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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339792/interference-of-age-and-supplementation-of-direct-fed-microbial-and-essential-oil-in-the-activity-of-digestive-enzymes-and-expression-of-genes-related-to-transport-and-digestion-of-carbohydrates-and-proteins-in-the-small-intestine-of-broilers
#1
M F Fernandez-Alarcon, N Trottier, J P Steibel, R Lunedo, D M B Campos, A M Santana, J M Pizauro, R L Furlan, L R Furlan
The objectives of this study were to describe alterations that age and dietary inclusion of direct-fed microbial (DFM) Bacillus subtilis (BS) and a specific essential oil (EO) blend (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, cineol, and pepper extract) causes in the activity of digestive enzymes (maltase: MALT; aminopeptidase-N: APN; intestinal alkaline phosphate: IAP) and expression patterns of genes related to transport (oligopeptide transporter gene: SLC15A1; Na+-dependent glucose and galactose transporter gene: SLC5A1; Na+-independent glucose, galactose, and fructose transporter gene: SLC2A2; ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting gene: ATP1A1) and digestion (aminopeptidase-N gene: ANPEP; maltase-glucoamylase gene: MGAM; Sucrase-isomaltase gene: SI) of carbohydrates and proteins in the small intestine of broilers...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335391/new-metabolites-and-bioactive-chlorinated-benzophenone-derivatives-produced-by-a-marine-derived-fungus-pestalotiopsis-heterocornis
#2
Hui Lei, Xiuping Lin, Li Han, Jian Ma, Qingjuan Ma, Jialiang Zhong, Yonghong Liu, Tiemin Sun, Jinhui Wang, Xueshi Huang
Four new compounds, including two isocoumarins, pestaloisocoumarins A and B (1, 2), one sesquiterpenoid degradation, isopolisin B (4), and one furan derivative, pestalotiol A (5), together with one known isocoumarin, gamahorin (3), and three chlorinated benzophenone derivatives, pestalachloride B (6), pestalachloride E (7) and a mixture of pestalalactone atropisomers (8a/8b), were isolated from a culture of the fungus Pestalotiopsis heterocornis associated with sponge Phakellia fusca. These new chemical structures were established using NMR and MS spectroscopic data, as well as single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis and CD Cotton effects...
March 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335365/antibacterial-properties-of-visible-light-responsive-carbon-containing-titanium-dioxide-photocatalytic-nanoparticles-against-anthrax
#3
Der-Shan Sun, Jyh-Hwa Kau, Hsin-Hsien Huang, Yao-Hsuan Tseng, Wen-Shiang Wu, Hsin-Hou Chang
The bactericidal activity of conventional titanium dioxide (TiO₂) photocatalyst is effective only on irradiation by ultraviolet light, which restricts the applications of TiO₂ for use in living environments. Recently, carbon-containing TiO₂ nanoparticles [TiO₂(C) NP] were found to be a visible-light-responsive photocatalyst (VLRP), which displayed significantly enhanced antibacterial properties under visible light illumination. However, whether TiO₂(C) NPs exert antibacterial properties against Bacillus anthracis remains elusive...
December 9, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333961/phytochemical-investigation-of-aloe-pulcherrima-roots-and-evaluation-for-its-antibacterial-and-antiplasmodial-activities
#4
Dele Abdissa, Girma Geleta, Ketema Bacha, Negera Abdissa
Medicinal plants with documented traditional uses remain an important source for the treatment of a wide range of ailments. Evidence shows that majority of the Ethiopian population are still dependent on traditional medicine. Aloe pulcherrima Gilbert & Sebsebe is one of the endemic Aloe species traditionally used for the treatment of malaria and wound healing in central, Southern and Northern part of Ethiopia. The aim of the current study was, therefore, to isolate active compounds from roots of A. pulcherrima and evaluate for their antibacterial and antiplasmodial activities using standard test strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333204/proteins-ylaj-and-yhcn-contribute-to-the-efficiency-of-spore-germination-in-b-subtilis
#5
Christian L Johnson, Anne Moir
The YlaJ and YhcN spore lipoproteins of B. subtilis contain a common domain, and are of unknown function. Homologues of YlaJ or YhcN are widespread in Bacilli and are also encoded in those Clostridia that use cortex lytic enzymes SleB and CwlJ for cortex hydrolysis during germination. In B. subtilis, we report that single and double mutants lacking YlaJ and/or YhcN show a reduced rate of spore germination in L-alanine, with a delay in loss of heat resistance, release of DPA, and OD fall. If B. subtilis spores lack the cortex lytic enzyme CwlJ, spore cortex degradation and subsequent outgrowth to form colonies is strictly dependent on the other cortex lytic enzyme SleB, allowing a test of SleB function; in a cwlJ mutant background, the combined loss of both ylaJ and yhcN genes resulted in a spore population in which only 20% of spores germinated and outgrew to form colonies, suggesting that SleB activity is compromised...
