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Sexual and reproductive health

Natalie Thomas, Melissa Bull
Contemporary research in the drugs field has demonstrated a number of gender differences in patterns and experiences of substance use, and the design and provision of gender-responsive interventions has been identified as an important policy issue. Consequently, whether and how domestic drug policies attend to women and gender issues is an important question for investigation. This article presents a policy audit and critical analysis of Australian national and state and territory policy documents. It identifies and discusses two key styles of problematisation of women's drug use in policy: 1) drug use and its effect on women's reproductive role (including a focus on pregnant women and women who are mothers), and 2) drug use and its relationship to women's vulnerability to harm (including violent and sexual victimisation, trauma, and mental health issues)...
March 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Matthew Quaife, Fern Terris-Prestholt, Robyn Eakle, Maria A Cabrera Escobar, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Mercy Mvundura, Gesine Meyer-Rath, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Peter Vickerman
INTRODUCTION: A number of antiretroviral HIV prevention products are efficacious in preventing HIV infection. However, the sexual and reproductive health needs of many women extend beyond HIV prevention, and research is ongoing to develop multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs) that offer dual HIV and pregnancy protection. We do not yet know if these products will be an efficient use of constrained health resources. In this paper, we estimate the cost-effectiveness of combinations of candidate multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs), in South Africa among general population women and female sex workers (FSWs)...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Éverton L Vogt, Jorge F A Model, Anapaula S Vinagre
Organotins (OTs) are considered some of the most toxic chemicals introduced into aquatic environments by anthropogenic activities. They are widely used for agricultural and industrial purposes and as antifouling additives on boat hull's paints. Even though the use of OTs was banned in 2008, elevated levels of OTs can still be detected in aquatic environments. OTs' deleterious effects upon wildlife and experimental animals are well documented and include endocrine disruption, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, and metabolic dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Francesco Lotti, Mario Maggi
Infertility affects up to 12% of all men, and sexual dysfunction occurs frequently in men of reproductive age, causing infertility in some instances. In infertile men, hypoactive sexual desire and lack of sexual satisfaction are the most prevalent types of sexual dysfunction, ranging from 8.9% to 68.7%. Erectile dysfunction and/or premature ejaculation, evaluated with validated tools, have a prevalence of one in six infertile men, and orgasmic dysfunction has a prevalence of one in ten infertile men. In addition, infertile men can experience a heavy psychological burden...
March 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
Miranda Håkansson, Monica Oguttu, Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson, Marlene Makenzius
Introduction: Adolescent pregnancy represents a serious public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa, and stigmatising attitudes are contributing factors. This study investigates stigmatising attitudes related to adolescent pregnancy, abortion and contraceptive use among healthcare providers working with postabortion care (PAC) in a low-resource setting in Kenya. Methods: A mixed methods approach in a convergent design was utilised to capture attitudes related to abortion and contraceptive use among 86 (f=62; m=19) PAC providers in Kisumu, Kenya...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Sucheta Tiwari, Ron Gray, Crispin Jenkinson, Claire Carson
PURPOSE: Spousal violence against women is a global public health problem. In India, approximately 40% of women report spousal violence. Like physical and sexual violence, emotional violence may be a determinant of women's health. This study explores the association between exposure to spousal emotional abuse and poor reproductive outcomes in Indian women. METHODS: Data on 60,350 women, collected in the Third Indian National Family Health Survey were analysed to assess the impact of spousal emotional abuse on seven reproductive outcomes: age at first birth, number of children, terminated pregnancies, unwanted pregnancies, access to prenatal and skilled delivery care, and breastfeeding...
March 9, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Jonathan Bearak, Anna Popinchalk, Leontine Alkema, Gilda Sedgh
BACKGROUND: Estimates of pregnancy incidence by intention status and outcome indicate how effectively women and couples are able to fulfil their childbearing aspirations, and can be used to monitor the impact of family-planning programmes. We estimate global, regional, and subregional pregnancy rates by intention status and outcome for 1990-2014. METHODS: We developed a Bayesian hierarchical time series model whereby the unintended pregnancy rate is a function of the distribution of women across subgroups defined by marital status and contraceptive need and use, and of the risk of unintended pregnancy in each subgroup...
