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C. Difficile

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457584/immunological-stability-of-clostridium-difficile-toxins-in-clinical-specimens
#1
Donna M Schora, Lance R Peterson, Elena A Usacheva
OBJECTIVE The impact of storage on stability and detection of Clostridium difficile toxins in feces is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the immunological stability of C. difficile toxins in clinical stool specimens under different storage conditions by evaluating this stability using toxin detection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). METHODS Stool specimens positive for C. difficile infection (CDI) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used for EIA testing with the C...
February 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456070/pcr-ribotyping-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-isolates-of-clostridium-difficile-cultured-from-toxin-positive-diarrheal-stools-of-patients-receiving-medical-care-in-canadian-hospitals-the-canadian-clostridium-difficile-surveillance-study-can-diff
#2
James A Karlowsky, Heather J Adam, Tyler Kosowan, Melanie R Baxter, Kim A Nichol, Nancy M Laing, George Golding, George G Zhanel
Clostridium difficile toxin-positive diarrheal stool specimens submitted to eight Canadian hospital laboratories from 2013 to 2015 were cultured. Polymerase chain reaction ribotyping of isolates was performed using an internationally standardized, high-resolution capillary gel-based electrophoresis protocol and antimicrobial susceptibility testing conducted by CLSI-defined agar dilution (M11-A8, 2012). Among the 1310 isolates of C. difficile cultured, 141 different ribotypes were identified; the most common ribotypes were 027 (24...
January 31, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452598/7-versus-14-days-of-antibiotic-treatment-for-critically-ill-patients-with-bloodstream-infection-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Nick Daneman, Asgar H Rishu, Ruxandra Pinto, Pierre Aslanian, Sean M Bagshaw, Alex Carignan, Emmanuel Charbonney, Bryan Coburn, Deborah J Cook, Michael E Detsky, Peter Dodek, Richard Hall, Anand Kumar, Francois Lamontagne, Francois Lauzier, John C Marshall, Claudio M Martin, Lauralyn McIntyre, John Muscedere, Steven Reynolds, Wendy Sligl, Henry T Stelfox, M Elizabeth Wilcox, Robert A Fowler
BACKGROUND: Shorter-duration antibiotic treatment is sufficient for a range of bacterial infections, but has not been adequately studied for bloodstream infections. Our systematic review, survey, and observational study indicated equipoise for a trial of 7 versus 14 days of antibiotic treatment for bloodstream infections; a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) was a necessary next step to assess feasibility of a larger trial. METHODS: We conducted an open, pilot RCT of antibiotic treatment duration among critically ill patients with bloodstream infection across 11 intensive care units (ICUs)...
February 17, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452244/does-saline-enema-during-the-first-stage-of-labour-reduce-the-incidence-of-clostridium-difficile-colonization-in-neonates-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Adel M Nada, Reham A Mohsen, Yosra M Hassan, Amira Sabry, Noha S Soliman
BACKGROUND: Maternal rectal enemas may reduce neonatal bacterial exposure during labour; this may reduce the risk of neonatal colonization with Clostridium difficile. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a saline enema during the first stage of labour in reducing neonatal colonization with C. difficile. METHODS: The study was conducted in Cairo University Hospital from January 2016 to July 2016. Asymptomatic mothers with uncomplicated vaginal delivery and their neonates without diarrhea were included...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451873/in-silico-analysis-of-antibiotic-induced-clostridium-difficile-infection-remediation-techniques-and-biological-adaptations
#5
Eric W Jones, Jean M Carlson
In this paper we study antibiotic-induced C. difficile infection (CDI), caused by the toxin-producing C. difficile (CD), and implement clinically-inspired simulated treatments in a computational framework that synthesizes a generalized Lotka-Volterra (gLV) model with SIR modeling techniques. The gLV model uses parameters derived from an experimental mouse model, in which the mice are administered antibiotics and subsequently dosed with CD. We numerically identify which of the experimentally measured initial conditions are vulnerable to CD colonization, then formalize the notion of CD susceptibility analytically...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449093/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-severe-complicated-c-difficile-colitis-in-a-patient-with-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome
#6
P Martínez-Ayala, L A González-Hernández, F Amador-Lara, J Andrade-Villanueva, M Ramos-Solano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447694/an-additive-sugar-helps-the-c-diff-go-round
#7
Michael C Abt
Outbreaks of hypervirulent strains of Clostridium difficile began to be reported in healthcare facilities worldwide around 20 years ago. Concurrently, trehalose became a common additive used by the global food industry. A new study provides evidence that these two observations are a linked phenomenon (Collins et al., 2018).