February 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331163/in-vitro-evaluation-of-candidate-bacillus-spp-for-animal-feed
#6
Sirima Mingmongkolchai, Watanalai Panbangred
The aim of this study was to select aerobic spore-formers for animal feed based on their in vitro probiotic potential, including their enzyme-producing ability and safety assessment. Seven isolates out of 187 spore-forming bacteria were selected for their ability to produce cellulase (89.21-1668.32 U/ml), xylanase (1399.68-4351.10 U/ml), and phytase (2.72-28.70 U/ml). Among seven isolates, five had activities towards a broad range of p-nitrophenyl esters with acyl chain lengths from C2 to C12. The probiotic properties of all selected isolates varied with respect to their acid and bile salt tolerance under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions, and their adherence ability to human intestinal cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330333/extraction-and-bioactive-profile-of-the-compounds-produced-by-rhodococcus-sp-vld-10
#7
Bokka Yellamanda, Muvva Vijayalakshmi, Alapati Kavitha, Dorigondla Kumar Reddy, Yenamandra Venkateswarlu
A potent actinobacterial strain isolated from the marine samples of Bheemunipatnam beach, Visakhapatnam, India, was identified as Rhodococcus sp. VLD-10 using the conventional and genomic (16S rRNA) approaches. Bioactive compounds responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the strain were elucidated by cultivating the strain VLD-10 in a modified yeast extract-malt extract-lactose broth followed by subsequent chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses. Extraction, purification, and structural confirmation of five compounds, viz...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330266/biosorption-of-lead-copper-and-cadmium-using-the-extracellular-polysaccharides-eps-of-bacillus-sp-from-solar-salterns
#8
Syed Shameer
Extracellular Polysaccharides (EPS) from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have a great deal of research interest as they protect the producer from different stresses including antibiotics, ionic stress, desiccation and assist in bio-film formation, pathogenesis, adhesion, etc. In this study haloalkaliphilic Bacillus sp., known to cope with osmophilic stress, was selected and screened for EPS production. The EPS were isolated, partially purified and chemical characteristics were documented using liquid FT-IR followed by assessment of heavy metal biosorption (lead, copper and cadmium) using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330166/a-molecular-phylogenetic-framework-for-bacillus-subtilis-using-genome-sequences-and-its-application-to-bacillus-subtilis-subspecies-stecoris-strain-d7xpn1-an-isolate-from-a-commercial-food-waste-degrading-bioreactor
#9
Joseph Adelskov, Bharat K C Patel
A thermophilic, heterotrophic and facultatively anaerobic bacterium designated strain D7XPN1 was isolated from Baku BakuKing™, a commercial food-waste degrading bioreactor (composter). The strain grew optimally at 45 °C (growth range between 24 and 50 °C) and pH 7 (growth pH range between pH 5 and 9) in Luria Broth supplemented with 0.3 % glucose. Strain D7XPN1 tolerated up to 7 % NaCl and showed amylolytic and xylanolytic activities. 16S rRNA gene analysis placed strain D7XPN1 in the cluster represented by Bacillus subtilis and the genome analysis of the 4...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326485/preliminary-assessment-on-potentials-of-probiotic-b-subtilis-rx7-and-b-methylotrophicus-c14-strains-as-an-immune-modulator-in-salmonella-challenged-weaned-pigs
#10
Santi Devi Upadhaya, Suresh Kumar Shanmugam, Dae Kyung Kang, In Ho Kim
A total of 40 crossbred weaned piglets (28 days old; [Landrace × Yorkshire] × Duroc) were used for preliminary assessment on potentials of Bacillus-based probiotics as an immune modulator in a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge model in a 3-week experiment. Pigs were randomly allotted to four experimental diets according to their initial body weight (9.21 ± 1.1 kg) and sex (10 pigs per treatment; 5 barrows and 5 gilts). The dietary treatments were basal diet (CON), basal diet + oral administration of Salmonella enterica ser...
