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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793090/anti-haemostatic-compounds-from-the-vampire-snail-cumia-reticulata-molecular-cloning-and-in-silico-structure-function-analysis
#1
Maria Vittoria Modica, Jonathan Reinoso Sánchez, Andrea Pasquadibisceglie, Marco Oliverio, Paolo Mariottini, Manuela Cervelli
Blood-feeding animals are known for their ability to produce bioactive compounds to impair haemostasis and suppress pain perception in the host. These compounds are extremely appealing for pharmacological development since they are generally very effective and specific for their molecular target. A preliminary RNA-Seq based characterization of the secretion from salivary and mid-oesophageal tissues of the vampire snail Cumia reticulata, revealed a complex mixture of feeding-related transcripts with potential anaesthetic and anticoagulant action...
May 16, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712966/localization-and-functional-characterization-of-an-occipital-visual-word-form-sensitive-area
#2
Bo Zhang, Sheng He, Xuchu Weng
In human occipitotemporal cortex, category-specific processing for visual objects seems to involve pairs of cortical regions, often with one located in the occipital cortex and another more anteriorly. We investigated whether such an arrangement might be the case for visual word processing. In addition to the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) located in the occipitotemporal sulcus, we observed that another region in occipital lobe with robust responses to written words (Chinese characters). The current fMRI study investigated this area's precise location and its functional selectivity using Chinese characters and other categories of visual images (cars, chairs and insects)...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509766/the-emergence-of-the-visual-word-form-longitudinal-evolution-of-category-specific-ventral-visual-areas-during-reading-acquisition
#3
Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Karla Monzalvo, Stanislas Dehaene
How does education affect cortical organization? All literate adults possess a region specialized for letter strings, the visual word form area (VWFA), within the mosaic of ventral regions involved in processing other visual categories such as objects, places, faces, or body parts. Therefore, the acquisition of literacy may induce a reorientation of cortical maps towards letters at the expense of other categories such as faces. To test this cortical recycling hypothesis, we studied how the visual cortex of individual children changes during the first months of reading acquisition...
March 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504651/early-development-of-letter-specialization-in-left-fusiform-is-associated-with-better-word-reading-and-smaller-fusiform-face-area
#4
Tracy M Centanni, Elizabeth S Norton, Anne Park, Sara D Beach, Kelly Halverson, Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Nadine Gaab, John DE Gabrieli
A functional region of left fusiform gyrus termed "the visual word form area" (VWFA) develops during reading acquisition to respond more strongly to printed words than to other visual stimuli. Here, we examined responses to letters among 5- and 6-year-old early kindergarten children (N = 48) with little or no school-based reading instruction who varied in their reading ability. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure responses to individual letters, false fonts, and faces in left and right fusiform gyri...
March 5, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499492/the-impact-of-inverted-text-on-visual-word-processing-an-fmri-study
#5
Bethany L Sussman, Samir Reddigari, Sharlene D Newman
Visual word recognition has been studied for decades. One question that has received limited attention is how different text presentation orientations disrupt word recognition. By examining how word recognition processes may be disrupted by different text orientations it is hoped that new insights can be gained concerning the process. Here, we examined the impact of rotating and inverting text on the neural network responsible for visual word recognition focusing primarily on a region of the occipto-temporal cortex referred to as the visual word form area (VWFA)...
June 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445098/representational-similarity-analysis-reveals-task-dependent-semantic-influence-of-the-visual-word-form-area
#6
Xiaosha Wang, Yangwen Xu, Yuwei Wang, Yi Zeng, Jiacai Zhang, Zhenhua Ling, Yanchao Bi
Access to semantic information of visual word forms is a key component of reading comprehension. In this study, we examined the involvement of the visual word form area (VWFA) in this process by investigating whether and how the activity patterns of the VWFA are influenced by semantic information during semantic tasks. We asked participants to perform two semantic tasks - taxonomic or thematic categorization - on visual words while obtaining the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI responses to each word...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201934/evidence-for-rapid-localist-plasticity-in-the-ventral-visual-stream-the-example-of-words
#7
Maximilian Riesenhuber, Laurie S Glezer
Our recent work has shown that the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in left occipitotemporal cortex contains an orthographic lexicon based on neuronal representations highly selective for individual written real words (RW) and that learning novel words selectively increases neural specificity in the VWFA. But, how quickly does this change in neural tuning occur and how much training is required for new words to be codified in the VWFA? Here we present evidence that plasticity in the VWFA from broad to tight tuning can be obtained in a short time span, with no explicit training, and with comparatively few exposures, further strengthening the case for a highly plastic visual lexicon in the VWFA and for localist representations in the visual processing hierarchy...
