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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816966/causes-of-hematochezia-and-hemorrhagic-antibiotic-associated-colitis-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
Laura Stampfer, Andrea Deutschmann, Elisabeth Dür, Franz G Eitelberger, Theresia Fürpass, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Peter Heinz-Erian, Ingrid Heller, Kathrin Herzog, Barbara Hopfer, Reinhold Kerbl, Evelyn Klug, Robert Krause, Eva Leitner, Christoph Mache, Thomas Müller, Jasmin Pansy, Mirjam Pocivalnik, Eva Scheuba, Georg Schneditz, Gerolf Schweintzger, Edith Sterniczky, Ellen Zechner, Almuthe C Hauer, Christoph Högenauer, Karl Martin Hoffmann
Diseases causing hematochezia range from benign to potentially life-threatening. Systematic pediatric data on the causes of hematochezia are scarce. We studied the underlying causes and long-term outcome of hematochezia in children. We further investigated the relevance of antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis in children, especially if caused by Klebsiella oxytoca.Infants, children, and adolescents with hematochezia were recruited prospectively. Patients were grouped according to age (<1 year, 1-5 years, 6-13 years, >14 years)...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814976/analysis-of-proteomes-released-from-in-vitro-cultured-eight-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotypes-revealed-specific-expression-in-pcr-ribotypes-027-and-176-confirming-their-genetic-relatedness-and-clinical-importance-at-the-proteomic-level
#2
Jiri Dresler, Marcela Krutova, Alena Fucikova, Jana Klimentova, Veronika Hruzova, Miloslava Duracova, Katerina Houdkova, Barbora Salovska, Jana Matejkova, Martin Hubalek, Petr Pajer, Libor Pisa, Otakar Nyc
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the causative agent of C. difficile infection (CDI) that could be manifested by diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis or life-threatening toxic megacolon. The spread of certain strains represents a significant economic burden for health-care. The epidemic successful strains are also associated with severe clinical features of CDI. Therefore, a proteomic study has been conducted that comprises proteomes released from in vitro cultured panel of eight different PCR ribotypes (RTs) and employs the combination of shotgun proteomics and label-free quantification (LFQ) approach...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814204/faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-em-clostridium-difficile-em-associated-diarrhoea-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#3
Paul Moayyedi, Yuhong Yuan, Harith Baharith, Alexander C Ford
OBJECTIVES: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a useful approach for treating Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have recently evaluated its effectiveness, but systematic reviews have focused on evidence from case series. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of FMT for treating CDAD. STUDY DESIGN: We included RCTs that primarily recruited adults with CDAD and compared the effectiveness of FMT with that of placebo, antibiotic therapy, or autologous stool transplantation, or compared different preparations or modes of delivery of FMT...
August 21, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813492/point-prevalence-survey-of-healthcare-facility-onset-healthcare-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-greek-hospitals-outside-the-intensive-care-unit-the-c-define-study
#4
Athanasios Skoutelis, Angelos Pefanis, Sotirios Tsiodras, Nikolaos V Sipsas, Moyssis Lelekis, Marios C Lazanas, Panagiotis Gargalianos, George N Dalekos, Emmanuel Roilides, George Samonis, Efstratios Maltezos, Dimitrios Hatzigeorgiou, Malvina Lada, Symeon Metallidis, Athena Stoupis, Georgios Chrysos, Lazaros Karnesis, Styliani Symbardi, Chariclia V Loupa, Helen Giamarellou, Ioannis Kioumis, Helen Sambatakou, Epameinondas Tsianos, Maria Kotsopoulou, Areti Georgopali, Klairi Liakou, Stavroula Perlorentzou, Stamatina Levidiotou, Marina Giotsa-Toutouza, Helen Tsorlini-Christoforidou, Ilias Karaiskos, Georgia Kouppari, Eleftheria Trikka-Graphakos, Maria-Anna Ntrivala, Kate Themeli-Digalaki, Anastasia Pangalis, Melina Kachrimanidou, Maria Martsoukou, Stergios Karapsias, Maria Panopoulou, Sofia Maraki, Anagnostina Orfanou, Efthymia Petinaki, Maria Orfanidou, Vasiliki Baka, Antonios Stylianakis, Iris Spiliopoulou, Stavroula Smilakou, Loukia Zerva, Evangelos Vogiatzakis, Eleni Belesiotou, Charalambos A Gogos
