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Mireille Laforge, Ricardo Silvestre, Vasco Rodrigues, Julie Garibal, Laure Campillo-Gimenez, Shahul Mouhamad, Valérie Monceaux, Marie-Christine Cumont, Henintsoa Rabezanahary, Alain Pruvost, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Bruno Hurtrel, Guido Silvestri, Anna Senik, Jérôme Estaquier
Apoptosis has been proposed as a key mechanism responsible for CD4+ T cell depletion and immune dysfunction during HIV infection. We demonstrated that Q-VD-OPH, a caspase inhibitor, inhibits spontaneous and activation-induced death of T cells from SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RMs). When administered during the acute phase of infection, Q-VD-OPH was associated with (a) reduced levels of T cell death, (b) preservation of CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in lymphoid organs and in the gut, (c) maintenance of memory CD4+ T cells, and (d) increased specific CD4+ T cell response associated with the expression of cytotoxic molecules...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Gustavo Machado Rocha, Lígia Regina Franco Sansigolo Kerr, Carl Kendall, Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães
HIV/AIDS epidemic is not well controlled, and multiple sexual behavior factors help explain high rates of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). This article proposes to exam the use of a potential risk behavior score for HIV infection, based on the type and number of sexual partners, and condom use, and their associated factors in a sample of MSM in Brazil. A cross sectional RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling) study was performed among 3738 MSM aged 18+ years old from ten Brazilian cities. The risk behavior score was composed by the number of male partners and anal condom use in the last year with steady, casual, and commercial partners...
March 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Caitlin Milligan, Jennifer A Slyker, Julie Overbaugh
HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) represents a success story in the HIV/AIDS field given the significant reduction in number of transmission events with the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment and other prevention methods. Nevertheless, MTCT still occurs and better understanding of the basic biology and immunology of transmission will aid in future prevention and treatment efforts. MTCT is a unique setting given that the transmission pair is known and the infant receives passively transferred HIV-specific antibodies from the mother while in utero...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Luis M Castro, Wan-Lun Wang, Victor H Lachos, Vanda Inácio de Carvalho, Cristian L Bayes
In biomedical studies, the analysis of longitudinal data based on Gaussian assumptions is common practice. Nevertheless, more often than not, the observed responses are naturally skewed, rendering the use of symmetric mixed effects models inadequate. In addition, it is also common in clinical assays that the patient's responses are subject to some upper and/or lower quantification limit, depending on the diagnostic assays used for their detection. Furthermore, responses may also often present a nonlinear relation with some covariates, such as time...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Yibeltal Assefa, Peter S Hill, Owain D Williams
At September's 2017 United Nations General Assembly, a state-of-the-art HIV medicine was announced to be made available at just $75 per person per year. There have been a number of strategies that the global AIDS community and countries have utilized to reduce prices and make antiretrovirals (ARVs) accessible for people living with HIV/AIDS. There appears to be an opportunity for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) to benefit from the often painful and laboured history of driving down the prices of ARVs...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Olusegun Michael Otunuga
In this work, we derive and analyze a 2n+1-dimensional deterministic differential equation modeling the transmission and treatment of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) disease. The model is extended to a stochastic differential equation by introducing noise in the transmission rate of the disease. A theoretical treatment strategy of regular HIV testing and immediate treatment with Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) is investigated in the presence and absence of noise. By defining R0, n , Rt, n and Rt,n as the deterministic basic reproduction number in the absence of ART treatments, deterministic basic reproduction number in the presence of ART treatments and stochastic reproduction number in the presence of ART treatment, respectively, we discuss the stability of the infection-free and endemic equilibrium in the presence and absence of treatments by first deriving the closed form expression for R0, n , Rt, n and Rt,n ...
