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Pregnancy, maternal, fetal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241065/associations-between-maternal-triclosan-concentrations-in-early-pregnancy-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-impaired-glucose-tolerance-gestational-weight-gain-and-fetal-markers-of-metabolic-function
#1
Gabriel D Shapiro, Tye E Arbuckle, Jillian Ashley-Martin, William D Fraser, Mandy Fisher, Maryse F Bouchard, Patricia Monnier, Anne-Sophie Morisset, Adrienne S Ettinger, Linda Dodds
BACKGROUND: Triclosan is a phenolic biocide used in a multitude of consumer products and in health care settings. It is widely detected in the American and Canadian populations and has been shown in animal models to act as an endocrine disrupting agent. However, there has been little examination to date of the effects of triclosan exposure in pregnancy on perinatal metabolic outcomes in human populations. METHODS: Using data from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a Canadian pregnancy cohort, we measured associations of first-trimester urinary triclosan concentrations with total gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in pregnancy, and fetal markers of metabolic function...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241049/prenatal-maternal-mood-patterns-predict-child-temperament-and-adolescent-mental-health
#2
Laura M Glynn, Mariann A Howland, Curt A Sandman, Elysia P Davis, Michael Phelan, Tallie Z Baram, Hal S Stern
BACKGROUND: This study quantifies the dynamics of maternal mood focusing on unpredictability, and to assess if greater unpredictability of prenatal maternal mood predicts child temperament and internalizing symptoms through early adolescence. METHODS: The association between prenatal mood predictability and child internalizing symptoms were assessed in two longitudinal cohorts (N's = 227 and 180). Maternal mood was assessed repeatedly during pregnancy as early as 15 weeks' gestation...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240677/amniotic-fluid-arginine-from-gestational-weeks-13-to-15-is-a-predictor-of-birth-weight-length-and-head-circumference
#3
Astrid Bjørke-Jenssen, Per Magne Ueland, Anne-Lise Bjørke-Monsen
Arginine is a constituent of proteins and a precursor for polyamines and nitric oxide, and is essential for placentation, angiogenesis, and growth. Maternal plasma arginine concentrations are found to be lower in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction, and arginine supplementation in later pregnancy is reported to increase birth weight. We measured arginine and the metabolites asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in the amniotic fluid obtained in pregnancy weeks 13 to 15 from 363 pregnancies with a documented normal outcome and related the concentrations to birth weight, length, and head circumference...
December 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239474/maternal-liver-transplant-another-cause-of-discordant-fetal-sex-determination-using-cell-free-dna
#4
Maria Neofytou, Nathalie Brison, Kris Van den Bogaert, Luc Dehaspe, Koen Devriendt, Anja Geerts, Joris R Vermeesch
NIPT can very accurately determine fetal sex during pregnancy. We present an exceptional case where NIPT contradicts the ultrasound based sex determination. The pregnant woman was recipient of a liver transplant from a male donor. Graft-derived cell-free DNA released into the maternal circulation clouded the NIPT based sex determination. Hence, NIPT is not advisable when the pregnant mother underwent an organ transplant.
December 14, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239132/translational-systems-pharmacology-studies-in-pregnant-women
#5
REVIEW
Sara K Quinney, Rakesh Gullapelli, David M Haas
Pregnancy involves rapid physiological adaptation and complex interplay between mother and fetus. New analytic technologies provide large amounts of genomic, proteomic, and metabolomics data. The integration of these data through bioinformatics, statistical, and systems pharmacology techniques can improve our understanding of the mechanisms of normal maternal physiologic changes and fetal development. New insights into the mechanisms of pregnancy-related disorders, such as preterm birth (PTB), may lead to the development of new therapeutic interventions and novel biomarkers...
December 14, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239070/clinical-features-of-new-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-pregnant-patients
#6
Chong Zhang, Mei-Ying Liang, Xue Xu, Xue-Wu Zhang, Shi Chen
AIM: This study was conducted to examine the clinical characteristics of new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) during pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of all pregnancies in patients with SLE managed at The People's Hospital of Peking University from 2008 to 2015. In total, 97 pregnancies were identified and studied, 22 of which were first diagnosed with SLE during pregnancy or puerperium. RESULTS: New-onset SLE mainly occurred during the first and second pregnancy trimesters...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235940/slc9b1-methylation-predicts-fetal-intolerance-of-labor
#7
Anna K Knight, Karen N Conneely, Varun Kilaru, Dawayland Cobb, Jennifer L Payne, Samantha Meilman, Elizabeth J Corwin, Zachary A Kaminsky, Anne L Dunlop, Alicia K Smith
Fetal intolerance of labor is a common indication for delivery by Caesarean section. Diagnosis is based on the presence of category III fetal heart rate tracing, which is an abnormal heart tracing associated with increased likelihood of fetal hypoxia and metabolic acidemia. This study analyzed data from 177 unique women who, during their prenatal visits (7-15 weeks and/or 24-32 weeks) to Atlanta area prenatal care clinics, consented to provide blood samples for DNA methylation (HumanMethylation450 BeadChip) and gene expression (Human HT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip) analyses...