2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166863/characterization-of-the-inner-membrane-protein-bb0173-from-borrelia-burgdorferi
#8
Christina M Brock, Manuel Bañó-Polo, Maria J Garcia-Murria, Ismael Mingarro, Maria Esteve-Gasent
BACKGROUND: The bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of the most commonly reported arthropod-borne illness in the United States, Lyme disease. A family of proteins containing von Willebrand Factor A (VWFA) domains adjacent to a MoxR AAA+ ATPase have been found to be highly conserved in the genus Borrelia. Previously, a VWFA domain containing protein of B. burgdorferi, BB0172, was determined to be an outer membrane protein capable of binding integrin α3β1...
November 22, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093537/perceptual-integration-and-attention-in-human-extrastriate-cortex
#9
Francesca Strappini, Gaspare Galati, Marialuisa Martelli, Enrico Di Pace, Sabrina Pitzalis
Visual crowding is a perceptual phenomenon with far-reaching implications in both perceptual (e.g., object recognition and reading) and clinical (e.g., developmental dyslexia and visual agnosia) domains. Here, we combined event-related fMRI measurements and wide-field brain mapping methods to investigate whether the BOLD response evoked by visual crowding is modulated by different attentional conditions. Participants underwent two sessions of psychophysical training outside the scanner, and then fMRI BOLD activity was measured simultaneously in early visual areas (including the visual word form area, VWFA), while they viewed strongly-crowded and weakly-crowded Gabor patches in attended and unattended conditions...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061700/development-of-the-visual-word-form-area-requires-visual-experience-evidence-from-blind-braille-readers
#10
Judy S Kim, Shipra Kanjlia, Lotfi B Merabet, Marina Bedny
Learning to read causes the development of a letter- and word-selective region known as the visual word form area (VWFA) within the human ventral visual object stream. Why does a reading-selective region develop at this anatomical location? According to one hypothesis, the VWFA develops at the nexus of visual inputs from retinotopic cortices and linguistic input from the frontotemporal language network because reading involves extracting linguistic information from visual symbols. Surprisingly, the anatomical location of the VWFA is also active when blind individuals read Braille by touch, suggesting that vision is not required for the development of the VWFA...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916842/how-interindividual-differences-in-brain-anatomy-shape-reading-accuracy
#11
Arnaud Cachia, Margot Roell, Jean-François Mangin, Zhong Yi Sun, Antoinette Jobert, Lucia Braga, Olivier Houde, Stanislas Dehaene, Grégoire Borst
The capacity to read develops throughout intensive academic learning and training. Several studies have investigated the impact of reading on the brain, and particularly how the anatomy of the brain changes with reading acquisition. In the present study, we investigated the converse issue, namely whether and how reading acquisition is constrained by the anatomy of the brain. Using multimodal MRI, we found that (a) the pattern (continuous or interrupted sulcus) of the posterior part of the left lateral occipito-temporal sulcus (OTS) hosting the visual word form area (VWFA) predicts reading skills in adults; that (b) this effect is modulated by the age of reading acquisition; and that (c) the length of the OTS sulcal interruption is associated with reading skills...
March 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834738/structural-hemispheric-asymmetries-underlie-verbal-stroop-performance
#12
Antonino Vallesi, Ilaria Mazzonetto, Ettore Ambrosini, Laura Babcock, Mariagrazia Capizzi, Sandra Arbula, Vincenza Tarantino, Carlo Semenza, Alessandra Bertoldo
Performance on tasks involving cognitive control such as the Stroop task is often associated with left lateralized brain activations. Based on this neuro-functional evidence, we tested whether leftward structural grey matter asymmetries would also predict inter-individual differences in combatting Stroop interference. To check for the specificity of the results, both a verbal Stroop task and a spatial one were administered to a total of 111 healthy young individuals, for whom T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were also acquired...
August 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690938/alexia-without-agraphia-a-rare-entity
#13
Chintan Rupareliya, Syeda Naqvi, Seyedali Hejazi
Pure alexia refers to an acquired disorder associated with the damage to medial occipitotemporal gyrus in the dominant hemisphere, which is also known as visual word form area (VWFA). VWFA is involved in rapid word recognition and fluent reading. Alexia without agraphia is a disconnection syndrome that occurs when the splenium is also damaged with the occipital lobe on a dominant side. We report a case of a 72-year-old right-handed male who presented with alexia without agraphia accompanied by right homonymous hemianopia resulting from acute infarct of the left occipital lobe, the splenium of the corpus callosum and posterior thalamus that probably occurred on the previous day...
