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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343670/anti-sigma-factor-mediated-cell-surface-stress-responses-in-bacillus-subtilis
#1
Kei Asai
Proteins belonging to the sigma factor family in eubacteria initiate transcription by associating with RNA polymerase. A subfamily, the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors, which form a widely distributed bacterial signal transduction system comprising a sigma factor and a cognate membrane-embedded anti-sigma factor, regulates genes in response to stressors that threaten cell envelope integrity including the cell wall and membrane. The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis provides a valuable model for investigation of the ECF sigma factors...
January 17, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343515/discovery-of-genes-required-for-lipoteichoic-acid-glycosylation-predicts-two-distinct-mechanism-for-wall-teichoic-acid-glycosylation
#2
Jeanine Rismondo, Matthew G Percy, Angelika Gründling
The bacterial cell wall is an important and highly complex structure that is essential for bacterial growth because it protects bacteria from cell lysis and environmental insults. A typical Gram-positive bacterial cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan and the secondary cell wall polymers, wall teichoic acid (WTA) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). In many Gram-positive bacteria, LTA is a polyglycerol-phosphate chain that is decorated with D-alanine and sugar residues. However, the function of and proteins responsible for the glycosylation of LTA are either unknown or not well-characterized...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339506/development-and-retention-of-a-primordial-moonlighting-pathway-of-protein-modification-in-the-absence-of-selection-presents-a-puzzle
#3
Xinyun Cao, Yaoqin Hong, Lei Zhu, Yuanyuan Hu, John E Cronan
Lipoic acid is synthesized by a remarkably atypical pathway in which the cofactor is assembled on its cognate proteins. An octanoyl moiety diverted from fatty acid synthesis is covalently attached to the acceptor protein, and sulfur insertion at carbons 6 and 8 of the octanoyl moiety form the lipoyl cofactor. Covalent attachment of this cofactor is required for function of several central metabolism enzymes, including the glycine cleavage H protein (GcvH). In Bacillus subtilis, GcvH is the sole substrate for lipoate assembly...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335298/crystal-structure-of-ispf-from-bacillus-subtilis-and-absence-of-protein-complex-assembly-among-ispd-ispe-ispf-enzymes-in-the-mep-pathway
#4
Zhongchuan Liu, Yun Jin, Weifeng Liu, Yong Tao, Ganggang Wang
2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 2, 4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (IspF) is a key enzyme in the 2-C-Methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis. This enzyme catalyzes the 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 2-phosphate (CDPME2P) to 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 2, 4-cyclodiphosphate (MEcDP) with concomitant release of cytidine 5'-diphospate (cytosine monophosphate) (CMP). Bacillus subtilis is a potential host cell for the production of isoprenoids, but few studies are performed on the key enzymes of MEP pathway in B...
January 15, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330188/germination-outgrowth-and-vegetative-growth-kinetics-of-dry-heat-treated-individual-spores-of-bacillus-species
#5
Lin He, Zhan Chen, Shiwei Wang, Muying Wu, Peter Setlow, Yong-Qing Li
DNA damage kills dry-heated spores of Bacillus subtilis, but dry heat-treatment effects on spore germination and outgrowth have not been studied. This is important, since if dry heat-killed spores germinate and undergo outgrowth, toxic proteins could be synthesized. Here, Raman spectroscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy were used to study germination and outgrowth of individual dry heat-treated B. subtilis and Bacillus megaterium spores. Major findings in this work were as follows. 1) Spores dry heat-treated at 140°C for 20 min nearly all lost viability but retained their Ca2+-dipicolinic acid (CaDPA) depot...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330178/development-of-an-efficient-genome-editing-tool-in-bacillus-licheniformis-using-crispr-cas9-nickase
#6
Kaifeng Li, Dongbo Cai, Zhangqian Wang, Zhili He, Shouwen Chen
Bacillus strains are important industrial bacteria that can produce various biochemical products. However, low transformation efficiencies and a lack of effective genome editing tools have hindered its widespread application. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/cas9 techniques have been utilized in many organisms as genome editing tools because of their high efficiency and easy manipulation. In this study, an efficient genome editing method was developed for Bacillus licheniformis using a CRISPR-Cas9 nickase integrated into the genome of B...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329009/well-controlled-in-situ-growth-of-2d-wo3-rectangular-sheets-on-reduced-graphene-oxide-with-strong-photocatalytic-and-antibacterial-properties
#7
Bilal Ahmed, Animesh K Ojha, Ajeet Singh, Florian Hirsch, Ingo Fischer, Donfack Patrice, Arnulf Materny
Finding the materials, which help to control the water pollution caused by organic and bacterial pollutants is one of the challenging tasks for the scientific community. 2D sheets of WO3 and composite of WO3 and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been synthesized in a well-controlled way using a hydrothermal method. The as synthesized 2D sheet of WO3 and rGO-WO3 composite were characterized by various techniques. The 2D sheets of WO3 and rGO-WO3 composite are efficiently utilized for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RhB) dyes under sunlight...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324337/amino-acid-conjugated-antimicrobial-drugs-synthesis-lipophilicity-activity-relationship-antibacterial-and-urease-inhibition-activity
#8
Atta Ullah, Fatima Iftikhar, Muhammad Arfan, Syeda Tayyaba Batool Kazmi, Muhammad Naveed Anjum, Ihsan-Ul Haq, Muhammad Ayaz, Sadia Farooq, Umer Rashid
Present work describes the in vitro antibacterial evaluation of some new amino acid conjugated antimicrobial drugs. Structural modification was attempted on the three existing antimicrobial pharmaceuticals namely trimethoprim, metronidazole, isoniazid. Twenty one compounds from seven series of conjugates of these drugs were synthesized by coupling with some selected Boc-protected amino acids. The effect of structural features and lipophilicity on the antibacterial activity was investigated. The synthesized compounds were evaluated against five standard American type culture collection (ATCC) i...