March 21, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323213/oral-delivery-of-bacillus-subtilis-spores-expressing-cysteine-protease-of-clonorchis-sinensis-to-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idellus-induces-immune-responses-and-has-no-damage-on-liver-and-intestine-function
#11
Zeli Tang, Hengchang Sun, TingJin Chen, Zhipeng Lin, Hongye Jiang, Xinyi Zhou, Cunbin Shi, Houjun Pan, Ouqin Chang, Pengli Ren, Jinyun Yu, Xuerong Li, Jin Xu, Yan Huang, Xinbing Yu
Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is a fish-borne trematode. Human can be infected by ingestion of C. sinensis metacercariae parasitized in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For induction of effective oral immune responses, spores of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) WB600 were utilized as vehicle to delivery CsCP (cysteine protease of C. sinensis) cooperated with CotC (B.s-CotC-CP), one of coat proteins, to the gastrointestinal tract. After routine culture of 8-12 h in LB medium, B. subtilis containing CotC-CsCP was transferred into the sporulation culture medium...
March 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319123/saccharomyces-boulardii-and-bacillus-subtilis-b10-modulate-tlrs-and-cytokines-expression-patterns-in-jejunum-and-ileum-of-broilers
#12
Imran Rashid Rajput, Huang Ying, Sun Yajing, Muhammad Asif Arain, Li Weifen, Li Ping, Dost Muhammad Bloch, Liu Wenhua
The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) and Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs) on intestinal epithelial Toll like receptors (TLR), and Cytokine expression response to understand the intestinal epithelial innate immune mechanism in broilers. A total of 300 birds (Sanhuang broilers) were allotted into three groups (n = 100) and each divided into five replications (n = 20). Control group (Ctr) birds were fed basal diet, broilers in experimental groups received (1×108cfu/kg feed) Sb and Bs respectively in addition to basal diet for 72 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303908/disruption-of-autolysis-in-bacillus-subtilis-using-tio2-nanoparticles
#13
Eric McGivney, Linchen Han, Astrid Avellan, Jeanne VanBriesen, Kelvin B Gregory
In contrast to many nanotoxicity studies where nanoparticles (NPs) are observed to be toxic or reduce viable cells in a population of bacteria, we observed that increasing concentration of TiO2 NPs increased the cell survival of Bacillus subtilis in autolysis-inducing buffer by 0.5 to 5 orders of magnitude over an 8 hour exposure. Molecular investigations revealed that TiO2 NPs prevent or delay cell autolysis, an important survival and growth-regulating process in bacterial populations. Overall, the results suggest two potential mechanisms for the disruption of autolysis by TiO2 NPs in a concentration dependent manner: (i) directly, through TiO2 NP deposition on the cell wall, delaying the collapse of the protonmotive-force and preventing the onset of autolysis; and (ii) indirectly, through adsorption of autolysins on TiO2 NP, limiting the activity of released autolysins and preventing further lytic activity...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294562/hierarchical-mutational-events-compensate-for-glutamate-auxotrophy-of-a-bacillus-subtilis-gltc-mutant
#14
Miriam Dormeyer, Anastasia L Lübke, Peter Müller, Sabine Lentes, Daniel R Reuß, Andrea Thürmer, Jörg Stülke, Rolf Daniel, Sabine Brantl, Fabian M Commichau
Glutamate is the major donor of nitrogen for anabolic reactions. The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis either utilizes exogenously provided glutamate or synthesizes it using the gltAB-encoded glutamate synthase (GOGAT). In the absence of glutamate, the transcription factor GltC activates expression of the GOGAT genes for glutamate production. Consequently, a gltC mutant strain is auxotrophic for glutamate. Using a genetic selection and screening system, we could isolate and differentiate between gltC suppressor mutants in one step...