February 28, 2018: Lancet Global Health
Nafisa Halim, Ester Steven, Naomi Reich, Lilian Badi, Lisa Messersmith
In recent years, major global institutions have amplified their efforts to address intimate partner violence (IPV) against women-a global health and human rights violation affecting 15-71% of reproductive aged women over their lifetimes. Still, some scholars remain concerned about the validity of instruments used for IPV assessment in population-based studies. In this paper, we conducted two validation analyses using novel data from 450 women-men dyads across nine villages in Northern Tanzania. First, we examined the level of inter-partner agreement in reporting of men's physical, sexual, emotional and economic IPV against women in the last three and twelve months prior to the survey, ever in the relationship, and during pregnancy...
2018: PloS One
Craig J Heck, Stephanie A Grilo, Xiaoyu Song, Tom Lutalo, Neema Nakyanjo, John S Santelli
OBJECTIVE(S): Covert contraceptive use (CCU) is the use of family planning without a partner's knowledge. This study sought to examine CCU prevalence among women living in Rakai, Uganda, predictors of CCU, and why women resort to CCU. STUDY DESIGN: We used data from women (15-49years) currently using contraceptives (oral contraceptives, Depo Provera, implants, intrauterine devices, and periodic abstinence) during Round 15 (2011-2013) of the Rakai Community Cohort Survey (n=2206)...
March 4, 2018: Contraception
Diğdem Müge Siyez, Seçil Seymenler, Erol Esen, Ender Siyez, Yelda Kağnıcı, Bahar Baran, Barışcan Öztürk
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge levels of university students about infertility and investigate the differences in knowledge levels according to sociodemographic variables and some lifestyle factors. Material and methods: The sample of the study consisted of 9693 undergraduate students (5002 females, 4691 males) from 12 regions. Regions were determined according to Statistical Region Units Classification-1 criteria. Infertility Knowledge Test (IKT) was used as a data collection tool...
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
Anneli Uusküla, Mait Raag, Sigrid Vorobjov, Don Des Jarlais
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing contraceptive availability, unintended pregnancy remains a global problem. Developing strategies to reverse this trend and increasing occurrence of withdrawal syndrome among newborn children of females currently injecting drugs warrants special attention. The knowledge base on the uptake of effective contraception among females who inject drugs (FWID) is scant. We aimed to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with the use of non-condom contraceptives among sexually active FWID with the focus on effective contraception...
March 5, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Damiano Pizzol, Francesco Di Gennaro, Chiara Boscardin, Giovanni Putoto, Elena Cuppini, Graciana Pita, Alexandra George, Laura Monno, Annalisa Saracino, Liviana Da Dalt, Angela De Palma
The purpose of this article is to provide insights into the demand for pregnancy-related health services by adolescent girls and young women in Mozambique. We analysed the patient registers for the first year of operation (2014) of the Servicios Amigos dos Adolescentes (SAAJ) [Friendly Services for Adolescents] clinics in Beira, Mozambique. These registers provide details of the service demands of, and services provided to the 8 290 adolescent girls and young women who accessed the 6 SAAJ clinics in 2014. Analysis of that record, with disaggregation of the patients according to age (9 years or less; 10-14; 15-19; 20-24; 25 and older), show that 3 021 (36%) were pregnant or had previously been pregnant; most being girls in the 15-19 age band (59%)...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Diane Chen, Margaret Matson, Kathryn Macapagal, Emilie K Johnson, Ilina Rosoklija, Courtney Finlayson, Celia B Fisher, Brian Mustanski
PURPOSE: Little is known about the reproductive desires of transgender and gender-nonconforming (TGNC) adolescents who may seek gender-affirming medical care that leads to infertility. The current study addressed this gap by examining attitudes toward fertility and family formation in a diverse sample of TGNC youth. METHOD: An online survey about sexual/reproductive health in sexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents ages 14-17 years was conducted from September to October 2016...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
A R Sarker, N Sheikh, R A Mahumud, M Sultana
OBJECTIVES: To identify the factors associated with adolescent maternal healthcare utilization in Bangladesh. STUDY DESIGN: A secondary analysis was undertaken using the latest data set from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (2014). Data were collected from the cross-sectional survey carried out from June to mid November 2014. In total, 17,863 ever-married women aged 15-49 years were interviewed. According to the definition of the World Health Organization, 2029 of these women were adolescents and therefore eligible for inclusion in this study...