BACKGROUND: The correlation of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with in-hospital morbidity is important in hospital settings where broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents are routinely used, such as in Greece. The C. DEFINE study aimed to assess point-prevalence of CDI in Greece during two study periods in 2013. METHODS: There were two study periods consisting of a single day in March and another in October 2013. Stool samples from all patients hospitalized outside the ICU aged ≥18 years old with diarrhea on each day in 21 and 25 hospitals, respectively, were tested for CDI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813461/epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-in-infants-in-oxfordshire-uk-risk-factors-for-colonization-and-carriage-and-genetic-overlap-with-regional-c-difficile-infection-strains
#5
Nicole Stoesser, David W Eyre, T Phuong Quan, Heather Godwin, Gemma Pill, Emily Mbuvi, Alison Vaughan, David Griffiths, Jessica Martin, Warren Fawley, Kate E Dingle, Sarah Oakley, Kazimierz Wanelik, John M Finney, Melina Kachrimanidou, Catrin E Moore, Sherwood Gorbach, Thomas V Riley, Derrick W Crook, Tim E A Peto, Mark H Wilcox, A Sarah Walker
BACKGROUND: Approximately 30-40% of children <1 year of age are Clostridium difficile colonized, and may represent a reservoir for adult C. difficile infections (CDI). Risk factors for colonization with toxigenic versus non-toxigenic C. difficile strains and longitudinal acquisition dynamics in infants remain incompletely characterized. METHODS: Predominantly healthy infants (≤2 years) were recruited in Oxfordshire, UK, and provided ≥1 fecal samples. Independent risk factors for toxigenic/non-toxigenic C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811642/octahedron-iron-oxide-nanocrystals-prohibited-clostridium-difficile-spore-germination-and-attenuated-local-and-systemic-inflammation
#6
Wei-Ting Lee, Ya-Na Wu, Yi-Hsuan Chen, Shang-Rung Wu, Tsai-Miao Shih, Tsung-Ju Li, Li-Xing Yang, Chen-Sheng Yeh, Pei-Jane Tsai, Dar-Bin Shieh
Clinical management of Clostridium difficile infection is still far from satisfactory as bacterial spores are resistant to many chemical agents and physical treatments. Certain types of nanoparticles have been demonstrated to exhibit anti-microbial efficacy even in multi-drug resistance bacteria. However, most of these studies failed to show biocompatibility to the mammalian host cells and no study has revealed in vivo efficacy in C. difficile infection animal models. The spores treated with 500 µg/mL Fe3-δO4 nanoparticles for 20 minutes, 64% of the spores were inhibited from transforming into vegetative cells, which was close to the results of the sodium hypochlorite-treated positive control...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811244/comparison-of-the-clinical-course-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-gdh-positive-toxin-negative-patients-diagnosed-by-pcr-to-those-with-a-positive-toxin-test
#7
Julia Origüen, Laura Corbella, María Ángeles Orellana, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Francisco López-Medrano, Rafael San Juan, Manuel Lizasoain, Tamara Ruiz-Merlo, Alejandra Morales-Cartagena, Guillermo Maestro, Patricia Parra, Jennifer Villa, Rafael Delgado, José María Aguado
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the potential role of PCR-based assays in the overdiagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) by using a validated diagnostic algorithm in daily clinical practice. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study evaluating all C. difficile-positive stool samples identified at our institution during a 12-month period, to compare outcomes and recurrence rate between patients with a positive enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) for both glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin A/B ("toxin-positive group"), with those with GDH-positive, toxin-negative samples in which the diagnosis was made by a positive PCR-based assay ("toxin-/PCR+ group")...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808837/a-multiparticulate-delivery-system-for-potential-colonic-targeting-using-bovine-serum-albumin-as-a-model-protein
#8
Bowen Jiang, Hua Yu, Yongrong Zhang, Hanping Feng, Stephen W Hoag
PURPOSE: There are many important diseases whose treatment could be improved by delivering a therapeutic protein to the colon, for example, Clostridium difficile infection, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's Disease. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of colonic delivery of proteins using multiparticulate beads. METHODS: In this work, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was adopted as a model protein. BSA was spray layered onto beads, followed by coating of an enteric polymer EUDRAGIT® FS 30 D to develop a colonic delivery system...
