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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108388/c-difficile-pcr-ribotype-023-might-go-undetected-when-using-chromid-c-difficile-agar
#1
E Reigadas, L Alcalá, M Marín, A Martín, E Bouza
We compared the performance of the new chromogenic medium ChromID C. difficile with that of CLO agar. ChromID C. difficile agar is a sensitive medium that can accelerate the presumptive identification of C. difficile, however ribotype 023 might go undetected when using this chromogenic medium.
January 17, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105882/quality-improvement-in-hospitals-barriers-and-facilitators
#2
Dick E Zoutman, B Douglas Ford
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine quality improvement (QI) initiatives in acute care hospitals, the factors associated with success, and the impacts on patient care and safety. Design/methodology/approach An extensive online survey was completed by senior managers responsible for QI. The survey assessed QI project types, QI methods, staff engagement, and barriers and factors in the success of QI initiatives. Findings The response rate was 37 percent, 46 surveys were completed from 125 acute care hospitals...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104319/the-mexican-consensus-on-probiotics-in-gastroenterology
#3
M A Valdovinos, E Montijo, A T Abreu, S Heller, A González-Garay, D Bacarreza, M Bielsa-Fernández, M C Bojórquez-Ramos, F Bosques-Padilla, A I Burguete-García, R Carmona-Sánchez, A Consuelo-Sánchez, E Coss-Adame, J A Chávez-Barrera, M de Ariño, J Flores-Calderón, O Gómez-Escudero, M S González-Huezo, M E Icaza-Chávez, A Larrosa-Haro, M Morales-Arámbula, C Murata, J A Ramírez-Mayans, J M Remes-Troche, T Rizo-Robles, M Peláez-Luna, E M Toro-Monjaraz, A Torre, M E Urquidi-Rivera, R Vázquez, J K Yamamoto-Furusho, F Guarner
INTRODUCTION: Probiotics are frequently prescribed in clinical practice. Their efficacy in treating gastrointestinal disorders is supported by a significant number of clinical trials. However, the correct prescription of these agents is hampered due to a lack of knowledge of the scientific evidence and to the different presentations and microbial compositions of the probiotics that are currently available. AIM: To provide the clinician with a consensus review of probiotics and recommendations for their use in gastroenterology...
January 16, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104287/enhanced-terminal-room-disinfection-and-acquisition-and-infection-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-organisms-and-clostridium-difficile-the-benefits-of-enhanced-terminal-room-disinfection-study-a-cluster-randomised-multicentre-crossover-study
#4
Deverick J Anderson, Luke F Chen, David J Weber, Rebekah W Moehring, Sarah S Lewis, Patricia F Triplett, Michael Blocker, Paul Becherer, J Conrad Schwab, Lauren P Knelson, Yuliya Lokhnygina, William A Rutala, Hajime Kanamori, Maria F Gergen, Daniel J Sexton
BACKGROUND: Patients admitted to hospital can acquire multidrug-resistant organisms and Clostridium difficile from inadequately disinfected environmental surfaces. We determined the effect of three enhanced strategies for terminal room disinfection (disinfection of a room between occupying patients) on acquisition and infection due to meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, C difficile, and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter. METHODS: We did a pragmatic, cluster-randomised, crossover trial at nine hospitals in the southeastern USA...
January 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096487/a-clostridium-difficile-specific-gel-forming-protein-required-for-optimal-spore-germination
#5
M Lauren Donnelly, William Li, Yong-Qing Li, Lauren Hinkel, Peter Setlow, Aimee Shen
: Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-forming obligate anaerobe that is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. In order for C. difficile to initiate infection, its aerotolerant spore form must germinate in the gut of mammalian hosts. While almost all spore-forming organisms use transmembrane germinant receptors to trigger germination, C. difficile uses the pseudoprotease CspC to sense bile salt germinants. CspC activates the related subtilisin-like protease CspB, which then proteolytically activates the cortex hydrolase SleC...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096320/streptococcus-gordonii-a-rare-cause-of-prosthetic-joint-infection-in-a-total-hip-replacement
#6
Christopher Fenelon, John G Galbraith, David M Dalton, Eric Masterson
A 69-year-old female with a history of bilateral total hip replacements presented with rigors, fever and sudden onset left groin pain. A pelvic X-ray showed well-fixed implants. Blood results revealed a leucocytosis (white cell count 22.3 × 10(9) l(-1)) and elevated C-reactive protein (211 mg/l). Ultrasound-guided aspiration of her left hip grew Streptococcus gordonii No source infection could be identified apart from a new chronic sinus infection in a left upper incisor. Following a discussion with the patient a 6-week course of intravenous ceftriaxone was started and was successful in normalizing her inflammatory markers...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093134/management-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-expert-review-from-the-clinical-practice-updates-committee-of-the-aga-institute
#7
REVIEW
Sahil Khanna, Andrea Shin, Ciarán P Kelly
The purpose of this expert review is to synthesize the existing evidence on the management of Clostridium difficile infection in patients with underlying inflammatory bowel disease. The evidence reviewed in this article is a summation of relevant scientific publications, expert opinion statements, and current practice guidelines. This review is a summary of expert opinion in the field without a formal systematic review of evidence. Best Practice Advice 1: Clinicians should test patients who present with a flare of underlying inflammatory bowel disease for Clostridium difficile infection...