December 13, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235557/timing-duration-and-severity-of-iron-deficiency-in-early-development-and-motor-outcomes-at-9-months
#8
Denise C C Santos, Rosa M Angulo-Barroso, Ming Li, Yang Bian, Julie Sturza, Blair Richards, Betsy Lozoff
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Poorer motor development is reported in infants with iron deficiency (ID). The role of timing, duration and severity is unclear. We assessed relations between ID timing, duration, and severity and gross motor scores, neurological integrity, and motor behavior quality at 9 months. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Iron status was determined at birth and 9 months in otherwise healthy term Chinese infants. The 9-month motor evaluation included the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale (PDMS-2), Infant Neurological International Battery (INFANIB), and motor quality factor...
November 6, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235099/variations-from-morning-to-afternoon-of-middle-cerebral-and-umbilical-artery-blood-flow-and-fetal-heart-rate-variability-and-fetal-characteristics-in-the-normally-developing-fetus
#9
Tehila Avitan, Ari Sanders, Ursula Brain, Dan Rurak, Tim F Oberlander, Ken Lim
OBJECTIVE: To determine if there are changes in maternal uterine blood flow, fetal brain blood flow, fetal heart rate variability, and umbilical blood flow between morning (AM) and afternoon (PM) in healthy, uncomplicated pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective study, 68 uncomplicated singleton pregnancies (mean 35 + 0.7 weeks gestation) underwent a standard observational protocol at both 08:00 (AM) and 13:30 (PM) of the same day. This protocol included Doppler measurements of uterine, umbilical, and fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) volume flow parameters (flow, HR, peak systolic velocity [PSV], PI, and RI) followed by computerized cardiotocography...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235018/inverse-correlation-between-maternal-plasma-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-adma-and-birthweight-percentile-in-women-with-impaired-placental-perfusion-circulating-adma-as-an-no-independent-indicator-of-fetal-growth-restriction
#10
Dimitrios Tsikas, Alexander Bollenbach, Makrina D Savvidou
L-Arginine (Arg) is the enzymatic precursor of nitric oxide (NO) which has multiple biological functions. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) are endogenous inhibitors of NO. We hypothesized that the ADMA and SDMA have additional biological functions in pregnancy, beyond NO synthesis, and may play a role in the regulation of birthweight (BW). To investigate this issue, we measured the plasma concentration of ADMA, SDMA, Arg and the NO metabolites nitrite and nitrate, at 23-25 weeks of gestation in women with normal placental function (Group 1) and in women with impaired placental perfusion; 19 of these women had normal outcome (Group 2), 14 had a fetus that was growth restricted (Group 3), and 10 women eventually developed preeclampsia (Group 4)...
December 12, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231167/glucose-inhibits-cardiac-muscle-maturation-through-nucleotide-biosynthesis
#11
Haruko Nakano, Itsunari Minami, Daniel Braas, Herman Pappoe, Xiuju Wu, Addelynn Sagadevan, Laurent Vergnes, Kai Fu, Marco Morselli, Christopher Dunham, Xueqin Ding, Adam Z Stieg, James K Gimzewski, Matteo Pellegrini, Peter M Clark, Karen Reue, Aldons J Lusis, Bernard Ribalet, Siavash K Kurdistani, Heather Christofk, Norio Nakatsuji, Atsushi Nakano
The heart switches its energy substrate from glucose to fatty acids at birth, and maternal hyperglycemia is associated with congenital heart disease. However, little is known about how blood glucose impacts heart formation. Using a chemically defined human pluripotent stem-cell-derived cardiomyocyte differentiation system, we found that high glucose inhibits the maturation of cardiomyocytes at genetic, structural, metabolic, electrophysiological, and biomechanical levels by promoting nucleotide biosynthesis through the pentose phosphate pathway...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230208/ramadan-fasting-exerts-immunomodulatory-effects-insights-from-a-systematic-review
#12
Mohammad Adawi, Abdulla Watad, Stav Brown, Khadija Aazza, Hicham Aazza, Mohamed Zouhir, Kassem Sharif, Khaled Ghanayem, Raymond Farah, Hussein Mahagna, Stefano Fiordoro, Samir Giuseppe Sukkar, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Naim Mahroum
Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar and is observed by Muslims as a month of fasting. All Muslim adults are expected to fast; nevertheless certain subgroups, including sick, frail subjects, and pregnant women, among others, are exempted. Ramadan fasting has been shown to impact on body systems in different manners. The influence of Ramadan fasting on immune system regulation remains elusive; however, immune system changes, such as the modulation of body response to various infectious, stressful, and other harmful events, are of great interest during fasting...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230179/transplacental-nutrient-transport-mechanisms-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-in-rodent-models-and-humans
#13
REVIEW
Elke Winterhager, Alexandra Gellhaus
Although the causes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have been intensively investigated, important information is still lacking about the role of the placenta as a link from adverse maternal environment to adverse pregnancy outcomes of IUGR and preterm birth. IUGR is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurological diseases later in life. Determination of the most important pathways that regulate transplacental transport systems is necessary for identifying marker genes as diagnostic tools and for developing drugs that target the molecular pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229321/the-role-of-aspirin-heparin-and-other-interventions-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-fetal-growth-restriction
#14
REVIEW
Katie M Groom, Anna L David
Fetal growth restriction and related placental pathologies such as preeclampsia, stillbirth, and placental abruption are believed to arise in early pregnancy when inadequate remodeling of the maternal spiral arteries leads to persistent high-resistance and low-flow uteroplacental circulation. The consequent placental ischaemia, reperfusion injury, and oxidative stress are associated with an imbalance in angiogenic/antiangiogenic factors. Many interventions have centered on the prevention and/or treatment of preeclampsia with results pertaining to fetal growth restriction and small-for-gestational-age pregnancy often included as secondary outcomes because of the common pathophysiology...