March 14, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Adan Rios
There is consensus that only a preventive vaccine can contain the HIV/AIDS pandemic. After 30 years still there is no preventive HIV vaccine. This article examines fundamental challenges to the development of a preventive HIV vaccine. They include the initially erroneous but powerful perception of the natural history of HIV disease, as an acute rather than a chronic illness even in the absence of therapy, the lack of appreciation of the quasispecies biology of HIV and the abandonment of principles of immunology theory caused by the allure of technological prowess...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Jenny H Ledikwe, Nora Joelle Kleinman, Maureen Mpho, Heather Mothibedi, Shreshth Mawandia, Bazghina-Werq Semo, Gabrielle O'Malley
OBJECTIVES: Healthcare workers (HWs) are prone to high levels of stress and burnout, particularly when caring for people with HIV/AIDS. This study assessed whether participation in Botswana's Workplace Wellness Programme (WWP) for HWs was associated with job satisfaction, occupational stress, well-being and burnout. METHODS: Using multistage sampling, a paper-based questionnaire was distributed to 1856 randomly selected HWs at 135 public facilities across Botswana...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Aurélien Gobert, Marianne Veyri, Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Armelle Lavolé, Caroline Solas, Romain Paliche, Christine Katlama, Dominique Costagliola, Jean-Philippe Spano
Since the era of combined antiretroviral therapy, life expectancy of people living with HIV has been improved and is associated with a change in causes of death. Cancer, both AIDS-defining or non-AIDS-defining cancers, has become the leading cause of death in people living with HIV associated with an increase in the incidence of some cancers compared to the general population. Epidemiology and the identification of risk factors is a crucial issue, particularly to determine the most appropriate prevention and screening strategies in this population...
March 13, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
Renae Furl, Shinobu Watanabe-Galloway, Elizabeth Lyden, Susan Swindells
BACKGROUND: The introduction of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has provided unprecedented opportunities for uninsured people with HIV infection to access health insurance, and to examine the impact of this change in access. AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs) have been directed to pursue uninsured individuals to enroll in the ACA as both a cost-saving strategy and to increase patient access to care. We evaluated the impact of ADAP-facilitated health insurance enrollment on health outcomes, and demographic and clinical factors that influenced whether or not eligible patients enrolled...
March 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Biemba Maliti, Patience Mbozi
Cancer care is increasingly complicated worldwide by its management with concurrent acute and chronic illness states. In low- and middle-income countries, including those in sub-Saharan Africa, this results in lower overall survival rates and a higher burden of cancer deaths. A case study is presented to highlight the challenges patients with cancer in Zambia-many of whom are also positive for HIV or AIDS-face in relationship to access to care and comanagement of disease states.
April 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Leonardo R C Mesquita, Maria L G da Fonseca, Rodrigo M da Silva, Eduardo H Morizot
PURPOSE: To report a case involving a patient with presumed panretinal ritonavir-induced retinopathy. METHODS: A 52-year-old, HIV-positive patient, with no criteria for AIDS associated with the use of ritonavir for more than 10 years, underwent clinical examination, fundus photography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence imaging. RESULTS: Fundus examination revealed areas of atrophy and hypertrophy in the retinal pigment epithelium throughout the retina...