February 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091625/mplex-a-method-for-simultaneous-pathogen-inactivation-and-extraction-of-samples-for-multi-omics-profiling
#8
Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Jennifer E Kyle, Amie J Eisfeld, Cameron P Casey, Kelly G Stratton, Juan F Gonzalez, Fabien Habyarimana, Nicholas M Negretti, Amy C Sims, Sadhana Chauhan, Larissa B Thackray, Peter J Halfmann, Kevin B Walters, Young-Mo Kim, Erika M Zink, Carrie D Nicora, Karl K Weitz, Bobbie-Jo M Webb-Robertson, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Brian Ahmer, Michael E Konkel, Vladimir Motin, Ralph S Baric, Michael S Diamond, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Katrina M Waters, Richard D Smith, Thomas O Metz
The continued emergence and spread of infectious agents is of great concern, and systems biology approaches to infectious disease research can advance our understanding of host-pathogen relationships and facilitate the development of new therapies and vaccines. Molecular characterization of infectious samples outside of appropriate biosafety containment can take place only subsequent to pathogen inactivation. Herein, we describe a modified Folch extraction using chloroform/methanol that facilitates the molecular characterization of infectious samples by enabling simultaneous pathogen inactivation and extraction of proteins, metabolites, and lipids for subsequent mass spectrometry-based multi-omics measurements...
January 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090157/pharmaceutical-approval-update
#9
Mary Choy
Olaratumab (Lartruvo) for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma; bezlotoxumab (Zinplava) for use with an antibiotic to reduce recurrence of C. difficile infection; and doxylamine succinate/pyridoxine hydrochloride (Bonjesta) for the treatment of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.
January 2017: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089675/burden-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-associated-hospitalization-in-a-cohort-of-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#10
Yingxi Chen, Kathryn Glass, Bette Liu, Rosemary J Korda, Thomas V Riley, Martyn D Kirk
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the principal cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to describe and compare length of stay (LOS), costs, and in-hospital deaths for C difficile infection (CDI) and non-CDI hospitalizations, in a cohort of middle-aged and older Australians. METHODS: We used survey data from the 45 and Up Study, linked to hospitalization and death data. We calculated the average LOS and costs per hospitalization, and the proportion of in-hospital deaths for CDI and non-CDI hospitalizations...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089100/community-onset-clostridium-difficile-infection-at-a-tertiary-medical-center-in-southern-taiwan-2007-2015
#11
Chin-Shiang Tsai, Yuan-Pin Hung, Jen-Chieh Lee, Nan-Yao Lee, Po-Lin Chen, Ling-Shan Syue, Ming-Chi Li, Chia-Wen Li, Wen-Chien Ko
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is well-known as the major cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Community-onset CDI (CO-CDI) is an emerging threat. However, clinical information of CO-CDI in Taiwan remains scarce. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at a medical center in southern Taiwan. Symptomatic patients between 2007 and 2015 with C. difficile toxin or tcdB detected in stool were identified as CDI, and were classified as CO-CDI [including community-associated CDI (CA-CDI) and community-onset health care facility-associated CDI (CO-HCFA-CDI)] and health care facility-onset CDI (HCFO-CDI)...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087657/european-consensus-conference-on-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-clinical-practice
#12
Giovanni Cammarota, Gianluca Ianiro, Herbert Tilg, Mirjana Rajilić-Stojanović, Patrizia Kump, Reetta Satokari, Harry Sokol, Perttu Arkkila, Cristina Pintus, Ailsa Hart, Jonathan Segal, Marina Aloi, Luca Masucci, Antonio Molinaro, Franco Scaldaferri, Giovanni Gasbarrini, Antonio Lopez-Sanroman, Alexander Link, Pieter de Groot, Willem M de Vos, Christoph Högenauer, Peter Malfertheiner, Eero Mattila, Tomica Milosavljević, Max Nieuwdorp, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Magnus Simren, Antonio Gasbarrini
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an important therapeutic option for Clostridium difficile infection. Promising findings suggest that FMT may play a role also in the management of other disorders associated with the alteration of gut microbiota. Although the health community is assessing FMT with renewed interest and patients are becoming more aware, there are technical and logistical issues in establishing such a non-standardised treatment into the clinical practice with safety and proper governance...
