direct observations of sexual reproduction (i.e. genetic recombination). Traditionally, these parasites were considered as characterized by a preeminent clonal structure...
October 18, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
María Isabel Fernández-Cano, Xavier Espada-Trespalacios, Azahara Reyes-Lacalle, Josep Maria Manresa Domínguez, Lluís Armadans-Gil, Magda Campins-Martí, Gemma Falguera-Puig, Pere Toran Monserrat
INTRODUCTION: The re-emergence of pertussis and the severity of its complications in infants younger than 3 months, were determining factors for starting a vaccination program for pregnant women in the third trimester of gestation in Catalonia in February 2014. This was the first autonomous community to introduce it in Spain. The aim of the study was to estimate the coverage of the program in its first year of implementation. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the data from the Primary Care Centre computerised medical records of pregnant women attending Sexual and Reproductive Health Care centres of the Metropolitan Nord area of the province of Barcelona, part of the Catalan Institute of Health...
October 18, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Cremildo João Baptista, Ines Dourado, Sandra Brignol, Tarcísio de Matos Andrade, Francisco Inácio Bastos
BACKGROUND: The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as syphilis, is higher in low-income countries, with serious consequences and profound impact on sexual and reproductive health and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread. Syphilis prevalence tend to be higher among people who misuse drugs than in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To assess syphilis and associated factors among polydrug users (PDU) in the city of Salvador, Northeast Brazil...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Undraga Schagdarsurengin, Lisa M Teuchert, Christina Hagenkötter, Nils Nesheim, Temuujin Dansranjavin, Hans-Christian Schuppe, Sabrina Gies, Adrian Pilatz, Wolfgang Weidner, Florian M E Wagenlehner
: Background/Aims/Objectives: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) has detrimental effects on the quality of life including the aspect of sexual dysfunction. The aim of the study was to identify if there was an adverse effect on the male genital compartment and if there are systemic or compartment-specific local signals for epigenetic dysregulation of inflammatory factors in CP/CPPS patients. METHODS: One hundred five NIH IIIb CP/CPPS patients and 41 healthy men were recruited and underwent investigations of urines, semen and blood...
October 20, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
Mussa N Sweya, Sia E Msuya, Michael J Mahande, Rachel Manongi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that knowledge of contraceptives, especially among the youth in universities, remains limited, and the rate of premarital sexual activity, unwanted pregnancies, and illegal abortions remains higher among university students. This study aimed to assess contraceptive knowledge, sexual behavior, and factors associated with contraceptive use among female undergraduate university students in Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted from May to June 2015 among undergraduate female students in four universities in Kilimanjaro region...
2016: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
Martin Kuete, HongFang Yuan, Aude Laure Tchoua Kemayou, Emmanuel Ancel Songo, Fan Yang, XiuLan Ma, ChengLiang Xiong, HuiPing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Integration of family planning services (FPS) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care for HIV-infected women is an important aspect of the global prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) strategy. We assessed the integration of FPS into routine care of HIV-infected mothers by evaluating the uptake and barriers of contraception and PMTCT services. METHODS: We conducted an interventional study using the interrupted time series approach in the health care facilities located in Yaounde, Cameroon...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Vijayan Pillai, Ya-Chien Wang, Arati Maleku
Globally, millions of people are affected by war and conflicts every year. However, women have increasingly suffered the greatest harm by war in more different ways than men. We conceptualize a reproductive rights approach toward examining the effects of war on women's reproductive health in developing countries. Given the rising concerns of exclusion to adequately address women's rights, sexual and gender-based violence, and post-conflict accountability, we specifically focus on the limitations of the Minimum Initial Service Package, a UN-sponsored reproductive health service program in conflict zones while offering a broad reproductive rights-based conceptual lens for examining reproductive health care services in war-torn areas...
October 18, 2016: Social Work in Health Care
Justin K Mogilski, Lisa L M Welling
Sexual dimorphism, symmetry, and coloration in human faces putatively signal information relevant to mate selection and reproduction. Although the independent contributions of these characteristics to judgments of attractiveness are well established, relatively few studies have examined whether individuals prioritize certain features over others. Here, participants (N = 542, 315 female) ranked six sets of facial photographs (3 male, 3 female) by their preference for starting long- and short-term romantic relationships with each person depicted...
October 17, 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Lucie D Cluver, F Mark Orkin, Franziska Meinck, Mark E Boyes, Alexa R Yakubovich, Lorraine Sherr
BACKGROUND: The first policy action outlined in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is the implementation of national social protection systems. This study assesses whether social protection provision can impact 17 indicators of five key health-related SDG goals amongst adolescents in South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal survey of adolescents (10-18 years) between 2009 and 2012. Census areas were randomly selected in two urban and two rural health districts in two South African provinces, including all homes with a resident adolescent...