March 1, 2018: Public Health
Catarina Monteiro, Patrícia I Marques, Bruno Cavadas, Isabel Damião, Vasco Almeida, Nuno Barros, Alberto Barros, Filipa Carvalho, Sílvia Gomes, Susana Seixas
PROBLEM: Sexually transmitted diseases and other infections of male genitourinary tract are thought to negatively impact reproductive health, affecting semen quality. Despite a possible link between bacteria and infertility, few studies attempted to characterize seminal microbiota in healthy and diseased subjects. METHODS OF THE STUDY: A high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene was performed in a cohort of infertility-related cases (N = 89) and controls (N = 29) using a pooled sample approach...
March 3, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Jason M Nagata, Sejal Hathi, B Jane Ferguson, Michele J Hindin, Sachiyo Yoshida, David A Ross
Background: In order to clarify priorities and stimulate research in adolescent health in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the World Health Organization (WHO) conducted two priority-setting exercises based on the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology related to 1) adolescent sexual and reproductive health and 2) eight areas of adolescent health including communicable diseases prevention and management, injuries and violence, mental health, non-communicable diseases management, nutrition, physical activity, substance use, and health policy...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
Maya Unnithan, Silvia de Zordo
New modes of neoliberal and rights-based reproductive governance are emerging across the world which either paradoxically foreclose access to universal health services or promote legislative reform without providing a continuum of services on the ground. These shifts present new opportunities for the expansion but also the limitation of abortion provision conceptually and 'on-the-ground', both in the Global North and South. The collection of papers in this special issue examine current abortion governance discourse and practice in historical, socio-political contexts to analyse the threat posed to women's sexual and reproductive health and rights globally...
March 2, 2018: Global Public Health
Marcos Antonio Ferreira do Nascimento, Anna Paula Uziel, Jimena de Garay Hernández
This article presents results for young men's health based on an intervention-study on gender, sexuality, and health of adolescents and young men in conflict with the law, deprived of their freedom, and subject to socio-educational confinement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The themes addressed included questions on overall health, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health, analyzed from a relational gender perspective and social construction of masculinities. The majority of these young men are black, from low-income communities, with low schooling levels, and ranging in age from 14 to 21 years of age; some of them are fathers...
February 19, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Julia Maria Olsen, Tania Di Giacomo Lago, Suzana Kalckmann, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto Alves, Maria Mercedes Loureiro Escuder
The last decade has witnessed initiatives to expand access to contraceptives in Brazil. However, the last population-based study on contraception was undertaken in 2006. A household survey in 2015 investigated contraceptive practices in women 15 to 44 years of age living in the city of São Paulo. The current study selected data on young women 15 to 19 years of age. The objectives were to identify the prevalence of contraception, the contraceptives used, sources, and differences in contraceptive practices. The young women are part of a probabilistic study sample...
February 19, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Suzanna C Francis, T Nondumiso Mthiyane, Kathy Baisley, S Lerato Mchunu, Jane B Ferguson, Theresa Smit, Tania Crucitti, Dickman Gareta, Siphephelo Dlamini, Tinofa Mutevedzi, Janet Seeley, Deenan Pillay, Nuala McGrath, Maryam Shahmanesh
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) are associated with increased transmission of HIV, and poor reproductive and sexual health. The burden of STIs/BV among young people is unknown in many high HIV prevalence settings. We conducted an acceptability, feasibility, and prevalence study of home-based sampling for STIs/BV among young men and women aged 15-24 years old in a health and demographic surveillance site (HDSS) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
February 2018: PLoS Medicine
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