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446866/tacrolimus-concentration-to-dose-ratio-in-solid-organ-transplant-patients-treated-with-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#8
Michael H Woodworth, Colleen S Kraft, Erika J Meredith, Aneesh K Mehta, Tiffany Wang, Yafet T Mamo, Tanvi Dhere, Kaitlin L Sitchenko, Rachel E Patzer, Rachel J Friedman-Moraco
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly being performed for Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant patients; however, little is known about the potential pharmacokinetic or pharmacomicrobial effects this may have on tacrolimus levels. We reviewed the medical records of 10 solid organ transplant patients from September 2012 - December 2016 who were taking tacrolimus at time of FMT for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. We compared the differences in tacrolimus concentration / dose ratio (C/D ratio) three months prior to FMT vs three months after FMT...
February 15, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445826/genome-based-comparison-of-clostridioides-difficile-average-amino-acid-identity-analysis-of-core-genomes
#9
Adriana Cabal, Se-Ran Jun, Piroon Jenjaroenpun, Visanu Wanchai, Intawat Nookaew, Thidathip Wongsurawat, Mary J Burgess, Atul Kothari, Trudy M Wassenaar, David W Ussery
Infections due to Clostridioides difficile (previously known as Clostridium difficile) are a major problem in hospitals, where cases can be caused by community-acquired strains as well as by nosocomial spread. Whole genome sequences from clinical samples contain a lot of information but that needs to be analyzed and compared in such a way that the outcome is useful for clinicians or epidemiologists. Here, we compare 663 public available complete genome sequences of C. difficile using average amino acid identity (AAI) scores...
February 14, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443839/how-common-and-how-serious-is-clostridium-difficile-colitis-after-geriatric-hip-fracture-findings-from-the-nsqip-dataset
#10
Patawut Bovonratwet, Daniel D Bohl, Glenn S Russo, Nathaniel T Ondeck, Denis Nam, Craig J Della Valle, Jonathan N Grauer
BACKGROUND: Patients with geriatric hip fractures may be at increased risk for postoperative Clostridium difficile colitis, which can cause severe morbidity and can influence hospital quality metrics. However, to our knowledge, no large database study has calculated the incidence of, factors associated with, and effect of C. difficile colitis on geriatric patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: To use a large national database with in-hospital and postdischarge data (National Surgical Quality Improvement Program [NSQIP®]) to (1) determine the incidence and timing of C...
March 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441500/the-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-japan-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Thomas V Riley, Tomomi Kimura
To increase understanding of the epidemiology, risks, consequences and resource utilization of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Japan, a systematic literature review was undertaken of relevant publications from January 2006 to November 2017. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and methods, 55 articles met the criteria for full review. The majority (58%) of studies were from a single site, with the most recent data from 2015. The incidence, reported prevalence and recurrence rate of CDI in Japan were 0...
February 13, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434201/advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infections
#12
Zhong Peng, Lifen Ling, Charles W Stratton, Chunhui Li, Christopher R Polage, Bin Wu, Yi-Wei Tang
Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. The diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI) requires both clinical manifestations and a positive laboratory test for C. difficile and/or its toxins. While antibiotic therapy is the treatment of choice for CDI, there are relatively few classes of effective antibiotics currently available. Therefore, the development of novel antibiotics and/or alternative treatment strategies for CDI has received a great deal of attention in recent years...
February 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428547/evaluation-of-4-molecular-assays-as-part-of-a-2-step-algorithm-for-the-detection-of-clostridium-difficile-in-stool-specimens
#13
Adam J Caulfield, Catherine M Bolster LaSalle, Yu-Hui H Chang, Thomas E Grys
Detection of Clostridium difficile infection is important for clinical laboratories, owing to debilitating disease, severe outcomes, patient awareness, and public reporting of hospital data. This study evaluated the performance of 4 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) assays as part of a 2-step algorithm that involves reflexive NAAT following enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing that is indeterminate for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and toxin A/B (GDH+/toxin- or GDH-/toxin+). A total of 500 stool specimens from consecutive patients were tested by each of the 5 methods and also evaluated as part of a 2-step algorithm...