January 13, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087170/clostridium-difficile-rates-in-asymptomatic-and-symptomatic-hospitalized-patients-using-nucleic-acid-testing
#13
Cynthia Truong, Lee F Schroeder, Rajiv Gaur, Victoria Emma Anikst, Ikuko Komo, Colleen Watters, Erin McCalley, Carole Kulik, David Pickham, Nancy J Lee, Niaz Banaei
BACKGROUND: The Clostridium difficile rate in symptomatic patients represents both those with C. difficile infection (CDI) and those with colonization. To predict the extent of CDI overdiagnosis, we compared the asymptomatic colonization rate to the symptomatic positivity rate in hospitalized patients using nucleic acid testing. METHODS: Between July 2014 and April 2015, formed stool samples were collected from asymptomatic patients after admission to 3 hospital wards at the Stanford Hospital...
January 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078087/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis-an-uncommon-but-life-threatening-complication
#14
Francesco Piccolo, Anna Sze Tai, Hooi Ee, Siobhain Mulrennan, Scott Bell, Gerard Ryan
Adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) have significant rates of asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriage and are frequently exposed to risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI). Despite this, the rate of reported CDI in CF is low. We describe three cases of near fatal CDI in adults with CF and review the literature regarding presentation, management, and recurrence prevention. Early recognition is important as the clinical presentation may be atypical and the illness can be severe and even life-threatening...
January 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077697/point-counterpoint-what-is-the-optimal-approach-for-detection-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#15
Ferric C Fang, Christopher R Polage, Mark H Wilcox
In 2010, we published an initial point-counterpoint on laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI). At that time, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) were just becoming commercially available, and the idea of algorithmic approaches to CDI was being explored. Now there are numerous NAATs in the marketplace and based on recent proficiency test surveys, they have become the predominant method used for CDI diagnosis in the United States. At the same time, there is a body of literature that suggests that NAATs lack clinical specificity and thus inflate CDI rates...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077694/laboratory-testing-of-donors-and-stool-for-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-c-difficile-infection
#16
Michael H Woodworth, Emma M Neish, Nancy S Miller, Tanvi Dhere, Eileen M Burd, Cynthia Carpentieri, Kaitlin L Sitchenko, Colleen S Kraft
Fecal microbiota transplantation is an efficacious and inexpensive therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile, yet its safety is thought to depend on appropriate fecal donor screening. FDA guidance for regulation of this procedure is in flux but screening and manufacture of fecal material from asymptomatic donors presents many challenges to clinical laboratories. This minireview summarizes FDA regulatory changes, principles of donor selection and recommended laboratory screening for fecal microbiota transplantation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075419/surveillance-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-results-from-a-six-year-retrospective-study-in-nine-hospitals-of-a-north-italian-local-health-authority
#17
Greta Roncarati, Laura Dallolio, Erica Leoni, Manuela Panico, Angela Zanni, Patrizia Farruggia
Clostridium difficile is an emerging cause of healthcare associated infections. In nine hospitals of an Italian Local Health Authority the episodes of C. difficile infection (CDI) were identified using the data registered by the centralized Laboratory Information System, from 2010 to 2015. CDI incidence (positive patients for A and/or B toxins per patients-days) was analysed per year, hospital, and ward. A number of cases approximately equivalent to the mean of identified cases per year were studied retrospectively to highlight the risk factors associated to CDI and their severity...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073117/antibiotic-stewardship-in-paediatric-inpatients-and-c-difficile-associated-disease
#18
A Simon, S Schmid, L von Müller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068217/manual-curation-and-reannotation-of-the-genomes-of-clostridium-difficile-630%C3%AE-erm-and-clostridium-difficile-630
#19
Henning Dannheim, Thomas Riedel, Meina Neumann-Schaal, Boyke Bunk, Isabel Schober, Cathrin Spröer, Cynthia Maria Chibani, Sabine Gronow, Heiko Liesegang, Jörg Overmann, Dietmar Schomburg
We resequenced the genome of Clostridium difficile 630Δerm (DSM 28645), a model strain commonly used for the generation of insertion mutants. The genome sequence was obtained by a combination of single-molecule real-time (SMRT) and Illumina sequencing technology. Detailed manual curation and comparison to the previously published genomic sequence revealed sequence differences including inverted regions and the presence of plasmid pCD630. Manual curation of our previously deposited genome sequence of the parental strain 630 (DSM 27543) led to an improved genome sequence...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065332/clostridium-difficile-contamination-of-health-care-workers-hands-and-its-potential-contribution-to-the-spread-of-infection-review-of-the-literature
#20
REVIEW
Ingrid Jullian-Desayes, Caroline Landelle, Marie-Reine Mallaret, Christian Brun-Buisson, Frédéric Barbut
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can be transmitted from patient to patient by the hands of health care workers (HCWs); however, the relative importance of this route in the spread of C difficile in the hospital is currently unknown. Our aim was to review studies examining HCWs' hand carriage and its potential role in CDI transmission. METHODS: First, English-speaking references addressing HCWs' hand sampling obtained from the PubMed database were reviewed...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
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