March 15, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Stefanie Kroeze, Pascale Ondoa, Cissy M Kityo, Margaret Siwale, Sulaimon Akanmu, Maureen Wellington, Marleen de Jager, Prudence Ive, Kishor Mandaliya, Wendy Stevens, T Sonia Boender, Marieke E de Pundert, Kim C E Sigaloff, Peter Reiss, Ferdinand W Wit, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Raph L Hamers
OBJECTIVE: To assess incidence, determinants and clinical consequences of suboptimal immune recovery in HIV-1 infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa with sustained viral suppression on antiretroviral therapy (ART). DESIGN: Multi-country prospective cohort. METHODS: Suboptimal immune recovery was defined as proportions of participants who failed to attain clinically relevant CD4 cell count thresholds (>200, >350 and >500 cells/μL) despite sustained viral suppression on continuous first-line ART...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Felicia C Chow, Michael R Wilson, Kunling Wu, Ronald J Ellis, Ronald J Bosch, Benjamin P Linas
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of first-ever stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) and associated risk factors in a cohort of persons living with HIV infection (PLWH). DESIGN: Observational cohort study METHODS:: We determined incidence rates of first-ever stroke/TIA in PLWH after ART initiation from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group ALLRT cohort and its parent trials. Poisson regression models evaluated baseline and time-varying covariates as risk factors for stroke/TIA...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Alison G Abraham, Long Zhang, Keri Calkins, Adrienne Tin, Andrew Hoofnagle, Frank J Palella, Michelle M Estrella, Lisa P Jacobson, Mallory D Witt, Lawrence A Kingsley, Todd T Brown
OBJECTIVE: Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and durable viral suppression, many HIV-infected individuals still do not achieve CD4+ cell count (CD4) normalization. Vitamin D has immunoregulatory functions, including inducing the development of T cells, and higher levels may improve CD4 rebound. DESIGN: Longitudinal study of men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study who virally suppressed following HAART initiation and had pre- and post-HAART 25[OH]D and 1,25[OH]2D measurements and repeated measures of CD4...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Celia B Fisher, Adam L Fried, Kathryn Macapagal, Brian Mustanski
Adolescent males who have sex with males (AMSM) are at increased risk of contracting HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Healthcare providers are a critical source of HIV/STI prevention, yet little is known about AMSM patient-provider sexual health communications and services. To explore this issue, we surveyed a national sample of 198 AMSM 14-17 years. Four online psychometrically validated scales indicated over half the youth avoided communicating their sexual orientation and sexual health concerns to providers due to fear of heterosexist bias, concern their sexual health information would be disclosed to parents, and a general belief that sexual minority youth do not receive equitable treatment in health care settings...
March 15, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Narges Roustaei, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi Ayatollahi, Najaf Zare
In recent years, the joint models have been widely used for modeling the longitudinal and time-to-event data simultaneously. In this study, we proposed an approach (PA) to study the longitudinal and survival outcomes simultaneously in heterogeneous populations. PA relaxes the assumption of conditional independence (CI). We also compared PA with joint latent class model (JLCM) and separate approach (SA) for various sample sizes (150, 300, and 600) and different association parameters (0, 0.2, and 0.5). The average bias of parameters estimation (AB-PE), average SE of parameters estimation (ASE-PE), and coverage probability of the 95% confidence interval (CP) among the three approaches were compared...
2018: BioMed Research International
Noemia Teixeira de Siqueira-Filha, Maria de Fatima Militao de Albuquerque, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, Rosa Legood, Andreia Costa Santos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to measure the costs of people living with HIV (PLHIV) as well as active tuberculosis (TB/HIV), latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI/HIV) or without TB (HIV/AIDS). METHODS: We analysed the costs through the entire pathway of care during the prediagnosis and treatment periods from the Brazilian public health system perspective. We applied a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches to capture and estimate direct medical and non-medical costs...
March 15, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Antonio Jose Reyes, Kanterpersad Ramcharan, Samuel Aboh, Stanley Lawrence Giddings
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Raquel B De Boni, Meridith B Peratikos, Bryan E Shepherd, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Claudia Cortés, Denis Padgett, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Peter F Rebeiro, Stephany N Duda, Catherine C McGowan
BACKGROUND: The HIV care cascade has improved in Latin America over the last decade. However, the influence of alcohol and noninjected drug use (NIDU) on cascade outcomes is mostly unknown. This study estimated the association of alcohol and NIDU with retention in care, loss to follow up (LTFU), and virologic failure (VF). METHODS: Individuals ≥18 years attending routine HIV clinic visits and completing the Rapid Screening Tool (RST; evaluating NIDU and ART adherence in 7-day recall period) during 2012-13 were followed up to 2015 in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV epidemiology...
2018: PloS One
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