August 14, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807622/community-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-emergency-department-patients-in-western-australia
#9
Deirdre A Collins, Linda A Selvey, Antonio Celenza, Thomas V Riley
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is primarily associated with hospitalised patients, however, community-associated CDI (CA-CDI) has increased in Australia. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology and outcomes of CA-CDI cases presenting to hospital emergency departments in Western Australia (WA). A retrospective case-control study of CA-CDI cases presenting at six emergency departments in WA from July 2013 to June 2014 was performed. Clinical signs, recent medication, hospitalisations and potential risk factors for CA-CDI were investigated for cases (n = 34) and unmatched controls (n = 62) who were infected with another gastrointestinal pathogen, including Campylobacter spp...
August 11, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806147/phase-variation-of-clostridium-difficile-virulence-factors
#10
Brandon R Anjuwon-Foster, Rita Tamayo
Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of nosocomial infections, causing disease that ranges from mild diarrhea to potentially fatal colitis. A variety of surface proteins, including flagella, enable C. difficile colonization of the intestine. Once in the intestine, toxigenic C. difficile secretes two glucosylating toxins, TcdA and TcdB, which elicit inflammation and diarrheal disease symptoms. Regulation of colonization factors and TcdA and TcdB is an intense area of research in C. difficile biology. A recent publication from our group describes a novel regulatory mechanism that mediates the ON/OFF expression of co-regulated virulence factors of C...
August 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805171/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-colonization-of-clostridium-difficile-among-adults-living-near-livestock-farms-in-the-netherlands
#11
T P Zomer, E VAN Duijkeren, C C H Wielders, C Veenman, P Hengeveld, W VAN DER Hoek, S C DE Greeff, L A M Smit, D J Heederik, C J Yzermans, E J Kuijper, C B M Maassen
A cross-sectional study was performed among 2494 adults not living or working on a farm to assess prevalence of Clostridium difficile (CD) colonization and risk factors in a livestock dense area. CD prevalence was 1·2%. Twenty-one persons were colonized with a toxigenic strain and nine with a non-toxigenic strain. CD-positive persons did not live closer to livestock farms than individuals negative for CD. Antibiotic exposure in the preceding 3 months was a risk factor for CD colonization (odds ratio 3·70; 95% confidence interval 1·25-10·95)...
August 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805081/bezlotoxumab-for-the-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-recurrence
#12
Antoine Couture-Cossette, Alex Carignan, Subburaj Ilangumaran, Louis Valiquette
Clostridium difficile infection is a major economic and clinical burden, due to its high frequency of recurrence. Currently recommended treatments are not efficient for prevention and may contribute to the risk of recurrent infection. In recent years, research has focused on strategies to lessen this risk. Bezlotoxumab is a monoclonal antibody that prevents recurrences of C. difficile infection through the antagonism of toxin B. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the burden of C. difficile infection and its recurrences, the mechanisms underlying the recurrences, and current C...