2016: PloS One
J L Yoost, R W Starcher, R A King-Mallory, N Hussain, C A Hensley, T W Gress
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of telehealth to teach reproductive health to rural areas with high rates of teen pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study SETTING: Two high schools in rural West Virginia. PARTICIPANTS: High school females that attended telehealth sessions. INTERVENTIONS: Teleconferencing equipment connected rural high schools to a distal academic institution. Telehealth sessions included reproductive health and life skills topics...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Tantut Susanto, Ruka Saito, Rumiko Kimura, Akiko Tsuda, Noriko Tabuchi, Junko Sugama
BACKGROUND: Complex factors influence adolescents' attitudes. Secondary sexual development and emotional changes are markers of puberty and affect attitudes toward reproductive health (RH). This is especially evident in the society and culture of Indonesia. This study examined the presence of immaturity at puberty and factors associated with negative attitudes toward RH among Indonesian adolescents. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 1040 students (aged 11-16 years) selected using multistage random cluster sampling...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
F Lotti, G Corona, G Castellini, E Maseroli, M G Fino, M Cozzolino, M Maggi
STUDY QUESTION: Is sexual dysfunction associated with severity of semen quality impairment in men with couple infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: In males of infertile couples the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) increases as a function of semen quality impairment severity. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Infertile men are at a higher risk for sexual dysfunction, psychopathological and general health disorders. However, it has never been systematically investigated if these problems are associated with severity of semen quality impairment...
October 12, 2016: Human Reproduction
Amy H Farkas, Sarah Tilstra, Sonya Borrero, Melissa McNeil
BACKGROUND: Internal medicine residents are expected to be able to provide gender-specific care. The objective of this study was to develop a consensus list of core topics and procedural skills in women's health to allow residency program directors to prioritize and standardize educational efforts in women's health. METHODS: We conducted a two-round Delphi of women's health experts. Participants were given a list of topics and asked to: (1) rank each topic based on how important they felt each topic was for internal medicine residents to be proficient in upon graduation, and (2) identify which topics were critical for a women's health curriculum...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Women's Health
James Conniff
A transformation in legal and cultural attitudes toward same-sex relationships is under way nationwide. As same-sex marriage has become legal, the unique social and medicolegal issues faced by individuals in same-sex relationships are evolving rapidly. National organizations have published recommendations for making clinical environments more inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) individuals and their families. Medical issues for patients in same-sex relationships include a higher risk of HIV infection for men who have sex with men (a majority of new cases of HIV infection occur within relationships), higher rates of obesity among women who have sex with women, and disproportionately high rates of mental health issues and alcohol and drug use...
October 2016: FP Essentials
Sarina Schrager
Infertility is common in the United States, with up to 15% of heterosexual couples experiencing difficulty in achieving conception. Family physicians often are the first physicians to evaluate couples attempting to conceive. Evaluation begins with assessment of ovulation, evaluation of anatomic abnormalities, and semen analysis. Many etiologies of anovulation can be managed by family physicians, and clinicians can offer counseling on timing of intercourse and assist patients with lifestyle changes to promote fertility...
October 2016: FP Essentials
Susan M Sereika, Dorothy Becker, Patricia Schmitt, A Blair Powell, Ana Maria Diaz, Andrea F R Fischl, Jennifer Thurheimer-Cacciotti, William H Herman, Denise Charron-Prochownik
OBJECTIVE: Because unplanned pregnancies could cause maternal-fetal complications for women with diabetes, family planning vigilance (FPV) is imperative. The aims of this article are to operationalize and describe FPV and examine the associations among FPV behaviors and diabetes self-care management (DSM) and health outcomes of women with type 1 diabetes (T1D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective data were used from a follow-up study of adult women with T1D who participated as adolescents in a preconception counseling (PC) intervention trial and matched comparison women with T1D who did not receive the adolescent PC intervention...
October 11, 2016: Diabetes Care
Eva Åkerman, Per-Olof Östergren, Birgitta Essén, Cecilia Fernbrant, Ragnar Westerling
BACKGROUND: Migration from Thailand to Sweden has increased threefold over the last 10 years. Today Thailand is one of the most common countries of origin among immigrants in Sweden. Since the year 2000, new HIV cases are also more prevalent among Thai immigrants compared to other immigrant nationalities in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between knowledge and utilization of sexual and reproductive healthcare services, contraceptive knowledge and socio-demographic characteristics and social capital among Thai immigrant women in Sweden...
October 10, 2016: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Ahna Ballonoff Suleiman, Adriana Galván, K Paige Harden, Ronald E Dahl
The onset of adolescence is a time of profound changes in motivation, cognition, behavior, and social relationships. Existing neurodevelopmental models have integrated our current understanding of adolescent brain development; however, there has been surprisingly little focus on the importance of adolescence as a sensitive period for romantic and sexual development. As young people enter adolescence, one of their primary tasks is to gain knowledge and experience that will allow them to take on the social roles of adults, including engaging in romantic and sexual relationships...
September 29, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Tycho Vandenburg, Virginia Braun
Vaginal steaming made global headlines in 2015 after its promotion by celebrity Gwyneth Paltrow. One of many female genital modification practices currently on offer in Anglo-Western nations - practices both heavily promoted and critiqued - vaginal steaming is claimed to offer benefits for fertility and overall reproductive, sexual or even general health and wellbeing. We analysed a selection of online accounts of vaginal steaming to determine the sociocultural assumptions and logics within such discourse, including ideas about women, women's bodies and women's engagement with such 'modificatory' practices...
October 10, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Goleen Samari, Judith A Seltzer
Parents' influence on young adult sexual behavior receives little attention compared to influence on adolescent behavior. Yet effective parenting should have lasting effects. Even fewer studies examine parents' influence on sexual behavior of both foreign and native-born young adults. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) Waves I (1994-95) and III (2001-02), we examine longitudinal associations among mother-daughter relationship quality and nativity during adolescence and young adults' risky sexual behaviors of condom use at last intercourse, number of sexual partners, and STI diagnoses (N = 4460)...
November 2016: Social Science Research
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