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Comprehensive sexuality education

Elizabeth Miller
The Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model seeks to address the root causes of gender violence using a bystander approach and leadership training to challenge structures of patriarchy. Emerging research on adolescent relationship abuse and sexual violence points to key modifiable targets-transforming gender norms, addressing homophobia, integrating with comprehensive sexuality education, and acknowledging the needs of youth already exposed to violence. A social justice-based bystander approach such as the MVP model should be part of a multi-level approach to sexual violence prevention that addresses gender and power, encourages healthy sexuality conversations, and provides safety and support for survivors...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Cynthia Khamala Wangamati, Johanne Sundby, Ruth Jane Prince
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a major global health concern. Although it is prevalent in Kenya, scant literature on factors contributing to CSA vulnerability exists. Using qualitative data from 28 focus groups and ethnographic field notes, we explored and assessed community perceptions of factors contributing to CSA vulnerability in Homa Bay County, Western Kenya. Findings suggest that people living in these communities perceived CSA as being influenced by multiple factors: developmental stage, peer pressure, huge gender disparities exacerbated by negative social norms and cultural practices, the HIV epidemic and social media platforms that circulate sexualised images...
March 13, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Carmen H Logie, Candice L Lys, Nicole Schott, Lisa Dias, Makenzie R Zouboules, Kayley Mackay
Scant research has addressed health and well-being among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) persons in the Arctic. The Northwest Territories (NWT) has among Canada's highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). LGBTQ persons in NWT are at the nexus of LGBTQ and Arctic health disparities. Yet little is known of their sexual health needs. This qualitative study explored the sexual health needs of LGBTQ persons in the NWT. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 51 participants, including 16 LGBTQ youth aged 15-24, 21 LGBTQ adults aged 25 and above, and 14 key informants who worked with LGBTQ persons...
March 13, 2018: Global Public Health
Smita C Banerjee, Chasity B Walters, Jessica M Staley, Koshy Alexander, Patricia A Parker
Delivery of culturally competent care toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients depends on how health-care providers (HCPs) communicate with them; however, research about knowledge, attitude, and behavior of HCPs toward LGBT patients is scant. The objectives of our study were to describe oncology HCPs' knowledge and examine if beliefs about LGB and transgender patients mediate the effects of LGBT health-care knowledge on open communication behaviors with LGB and transgender patients, respectively...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
Anneli Uusküla, Mait Raag, Sigrid Vorobjov, Don Des Jarlais
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing contraceptive availability, unintended pregnancy remains a global problem. Developing strategies to reverse this trend and increasing occurrence of withdrawal syndrome among newborn children of females currently injecting drugs warrants special attention. The knowledge base on the uptake of effective contraception among females who inject drugs (FWID) is scant. We aimed to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with the use of non-condom contraceptives among sexually active FWID with the focus on effective contraception...
March 5, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Rozina Ambachew Geremew, Beyene Moges Agizie, Abate Assefa Bashaw, Mengistu Endris Seid, Addisu Gize Yeshanew
Background: Sexually transmitted infection (STI) is a major global cause of acute illness, infertility, long-term disability and death, with serious medical and psychological consequences to millions of men, women and infants. Moreover, in Ethiopia, epidemiological studies on STI among STI clinic clients are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of sexually transmitted infection (STI). Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted between April and August 2014 among STI clinic clients in Gondar Town hospitals and health centers...
