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B. subtilis

M Rath, T R Mitchell, S E Gold
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria have recently been investigated due to their role in plant growth promotion and defense. Whereas some bacterial VOCs like 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin) and 2,3-butanediol produced by strains of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens promote plant growth, others like hydrogen cyanide and 3-phenylpropionic acid are phytotoxic, inhibiting plant growth. Bacillus mojavensis, a close relative of B. subtilis, is an endophytic bacterium of maize that has been shown to have antagonistic activity against the mycotoxigenic phytopathogen Fusarium verticillioides and growth promotion activity on maize seedlings...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Mercedes Pérez-Bonilla, Daniel Oves-Costales, Mercedes de la Cruz, Maria Kokkini, Jesús Martín, Francisca Vicente, Olga Genilloud, Fernando Reyes
Phocoenamicins B and C ( 1 and 2 ), together with the known spirotetronate phocoenamicin ( 3 ), were isolated from cultures of Micromonospora sp. The acetone extract from a culture of this strain, isolated from marine sediments collected in the Canary Islands, displayed activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra and Mycobacterium bovis . Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract using SP207ss column chromatography and preparative reversed-phased HPLC led to the isolation of the new compounds 1 and 2 belonging to the spirotetronate class of polyketides...
March 16, 2018: Marine Drugs
Tobias Jung, Matthias Mack
We studied the interaction of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) enzymes citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in the bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli in vivo. In B. subtilis the genes encoding citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase form an operon (citZ-icd-mdh) and predominantly are co-transcribed from a single promoter. In E. coli the corresponding genes gltA, icd and mdh do not form a transcription unit, are scattered around the chromosome and are expressed from different promoters...
March 13, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Assem Barakat, Abdullah M Al-Majid, Bander M Al-Qahtany, M Ali, Mohamed Teleb, Mohamed H Al-Agamy, Sehrish Naz, Zaheer Ul-Haq
BACKGROUND: Design and synthesis of pyrazole-dimedone derivatives were described by one-pot multicomponent reaction as new antimicrobial agents. These new molecular framework were synthesized in high yields with a broad substrate scope under benign conditions mediated by diethylamine (NHEt2 ). The molecular structures of the synthesized compounds were assigned based on different spectroscopic techniques (1 H-NMR,13 C-NMR, IR, MS, and CHN). RESULTS: The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against S...
March 14, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Zixing Dong, Xiaoling Chen, Ke Cai, Zhixin Chen, Hongbin Wang, Peng Jin, Xiaoguang Liu, Kugenthiren Permaul, Suren Singh, Zhengxiang Wang
Due to its high protein secretion capacity, simple nutritional requirements and the GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status, Bacillus licheniformis is widely used as a host for the industrial production of enzymes, antibiotics and peptides. However, as compared with its close relative B. subtilis , little is known about physiology and stress responses of B. licheniformis . To explore its temperature-stress metabolome, strains B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 and B186, with respective optimal growth temperatures of 42°C and 50°C, were cultured at 42°C, 50°C and 60°C and their corresponding metabolic profiles determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and multivariate statistical analyses...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Brintha Parasumanna Girinathan, Junjun Ou, Bruno Dupuy, Revathi Govind
Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. It produces dormant spores, which serve as an infectious vehicle responsible for transmission of the disease and persistence of the organism in the environment. In Bacillus subtilis, the sin locus coding SinR (113 aa) and SinI (57 aa) is responsible for sporulation inhibition. In B. subtilis, SinR mainly acts as a repressor of its target genes to control sporulation, biofilm formation, and autolysis. SinI is an inhibitor of SinR, so their interaction determines whether SinR can inhibit its target gene expression...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Amandeep Singh, M Vijayan, Umesh Varshney
In addition to the canonical Single Stranded DNA Binding (SSBa) protein, many bacterial species, including mycobacteria, have a paralogous SSBb. The SSBb proteins have not been well characterized. While in B. subtilis, SSBb has been shown to be involved in genetic recombination; in S. coelicolor it mediates chromosomal segregation during sporulation. Sequence analysis of SSBs from mycobacterial species suggests low conservation of SSBb proteins, as compared to the conservation of SSBa proteins. Like most bacterial SSB proteins, M...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Artur Martynov, Gennady Didenko, Boris Farber, Sophya Farber, Olena Cruts
OBJECTIVES: Many adenocarcinomas have the ability to capture from an extracellular matrix the oligonucleotides and nanoparticles by pinocytosis, when the non-cancerous cells are not capable to capture the oligonucleotides and small liposomes. This provides selective accumulation of proposed protected oligonucleotides (fRNA) in cancer cells and also provides the absence toxicity in the fRNA. METHODS: For the immunotherapy, we used immunotropic 70 kDa lectin Bacillus subtilis B-7025...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Roberto Ferro, Maja Rennig, Cristina Hernández-Rollán, Daniel O Daley, Morten H H Nørholm
BACKGROUND: The market for recombinant proteins is on the rise, and Gram-positive strains are widely exploited for this purpose. Bacillus subtilis is a profitable host for protein production thanks to its ability to secrete large amounts of proteins, and Lactococcus lactis is an attractive production organism with a long history in food fermentation. RESULTS: We have developed a synbio approach for increasing gene expression in two Gram-positive bacteria. First of all, the gene of interest was coupled to an antibiotic resistance gene to create a growth-based selection system...