March 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294433/transcriptional-regulation-of-adhesive-properties-of-bacillus-subtilis-to-extracellular-matrix-proteins-through-the-fibronectin-binding-protein-yloa
#15
Facundo Rodriguez Ayala, Carlos Bauman, Marco Bartolini, Ester Saball, Marcela Salvarrey, Cecilia Leñini, Sebastián Cogliati, Mark Strauch, Roberto Grau
Bacterial adherence to extracellular matrix proteins (ECMp) plays important roles during host-pathogen interaction, however its genetic regulation remains poorly understood. yloA of the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis shows high homology to genes encoding fibronectin-binding proteins of Gram-positive pathogens. Here, we characterized the regulatory network of YloA-dependent adhesive properties of the probiotic B. subtilis natto (Bsn). YloA-proficient, but not YloA-deficient, Bsn specifically bound to ECMp in a concentration-dependent manner and were proficient in biofilm formation...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294162/sporicidal-activity-of-ceragenin-csa-13-against-bacillus-subtilis
#16
Ewelina Piktel, Katarzyna Pogoda, Maciej Roman, Katarzyna Niemirowicz, Grażyna Tokajuk, Marta Wróblewska, Beata Szynaka, Wojciech M Kwiatek, Paul B Savage, Robert Bucki
Spore-forming bacteria are a class of microorganisms that possess the ability to survive in extreme environmental conditions. Morphological features of spores assure their resistance to stress factors such as high temperature, radiation, disinfectants, and drying. Consequently, spore elimination in industrial and medical environments is very challenging. Ceragenins are a new class of cationic lipids characterized by a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity resulting from amphipathic nature and membrane-permeabilizing properties...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293229/fungal-root-microbiome-from-healthy-and-brittle-leaf-diseased-date-palm-trees-phoenix-dactylifera-l-reveals-a-hidden-untapped-arsenal-of-antibacterial-and-broad-spectrum-antifungal-secondary-metabolites
#17
Fedia B Mefteh, Amal Daoud, Ali Chenari Bouket, Faizah N Alenezi, Lenka Luptakova, Mostafa E Rateb, Adel Kadri, Neji Gharsallah, Lassaad Belbahri
In this study, we aimed to explore and compare the composition, metabolic diversity and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi colonizing internal tissues of healthy and brittle leaf diseased (BLD) date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) widely cultivated in arid zones of Tunisia. A total of 52 endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy and BLD roots of date palm trees, identified based on internal transcribed spacer-rDNA sequence analysis and shown to represent 13 species belonging to five genera. About 36...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288571/in-vivo-characterization-of-an-hfq-protein-encoded-by-the-bacillus-anthracis-virulence-plasmid-pxo1
#18
Andrea B Keefer, Eugenia K Asare, Andrei P Pomerantsev, Mahtab Moayeri, Craig Martens, Stephen F Porcella, Susan Gottesman, Stephen H Leppla, Catherine E Vrentas
BACKGROUND: Bacterial Hfq proteins post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression, primarily by mediating the interaction between sRNAs (small RNAs) and their target mRNAs. The role of Hfq-based regulation has been well defined in Gram-negative bacteria, but comparatively less is known about the impact of Hfq proteins in Gram-positive species. The Gram-positive pathogen Bacillus anthracis (causative agent of anthrax) is distinct in that it expresses three homologs of Hfq: Hfq1 and Hfq2 from the chromosome, and Hfq3 from the pXO1 virulence plasmid...
March 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286694/highly-stereoselective-biocatalytic-synthesis-of-key-cyclopropane-intermediate-to-ticagrelor
#19
Kari E Hernandez, Hans Renata, Russell D Lewis, S B Jennifer Kan, Chen Zhang, Jared Forte, David Rozzell, John A McIntosh, Frances H Arnold
Extending the scope of biocatalysis to important non-natural reactions such as olefin cyclopropanation will open new opportunities for replacing multi-step chemical syntheses of pharmaceutical intermediates with efficient, clean, and highly selective enzyme-catalyzed processes. In this work, we engineered the truncated globin of Bacillus subtilis for the synthesis of a cyclopropane precursor to the antithrombotic agent ticagrelor. The engineered enzyme catalyzes the cyclopropanation of 3,4-difluorostyrene with ethyl diazoacetate on a preparative scale to give ethyl-(1R, 2R)-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-cyclopropanecarboxylate in 79% yield, with very high diastereoselectivity (>99% dr) and enantioselectivity (98% ee), enabling a single-step biocatalytic route to this pharmaceutical intermediate...
November 4, 2016: ACS Catalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284566/benzofuran-glycosides-and-coumarins-from-the-bark-of-streblus-indicus-bur-corner
#20
Ruijie He, Yanjun Zhang, Liangdeng Wu, Hui Nie, Yan Huang, Buming Liu, Shengping Deng, Ruiyun Yang, Shuai Huang, Zhijie Nong, Jun Li, Haiyan Chen
Two pairs of rare benzofuran glucoside epimers, indicuses A and B and indicuses C and D, three biogenetically related compounds indicuses E-G, and one coumarin indicus H, as well as 11 known compounds, were isolated from the bark of Streblus indicus (Bur.) Corner. The structures of indicuses A-H were elucidated by NMR and MS data, as well as by CD. (S)-Marmesinin exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity in vitro against Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 7,8-Dihydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl) coumarin, umbelliferone, and scopoletin displayed strong cytotoxic activity in vitro against human bladder carcinoma cell line EJ...
March 8, 2017: Phytochemistry
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