December 8, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228827/conservative-versus-active-management-in-hellp-syndrome-results-from-a-cohort-study
#15
Marie Cavaignac-Vitalis, Fabien Vidal, M D Caroline Simon-Toulza, Pierre Boulot, Paul Guerby, Elodie Chantalat, Parant M D Olivier
OBJECTIVE: HELLP syndrome exposes to severe maternal and fetal complications. Prompt delivery is thus recommended after 34 weeks of gestation, or earlier in case of nonreassuring maternofetal conditions. However, no consensus has been raised in the treatment of HELLP syndrome occurring before 34 weeks of gestation, when both maternal and fetal conditions are stable: it remains still unclear whether an active attitude should be prioritized over expectant management. Herein we aimed to compare mother and child outcomes according to the type of obstetrical management, either active or conservative...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228803/in-vitro-human-placental-studies-to-support-an-adenovirus-mediated-vegf-d%C3%AE-n%C3%AE-c-maternal-gene-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-severe-early-onset-fetal-growth-restriction
#16
Michelle Desforges, Alexandra Rogue Rogue, Nick Pearson, Carlo Rossi, Elena Olearo, Roy Forster, Mark Lees, Neil Sebire, Susan Greenwood, Colin Sibley, Anna L David, Paul Brownbill
Severe fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects 1:500 pregnancies, is untreatable and causes serious neonatal morbidity and death. Reduced uterine blood flow (UBF) is one cause. Transduction of uterine arteries in normal and FGR animal models using an adenovirus (Ad) encoding VEGF isoforms, increases UBF and improves fetal growth in utero. Understanding potential adverse consequences of this therapy before first-in-woman clinical application is essential. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Ad...
December 11, 2017: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227690/effect-of-the-induction-of-transgenerational-obesity-on-maternal-fetal-parameters
#17
Thaigra Sousa Soares, Ana Paula Andreolla, Carolina Abreu Miranda, Eduardo Klöppel, Luhara Silva Rodrigues, Rafaianne Queiroz Moraes-Souza, Débora Cristina Damasceno, Gustavo Tadeu Volpato, Kleber Eduardo Campos
Maternal obesity can cause complications for both women and their offspring for generations. Therefore, we intended to verify the repercussions of induction of transgenerational obesity on biochemical parameters, reproductive performance, and congenital anomaly frequency in Wistar rats. Female rats were used from successive generations. The female rats of parental generation (F0, n=10) were mated to obtain their offspring (F1 generation). F1 female rats received a monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution to induce obesity (n=07) or vehicle (control, n=06) during the neonatal period...
December 11, 2017: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227010/pre-labour-screening-for-intrapartum-fetal-compromise-in-low-risk-pregnancies-at-term-cerebroplacental-ratio-and-placental-growth-factor
#18
Larissa N Bligh, Amal A Alsolai, Ristan M Greer, Sailesh Kumar
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the screening performance of a low fetal cerebroplacental ratio (a marker of fetal adaptation to suboptimal growth) and maternal placental growth factor levels, respectively, both in isolation and in combination, for the detection of cesarean section for intrapartum fetal compromise and serious composite neonatal outcome. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed on low risk women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies from 36 weeks to delivery...
December 11, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227009/fetal-liver-injury-ameliorated-by-migration-inhibitory-factor-inhibition-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-pancreatitis-in-pregnancy
#19
Zheng-Da Guo, Liang Zhao, Peng Wang, Wen-Hong Deng, Qiao Shi, Teng Zuo, Yu-Pu Hong, Wei-Xing Wang
AIM: This study was designed to investigate and assess fetal liver injury in a rat model of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy (APIP) as well as its possible mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. METHODS: The APIP model was induced by sodium taurocholate in Sprague-Dawley rats during the third trimester. ISO-1, a macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) antagonist, was given before the induction of APIP. In addition, sham-operated rats at later gestation were set as controls...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225683/concurrent-maternal-and-fetal-tachyarrhythmia-in-pregnancy
#20
Nadia Gabarin, Edgar T Jaeggi, Danna A Spears, Mathew Sermer, Candice K Silversides, Catriona J Bhagra
The occurrence of a maternal and fetal tachyarrhythmia together in pregnancy is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a persistent fetal atrial ectopic tachycardia occurring in conjunction with a maternal atrial tachycardia with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Amiodarone was effective in treating both maternal and fetal arrhythmias.
December 2017: Obstetric Medicine
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