March 8, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Daniel P Morse, Colin E Nevins, Joana Aggrey-Fynn, Rick J Bravo, Herman O I Pfaeffle, Jess E Laney
Riboswitches are RNA elements found in non-coding regions of messenger RNAs that regulate gene expression through a ligand-triggered conformational change. Riboswitches typically bind tightly and specifically to their ligands, so they have the potential to serve as highly effective sensors in vitro. In B. subtilis and other gram-positive bacteria, purine nucleotide synthesis is regulated by riboswitches that bind to guanine. We modified the xpt-pbuX guanine riboswitch for use in a fluorescence quenching assay that allowed us to specifically detect and quantify guanine in vitro...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Eva Gómez-Orte, Eric Cornes, Angelina Zheleva, Beatriz Sáenz-Narciso, María de Toro, María Iñiguez, Rosario López, Juan-Félix San-Juan, Begoña Ezcurra, Begoña Sacristán, Adolfo Sánchez-Blanco, Julián Cerón, Juan Cabello
The transcriptomes of model organisms have been defined under specific laboratory growth conditions. The standard protocol for Caenorhabditis elegans growth and maintenance is 20°C on an Escherichia coli diet. Temperatures ranging from 15°C to 25°C or feeding with other species of bacteria are considered physiological conditions, but the effect of these conditions on the worm transcriptome has not been well characterized. Here, we compare the global gene expression profile for the reference Caenorhabditis elegans strain (N2) grown at 15°C, 20°C, and 25°C on two different diets, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis ...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Achim Dickmanns, Christopher P Zschiedrich, Johannes Arens, Iwan Parfentev, Jan Gundlach, Romina Hofele, Piotr Neumann, Henning Urlaub, Boris Görke, Ralf Ficner, Jorg Stulke
Utilization of energy-rich carbon sources such as glucose is fundamental to the evolutionary success of bacteria. Glucose can be catabolized via glycolysis for feeding the intermediary metabolism. The methylglyoxal synthase MgsA produces methylglyoxal from the glycolytic intermediate dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Methylglyoxal is toxic, requiring stringent regulation of MgsA activity. In the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis , an interaction with the phosphoprotein Crh controls MgsA activity. In the absence of preferred carbon sources, Crh is present in the nonphosphorylated state and binds to and thereby inhibits MgsA...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Simon Mitchell, Koushik Roy, Thomas A Zangle, Alexander Hoffmann
Rapid antibody production in response to invading pathogens requires the dramatic expansion of pathogen-derived antigen-specific B lymphocyte populations. Whether B cell population dynamics are based on stochastic competition between competing cell fates, as in the development of competence by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis , or on deterministic cell fate decisions that execute a predictable program, as during the development of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans , remains unclear. Here, we developed long-term live-cell microscopy of B cell population expansion and multiscale mechanistic computational modeling to characterize the role of molecular noise in determining phenotype heterogeneity...