December 29, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321996/comparative-evaluation-of-antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-potential-of-ethanolic-extract-and-its-fractions-of-bark-and-leaves-of-terminalia-arjuna-from-north-western-himalayas-india
#9
Vikas Kumar, Nitin Sharma, Anuradha Sourirajan, Prem Kumar Khosla, Kamal Dev
The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract and its different solvent fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fraction) of bark and leaves of Terminalia arjuna. The antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods against six bacterial stains. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by using DPPH, FRAP and Nitric oxide (NO) scavenging assay. The total phenolics and flavonoid content were found to be higher in n-butanolic fraction of bark (294...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319517/characterisation-of-antimicrobial-properties-of-extracts-of-selected-medicinal-plants
#10
Monika Cioch, Paweł Satora, Magdalena Skotniczny, Dorota Semik-Szczurak, Tomasz Tarko
The scope of the experiments included analysis of the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous extracts against bacterial and fungal cultures and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration of plant extracts tested microbial growth. Analysis of the antifungal and antibacterial activity was carried out by the disc diffusion method using paper discs. In the experiment 11 species of microorganisms - 8 bacterial and 3 fungal strains were used. The highest antimicrobial activity against the tested strains was demonstrated by black elder (Sambucus nigra L...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317196/protonophoric-action-of-triclosan-causes-calcium-efflux-from-mitochondria-plasma-membrane-depolarization-and-bursts-of-miniature-end-plate-potentials
#11
Lyudmila B Popova, Ekaterina S Nosikova, Elena A Kotova, Ekaterina O Tarasova, Pavel A Nazarov, Lyudmila S Khailova, Olga P Balezina, Yuri N Antonenko
The formerly widely used broad-spectrum biocide triclosan (TCS) has now become a subject of special concern due to its accumulation in the environment and emerging diverse toxicity. Despite the common opinion that TCS is an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, there have been so far no studies of protonophoric activity of this biocide on artificial bilayer lipid membranes (BLM). Yet only few works have indicated the relationship between TCS impacts on mitochondria and nerve cell functioning...
January 6, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316866/the-first-high-frequency-of-recombination-like-conjugal-transfer-from-an-integrated-origin-of-transfer-sequence-in-bacillus-subtilis-168
#12
Mitsuhiro Itaya, Miki Hasegawa, Masaru Tomita, Mitsuru Sato
Bacillus subtilis 168 was developed as a genome vector to manipulate large DNA fragments. The system is based on the inherent natural transformation (TF) activity. However, DNA size transferred by TF is limited up to approximately 100 kb. A conjugal transfer system capable of transferring DNA fragments considerably larger than those transferred by TF was developed. A well-defined oriT110 sequence and a cognate relaxase gene from the pUB110 plasmid were inserted into the xkdE gene of the B. subtilis genome...
January 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314657/molecular-and-genetic-interactions-of-the-rna-degradation-machineries-in-firmicute-bacteria
#13
REVIEW
Peter Redder
Correct balance between bacterial RNA degradation and synthesis is essential for controlling expression level of all RNAs. The RNA polymerase, which performs the RNA synthesis, is highly conserved across the bacterial domain. However, this is surprisingly not the case for the RNA degradation machinery, which is composed of different subunits and performs different enzymatic reactions, depending on the organism. In Escherichia coli, the RNA decay is performed by the degradosome complex, which forms around the membrane-associated endoribonuclease RNase E, and is stable enough to be purified without falling apart...