June 2, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690507/the-relationship-between-intrinsic-couplings-of-the-visual-word-form-area-with-spoken-language-network-and-reading-ability-in-children-and-adults
#14
Yu Li, Linjun Zhang, Zhichao Xia, Jie Yang, Hua Shu, Ping Li
Reading plays a key role in education and communication in modern society. Learning to read establishes the connections between the visual word form area (VWFA) and language areas responsible for speech processing. Using resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and Granger Causality Analysis (GCA) methods, the current developmental study aimed to identify the difference in the relationship between the connections of VWFA-language areas and reading performance in both adults and children. The results showed that: (1) the spontaneous connectivity between VWFA and the spoken language areas, i...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539071/the-location-and-effects-of-visual-hemisphere-specific-stimulation-on-reading-fluency-in-children-with-the-characteristics-of-dyslexia
#15
Bobbie Jean Koen, Jacqueline Hawkins, Xi Zhu, Ben Jansen, Weihua Fan, Sharon Johnson
Fluency is used as an indicator of reading proficiency. Many students with reading disabilities are unable to benefit from typical interventions. This study is designed to replicate Lorusso, Facoetti, Paganoni, Pezzani, and Molteni's (2006) work using FlashWord, a computer program that tachistoscopically presents words in the right or left visual hemi-field in English and locates through fMRI imaging the processing areas involved in fluency development. Our participants were 15 students who were ages 8 to 19 years and had reading disabilities randomly assigned to Intervention ( n = 9) and Delayed Intervention ( n = 6) groups...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450544/privileged-functional-connectivity-between-the-visual-word-form-area-and-the-language-system
#16
W Dale Stevens, Dwight J Kravitz, Cynthia S Peng, Michael Henry Tessler, Alex Martin
The visual word form area (VWFA) is a region in the left occipitotemporal sulcus of literate individuals that is purportedly specialized for visual word recognition. However, there is considerable controversy about its functional specificity and connectivity, with some arguing that it serves as a domain-general, rather than word-specific, visual processor. The VWFA is a critical region for testing hypotheses about the nature of cortical organization, because it is known to develop only through experience (i...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411527/development-of-sensitivity-versus-specificity-for-print-in-the-visual-word-form-area
#17
Tracy M Centanni, Livia W King, Marianna D Eddy, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, John D E Gabrieli
An area near the left lateral occipito-temporal sulcus that responds preferentially to print has been designated as the visual word form area (VWFA). Research suggests that specialization in this brain region increases as reading expertise is achieved. Here we aimed to characterize that development in terms of sensitivity (response to printed words relative to non-linguistic faces) versus specificity (response to printed words versus line drawings of nameable objects) in typically reading children ages 7-14 versus young adults as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
July 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396097/an-fmri-study-of-visual-hemifield-integration-and-cerebral-lateralization
#18
Lars Strother, Zhiheng Zhou, Alexandra K Coros, Tutis Vilis
The human brain integrates hemifield-split visual information via interhemispheric transfer. The degree to which neural circuits involved in this process behave differently during word recognition as compared to object recognition is not known. Evidence from neuroimaging (fMRI) suggests that interhemispheric transfer during word viewing converges in the left hemisphere, in two distinct brain areas, an "occipital word form area" (OWFA) and a more anterior occipitotemporal "visual word form area" (VWFA)...
June 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326293/pily1-promotes-legionella-pneumophila-infection-of-human-lung-tissue-explants-and-contributes-to-bacterial-adhesion-host-cell-invasion-and-twitching-motility
#19
Julia Hoppe, Can M Ünal, Stefanie Thiem, Louisa Grimpe, Torsten Goldmann, Nikolaus Gaßler, Matthias Richter, Olga Shevchuk, Michael Steinert
Legionnaires' disease is an acute fibrinopurulent pneumonia. During infection Legionella pneumophila adheres to the alveolar lining and replicates intracellularly within recruited macrophages. Here we provide a sequence and domain composition analysis of the L. pneumophila PilY1 protein, which has a high homology to PilY1 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa . PilY1 proteins of both pathogens contain a von Willebrand factor A (vWFa) and a C-terminal PilY domain. Using cellular fractionation, we assigned the L. pneumophila PilY1 as an outer membrane protein that is only expressed during the transmissive stationary growth phase...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099493/different-phenotypes-of-the-two-chinese-probands-with-the-same-c-889g-a-p-c162y-mutation-in-coch-gene-verify-different-mechanisms-underlying-autosomal-dominant-nonsyndromic-deafness-9
#20
Qi Wang, Peipei Fei, Hongbo Gu, Yanmei Zhang, Xiaomei Ke, Yuhe Liu
OBJECTIVES: By analyzing the different phenotypes of two Chinese DFNA9 families with the same mutation located in the intervening region between the LCCL and vWFA domains of cochlin and testing the functional changes in the mutant cochlin, we investigated the different pathogeneses for mutations in LCCL and vWFA domains. METHODS: Targeted next-generation sequencing for deafness-related genes was used to identify the mutation in the proband in family #208. The probands of family #208 and family #32 with the same p...
2017: PloS One
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