November 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Elizabeth Kemigisha, Viola N Nyakato, Katharine Bruce, Gad Ndaruhutse Ruzaaza, Wendo Mlahagwa, Anna B Ninsiima, Gily Coene, Els Leye, Kristien Michielsen
Measures of sexual wellbeing and positive aspects of sexuality in the World Health Organization definition for sexual health are rarely studied and remain poorly understood, especially among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to assess sexual wellbeing in its broad sense-i.e., body image, self-esteem, and gender equitable norms-and associated factors in young adolescents in Uganda. A cross-sectional survey of adolescents ages 10-14 years in schools was carried out between June and July 2016...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sarah Rhea, Arlene C Seña, Alison Hilton, Christopher B Hurt, David Wohl, Aaron Fleischauer
Guidance about integration of comprehensive hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related services in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics is limited. We evaluated a federally-funded HCV testing and linkage-to-care program at an STD clinic in Durham County, North Carolina. During December 10, 2012-March 31, 2015, the program tested 733 patients for HCV who reported ≥1 HCV risk factor; 81 (11%) were HCV-infected (i.e., HCV antibody-positive and HCV ribonucleic acid-positive). Fifty-one infected patients (63%) were linked to care...
October 19, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Anjali Varma, Mamta Sapra, Ali Iranmanesh
Objective The USA is in the midst of an opioid crisis. Understanding the impact of opioids and commonly used treatments for opioid dependence is essential for clinicians and researchers in order to educate and treat the nation's growing population with opioid use disorders. As a relatively new treatment for opioid dependence, buprenorphine is gaining popularity to the extent of becoming not only a preferred approach to the maintenance of opiate addiction, but also an option for chronic pain management. The purpose of this report is to review the available evidence on the endocrine effects of buprenorphine, particularly as it relates to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which is controversial and not fully defined...
February 17, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Alehegn Bishaw Geremew, Abebaw Addis Gelagay, Telake Azale
BACKGROUND: Screening services for cervical pre-cancerous lesions is currently available for all women aged 30-49 years at public hospitals in Ethiopia. Though women's knowledge and their attitude are determinants for the uptake the screening service, there is limited information on these regards. Therefore, this study aimed to assess comprehensive knowledge on cervical cancer, attitudes towards the screening, and associated factors among women aged 30-49 years at Finote Selam town, northwest Ethiopia...
February 14, 2018: Reproductive Health
Farzane Jamdar, Farah Farzaneh, Fariba Navidpour, Sarang Younesi, Payam Balvayeh, Maryamsadat Hosseini, Robabeh Ghodssi-Ghasemabadi
Background: Persistent infection with High Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR HPV) typesplaysamajor role in the development of cervical cancer. Therefore, the detection of HR HPV types is an essential part of cervical cancer screening. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HR HPV infection among healthy women undergoing routine cervical cancer screening in Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study,the results of HPV DNA typing in 2453 normal Iranian womenwhowere referred for routine cervical cancer screening from September 2015 to March 2017 were analyzed...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Michael Brown, Edward McCann
BACKGROUND: There is a growing and evolving research evidence base regarding sexuality issues and adults with intellectual disabilities. Individuals can face challenges, including the right to express their sexuality and to access necessary education and supports. AIMS: This systematic review explores sexuality experiences, the views and opinions of adults with intellectual disabilities and highlights areas for future practice developments. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A comprehensive search of relevant databases from January 2006 to December 2016 was carried out...
January 29, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Niall Johnston, Nichola Sandys, Rosemary Geoghegan, Diarmuid O'Donovan, Gerard Flaherty
Background: Increasingly, medical students from developed countries are undertaking international medical electives in developing countries. Medical students understand the many benefits of these electives, such as the opportunity to develop clinical skills, to gain insight into global health issues and to travel to interesting regions of the world. However, they may be much less aware of the risk to their health and wellbeing while abroad. Compounding this problem, medical students may not seek advice from travel medicine practitioners and often receive inadequate or no information from their medical school prior to departure...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Ibrahim Yakubu, Waliu Jawula Salisu
BACKGROUND: Adolescent pregnancy has been persistently high in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this review is to identify factors influencing adolescent pregnancies in sub-Saharan Africa in order to design appropriate intervention program. METHODS: A search in MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of science, and Google Scholar databases with the following keywords: determinants, factors, reasons, sociocultural factors, adolescent pregnancy, unintended pregnancies, and sub- Saharan Africa...