March 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hengchang Sun, Zhipeng Lin, Lu Zhao, Tingjin Chen, Mei Shang, Hongye Jiang, Zeli Tang, Xinyi Zhou, Mengchen Shi, Lina Zhou, Pengli Ren, Honglin Qu, Jinsi Lin, Xuerong Li, Jin Xu, Yan Huang, Xinbing Yu
BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis caused by Clonorchis sinensis has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. Effective prevention strategies are urgently needed to control this food-borne infectious disease. Previous studies indicated that paramyosin of C. sinensis (CsPmy) is a potential vaccine candidate. METHODS: We constructed a recombinant plasmid of PEB03-CotC-CsPmy, transformed it into Bacillus subtilis WB600 strain (B.s-CotC-CsPmy), and confirmed CsPmy expression on the spore surface by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay...
March 7, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Hiraku Takada, Hirofumi Yoshikawa
The WalK/WalR two-component system (TCS), originally identified in Bacillus subtilis, is very highly conserved in gram-positive bacteria, including several important pathogens. The WalK/WalR TCS appears to be involved in the growth of most bacterial species encoding it. Previous studies have indicated conserved functions of this system, defining this signal transduction pathway as a crucial regulatory system for cell wall metabolism. Because of such effects on essential functions, this system is considered a potential target for anti-infective therapeutics...
March 7, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Vasudeva Reddy Netala, Suman Bukke, Latha Domdi, S Soneya, Sindhu G Reddy, Murali Satyanarayana Bethu, Venkata Subbaiah Kotakdi, K V Saritha, Vijaya Tartte
The present study reports the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (IH-AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Indigofera hisruta L. The biosynthesized IH-AgNPs were found to be FCC crystals, 5-10 nm in size, spherical in shape and stable. The biosynthesized IH-AgNPs showed dose-dependant cytotoxicity against prostate cancer (PC3) (IC50  = 68.5 μg/mL), colon cancer (COLO205) (IC50  = 85.2 μg/mL), and mouse melanoma (B16F10) (IC50  = 80.9 μg/mL). IH-AgNPs were found to be nontoxic towards normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells...
March 7, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Youqiang Xu, Yuefeng Jiang, Xiuting Li, Baoguo Sun, Chao Teng, Ran Yang, Ke Xiong, Guangsen Fan, Wenhua Wang
Bacillus subtilis is an important microorganism for brewing of Chinese Baijiu, which contributes to the formation of flavour chemicals including acetoin and its derivative ligustrazine. The first stage of Baijiu brewing process is under the micro-oxygen condition; however, there are few studies about B. subtilis metabolism under this condition. Effects of various factors on acetoin and ligustrazine metabolism were investigated under this condition including key genes and fermentation conditions. Mutation of bdhA (encoding acetoin reductase) or overexpression of glcU (encoding glucose uptake protein) increased acetoin concentration...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kiran R Gadhave, Paul F Devlin, Andreas Ebertz, Arabella Ross, Alan C Gange
The use of microbial inoculants containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria as a promoter of plant fitness and health is becoming increasingly popular in agriculture. However, whether and how these bacteria affect indigenous bacterial communities in field conditions is sparsely explored. We studied the effects of seed inoculation and field soil application of ubiquitous soil bacteria, B. cereus, B. subtilis, and B. amyloliquefaciens, on the diversity, evenness, and richness of endophytic bacterial communities in sprouting broccoli roots using high-throughput metagenome sequencing...
March 6, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Yongjin Liu, Steven Kyle, Paul D Straight
Competitive interactions between bacteria reveal physiological adaptations that benefit fitness. Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive species with several adaptive mechanisms for competition and environmental stress. Biofilm formation, sporulation, and motility are the outcomes of widespread changes in a population of B. subtilis . These changes emerge from complex, regulated pathways for adapting to external stresses, including competition from other species. To identify competition-specific functions, we cultured B...
January 2018: MSphere
Alex-Rose Pogmore, Kenneth H Seistrup, Henrik Strahl
Rather than being homogenous diffusion-dominated structures, biological membranes can exhibit areas with distinct composition and characteristics, commonly termed as lipid domains. Arguably the most comprehensively studied examples in bacteria are domains formed by cardiolipin, which have been functionally linked to protein targeting, the cell division process and the mode of action of membrane-targeting antimicrobials. Cardiolipin domains were originally identified in the Gram-negative model organism Escherichia coli based on preferential staining by the fluorescent membrane dye nonylacridine orange (NAO), and later reported to also exist in other Gram-negative and -positive bacteria...
March 5, 2018: Microbiology
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