January 3, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428498/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#14
REVIEW
Michael Samarkos, Elpida Mastrogianni, Olga Kampouropoulou
Clostridium difficile infection has emerged as a major health problem. Because it is a spore-forming microorganism, C. difficile is difficult to eradicate and recurrences of the infection are frequent. The strong association of CDI with prior use of antibiotics led to the recognition that disturbances in the gut microbiota apparently plays a central role in CDI. Except for antibiotics, several other risk factors for CDI have been recognised, such as advanced age and use of proton pump inhibitors. The common characteristic of these factors is that they are associated with changes in the composition of gut microbiota...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427800/new-insights-into-transmission-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-narrative-review
#15
REVIEW
Ana Durovic, Andreas Widmer, Sarah Tschudin Sutter
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, Clostridium difficile has been considered a typical healthcare-associated pathogen - transmitted within healthcare facilities and thus prevented by implementation of standard infection control measures. More recently, this concept has been challenged by studies suggesting a relevant role for community-acquisition of C. difficile. AIMS: To discusses the current literature, compiled during the last decade, reporting on sources of acquisition of C...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427406/risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-intestinal-transplant-recipients-during-the-first-year-post-transplant
#16
Luis Guzman, Fang Qiu, Andre C Kalil, David F Mercer, Alan Langnas, Diana F Florescu
BACKGROUND: C. difficile is the most common cause of healthcare-associated infectious diarrhea. Risk factors for C. difficile infections (CDI) in intestinal transplant recipients (ITR) are not well defined. The aim of our study was to assess specific risk factors for CDI in ITR. METHODS: This is a 1:3 case-control study that included 29 ITR who developed CDI (cases) and 87 ITR without CDI (controls) observed during the first year post transplantation. Wilcoxon rank sum and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare variables...
February 10, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427247/environmental-factors-associated-with-the-carriage-of-bacterial-pathogens-in-norway-rats
#17
Jamie L Rothenburger, Chelsea G Himsworth, Nicole M Nemeth, David L Pearl, Claire M Jardine
Worldwide, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) carry a number of zoonotic pathogens. Many studies have identified rat-level risk factors for pathogen carriage. The objective of this study was to examine associations between abundance, microenvironmental and weather features and Clostridium difficile, antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in urban rats. We assessed city blocks for rat abundance and 48 microenvironmental variables during a trap-removal study, then constructed 32 time-lagged temperature and precipitation variables and fitted multivariable logistic regression models...
February 9, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422809/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis
#18
Kosaku Nanki, Shinta Mizuno, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, Keiko Ono, Shinya Sugimoto, Hiroki Kiyohara, Mari Arai, Moeko Nakashima, Kozue Takeshita, Keiichiro Saigusa, Mitsutoshi Senoh, Tadashi Fukuda, Makoto Naganuma, Haru Kato, Wataru Suda, Masahira Hattori, Takanori Kanai
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been reported as a safe and effective therapy in patients with refractory and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). FMT has also been reported as a promising therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Both, CDI and UC, are believed to be caused by dysbiosis, such as altered compositions or decreased diversity of the intestinal microbiota. This report describes a patient with UC in remission with a second recurrent episode of CDI, who was treated with FMT...
January 2018: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422805/rapid-and-accurate-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-by-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction
#19
Pil Hun Song, Jung Hwa Min, You Sun Kim, Soo Yeon Jo, Eun Jin Kim, Kyung Jin Lee, Jeonghun Lee, Hyun Sung, Jeong Seop Moon, Dong Hee Whang
Background/Aims: The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have increased worldwide, resulting in a need for rapid and accurate diagnostic methods. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to compare CDI diagnosis methods between January 2014 and December 2014. The stool samples, which were obtained in presumptive CDI patients, were compared for their diagnostic accuracy and rapidity, including real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of toxin genes, C...
January 2018: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421028/clostridial-abomasitis-and-enteritis-in-ruminants
#20
REVIEW
Katharine M Simpson, Robert J Callan, David C Van Metre
Clostridial abomasitis and enteritis are important alimentary diseases observed in all domestic ruminant species. These diseases most commonly result from overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens types A, B, C, D, and E with the associated release of bacterial exotoxins that result in necrosis of the abomasal or intestinal mucosa. Clostridium difficile may also be associated with enteritis in calves but is much less common than disease caused by C perfringens. This article reviews the causes, pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of clostridial gastrointestinal diseases in ruminants...
March 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
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