January 27, 2018: Reproductive Health
Kerstin M Kalke, Tamar Ginossar, Sayyed Fawad Ali Shah, Andrew J West
Mobile applications ("apps") designed for sexual health education have the potential to reach teens and young adults that are hard to reach through traditional platforms; however, little is known about availability of these apps and their adherence to existing guidelines. Following a search on the two major app stores, data from 2,693 apps were analyzed. Only 697 (25%) addressed sexual health, and only 15 (1%) of apps met inclusion criteria for comprehensive programs and their content was further analyzed. The content of most of these apps narrowly focused on sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy prevention and lacked information on puberty, sexual identity, and personal safety...
December 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Suzanne Petroni, Mara Steinhaus, Natacha Stevanovic Fenn, Kirsten Stoebenau, Amy Gregowski
Despite increasing global attention and commitments by countries to end the harmful practice of child marriage, each year some 15 million girls marry before the age of 18. The preponderance of the evidence produced historically on child marriage comes from South Asia, where the vast majority of child brides live. Far less attention has been paid to child marriage in sub-Saharan Africa, where prevalence rates remain high. The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) recently conducted research in Kenya, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia to contribute to greater understanding of the drivers of child marriage in each of these contexts...
September 2017: Annals of Global Health
Guzhalinuer Abulizi, Hua Li, Patiman Mijiti, Tangnuer Abulimiti, Jing Cai, Jie Gao, Dandan Meng, Reyihanguli Abula, Tunishahan Abudereyimu, Anarguli Aizezi, You Lin Qiao
We investigated the incidence of HPV and risk factors for infection among rural Uyghur women in the Xinjiang province of northwestern China, where there is a high incidence of cervical cancer. We used the careHPV kit to test 6000 sexually active Uyghur women aged 21 to 60 years for HPV, and conducted a comprehensive questionnaire survey to identify relevant HPV infection factors. Our data show the HPV infection rate to be 8.42%, which is lower than 11.7% reported worldwide, despite the higher cervical cancer incidence...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
Elizabeth Dickson, Marie L Lobo
Public health nurses (PHNs) often work with adolescent populations at risk for unplanned pregnancies who do not have access to comprehensive sexual health education (CSHE). Evidence-based CSHE can have a significant protective effect on adolescent sexual behaviors. This article applies critical caring theory to public health nursing advocacy for CSHE. Critical caring theory defines the social justice work of PHNs as an expression of their caring as nurses. The lack of CSHE in schools for adolescents is a social justice issue, and PHNs can be important advocates...
January 2018: Public Health Nursing
Sheryl A Kingsberg, Stanley Althof, James A Simon, Andrea Bradford, Johannes Bitzer, Joana Carvalho, Kathryn E Flynn, Rossella E Nappi, Jennifer B Reese, Roya L Rezaee, Leslie Schover, Jan L Shifrin
INTRODUCTION: Since the millennium we have witnessed significant strides in the science and treatment of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). This forward progress has included (i) the development of new theoretical models to describe healthy and dysfunctional sexual responses in women; (ii) alternative classification strategies of female sexual disorders; (iii) major advances in brain, hormonal, psychological, and interpersonal research focusing on etiologic factors and treatment approaches; (iv) strong and effective public advocacy for FSD; and (v) greater educational awareness of the impact of FSD on the woman and her partner...
December 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Rebekah Saul Butler, Danene Sorace, Kathleen Hentz Beach
PURPOSE: This paper describes the Working to Institutionalize Sex Education (WISE) Initiative, a privately funded effort to support ready public school districts to advance and sustain comprehensive sexuality programs, and examines the degree to which WISE has been successful in increasing access to sex education, removing barriers, and highlighting best practices. METHODS: The data for this study come from a set of performance indicators, guidance documents, and tools designed for the WISE Initiative to capture changes in sex education institutionalization at WISE school districts...
February 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
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