August 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801865/faecal-lactoferrin-and-calprotectin-in-patients-with-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-case-control-study
#13
F Barbut, C Gouot, N Lapidus, L Suzon, R Syed-Zaidi, V Lalande, C Eckert
Calprotectin and lactoferrin are released by the gastrointestinal tract in response to infection and mucosal inflammation. Our objective was to assess the usefulness of quantifying faecal lactoferrin and calprotectin concentrations in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) patients with or without free toxins in the stools. We conducted a single-centre 22-month case-control study. Patients with a positive CDI diagnosis were compared to two control groups: group 1 = diarrhoeic patients negative for C. difficile and matched (1:1) to CDI cases on the ward location and age, and group 2 = diarrhoeic patients colonised with a non-toxigenic strain of C...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801119/stability-and-efficacy-of-frozen-and-lyophilized-fecal-microbiota-transplant-fmt-product-in-a-mouse-model-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-cdi
#14
Zhi-Dong Jiang, Ashley Alexander, Shi Ke, Evangelia M Valilis, Shaofan Hu, Bingjie Li, Herbert L DuPont
Freezing donor fecal microbiota has simplified fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). However, the optimal storage time for the frozen FMT products remains unknown. Using an established murine model of CDI, stability and efficacy of frozen and lyophilized FMT product was studied at time points from 2 months to 15 months. DNA was extracted from fecal samples from the mice with identification of specific bacterial species by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
August 9, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800598/an-in-silico-evaluation-of-treatment-regimens-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#15
Natalia Blanco, Betsy Foxman, Anurag N Malani, Min Zhang, Seth Walk, Alexander H Rickard, Marisa C Eisenberg
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant nosocomial infection worldwide, that recurs in as many as 35% of infections. Risk of CDI recurrence varies by ribotype, which also vary in sporulation and germination rates. Whether sporulation/germination mediate risk of recurrence and effectiveness of treatment of recurring CDI remains unclear. We aim to assess the role of sporulation/germination patterns on risk of recurrence, and the relative effectiveness of the recommended tapered/pulsing regimens using an in silico model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797590/antibiotic-stewardship-programs-in-nursing-homes-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Diana Feldstein, Philip D Sloane, Cynthia Feltner
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) are coordinated interventions promoting the appropriate use of antibiotics to improve patient outcomes and reduce microbial resistance. These programs are now mandated in nursing homes (NHs) but it is unclear if these programs improve resident outcomes. This systematic review evaluated the current evidence regarding outcomes of ASPs in the NH. METHODS: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for intervention trials of ASPs performed in NHs that evaluated final health outcomes (mortality and Clostridium difficile infections), healthcare utilization outcomes (emergency department visits and hospital admissions) and intermediate health outcomes (number of antibiotics prescribed, adherence to recommended guidelines)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796388/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-low-and-middle-human-development-index-countries-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Joseph D Forrester, Lawrence Z Cai, Chenesa Mbanje, Tanya N Rinderknecht, Sherry M Wren
OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact and epidemiology of Clostridium difficile (C.difficile) infection (CDI) in low- and middle-human development index (LMHDI) countries. METHOD: Prospectively registered, systematic literature review of existing literature in the PubMed, Ovid, and Web of Science databases describing the epidemiology and management of C.difficile in LMHDI countries. Risk factors were compared between studies when available. RESULTS: Of the 218 abstracts identified after applying search criteria, 25 studies were reviewed in detail...
August 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795086/data-from-a-survey-of-clostridium-perfringens-and-clostridium-difficile-shedding-by-dogs-and-cats-in-the-madrid-region-spain-including-phenotypic-and-genetic-characteristics-of-recovered-isolates
#18
Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, José L Blanco, Celine Harmanus, Ed J Kuijper, Marta E García
This article contains information related to a recent survey of the prevalence of fecal shedding of Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile by dogs and cats attended in veterinary clinics located in the Madrid region (Spain). Specifically, we provide detailed information about the clinics that participated in the survey, the demographic and clinic characteristics of recruited animals and the genetic and phenotypic characteristics (including antimicrobial susceptibility data), of recovered bacterial isolates...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794958/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-var-boulardii-fungemia-following-probiotic-treatment
#19
Marcelo C Appel-da-Silva, Gabriel A Narvaez, Leandro R R Perez, Laura Drehmer, Jairo Lewgoy
Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administration without the need to replace the central venous line...
December 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794800/genome-characterization-of-a-novel-binary-toxin-positive-strain-of-clostridium-difficile-and-comparison-with-the-epidemic-027-and-078-strains
#20
Zhong Peng, Sidi Liu, Xiujuan Meng, Wan Liang, Zhuofei Xu, Biao Tang, Yuanguo Wang, Juping Duan, Chenchao Fu, Bin Wu, Anhua Wu, Chunhui Li
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic Gram-positive spore-forming gut pathogen that causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. A small number of C. difficile strains express the binary toxin (CDT), which is generally found in C. difficile 027 (ST1) and/or 078 (ST11) in clinic. However, we isolated a binary toxin-positive non-027, non-078 C. difficile LC693 that is associated with severe diarrhea in China. The genotype of this strain was determined as ST201. To understand the pathogenesis-basis of C...
2017: Gut Pathogens
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