January 5, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311275/the-c-terminal-region-of-bacillus-subtilis-swra-is-required-for-activity-and-adaptor-dependent-lona-proteolysis
#14
Anna C Hughes, Sundharraman Subramanian, Charles E Dann, Daniel B Kearns
SwrA is the master activator of flagellar biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis and SwrA activity is restricted by regulatory proteolysis in liquid environments. SwrA is proteolyzed by the LonA protease but requires a proteolytic adaptor protein, SmiA. Here we show that SwrA and SmiA interact directly. To better understand SwrA activity, SwrA was randomly mutagenized and loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutants were localized primarily to the predicted unstructured C-terminal region. Loss-of-function mutations impaired swarming motility and activation from the Pfla-che promoter...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308497/multifunctional-hybrid-aerogels-hyperbranched-polymer-trapped-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-for-sustained-and-prolonged-drug-release
#15
Heveline D M Follmann, Osvaldo N Oliveira, Danielle Lazarin-Bidóia, Celso V Nakamura, Xiaoxi Huang, Tewodros Asefa, Rafael Silva
In this study, we show the synthesis of novel hybrid organic-inorganic aerogel materials with one-dimensionally aligned pores and demonstrate their use as sustained and prolonged release systems for a hydrophobic drug. The materials are synthesized by trapping mesoporous silica nanoparticles within a hyperbranched polymer network made from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The synthetic method involves dispersing mesoporous silica nanoparticles in a polymer solution, then freeze-drying the solution, and finally subjecting the resulting materials to high temperature to activate a solid-state condensation reaction between PVA and PAA...
January 8, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306204/a-comparative-study-on-the-binary-and-ternary-mixture-toxicity-of-antibiotics-towards-three-bacteria-based-on-qsar-investigation
#16
Dali Wang, Xiaodan Wu, Zhifen Lin, Yangyang Ding
Antibiotics have become common pollutants in the environment. In most cases, the antibiotics in the environment exist as mixtures, posing joint effects on the organisms. Therefore, the mixture toxicity of the antibiotics can better reflect their environmental risks. In this paper, three types of commonly used antibiotics, i.e., sulfonamides (SAs), SA potentiators (SAPs) and tetracyclines (TCs) were investigated for their binary and tertiary mixture toxicity on three bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Vibrio fischeri (V...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306007/molecular-discrimination-of-bacillus-cereus-group-species-in-foods-lettuce-spinach-and-kimbap-using-quantitative-real-time-pcr-targeting-groel-and-gyrb
#17
Shuai Wei, Ramachandran Chelliah, Byung-Jae Park, Joong-Hyun Park, Fereidoun Forghani, Youn-Seo Park, Min-Seok Cho, Dong-Suk Park, Deog-Hwan Oh
The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate specific biomarkers to differentiate within Bacillus cereus group species from contaminated food samples with the use of real-time PCR. A total of 120 strains, comprising of 28 reference, 2 type, 78 wild strains of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis along with 12 strains representing 2 bacterial groups - B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, B. weihenstephanensis (B. cereus group); B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes (non-Bacillus sp...
January 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305718/synthesis-characterization-and-evaluation-of-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-biogenic-silver-nanoparticles-synthesized-from-streptomyces-xinghaiensis-of1-strain
#18
Magdalena Wypij, Joanna Czarnecka, Magdalena Świecimska, Hanna Dahm, Mahendra Rai, Patrycja Golinska
We report synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Streptomyces xinghaiensis OF1 strain, which were characterised by UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Zeta sizer, Nano tracking analyser, and Transmission electron microscopy. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs alone, and in combination with antibiotics was evaluated against bacteria, namely Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and yeasts viz., Candida albicans and Malassezia furfur by using micro-dilution method...
January 5, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302032/phenotypic-memory-in-bacillus-subtilis-links-dormancy-entry-and-exit-by-a-spore-quantity-quality-tradeoff
#19
Alper Mutlu, Stephanie Trauth, Marika Ziesack, Katja Nagler, Jan-Philip Bergeest, Karl Rohr, Nils Becker, Thomas Höfer, Ilka B Bischofs
Some bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, withstand starvation by forming dormant spores that revive when nutrients become available. Although sporulation and spore revival jointly determine survival in fluctuating environments, the relationship between them has been unclear. Here we show that these two processes are linked by a phenotypic "memory" that arises from a carry-over of molecules from the vegetative cell into the spore. By imaging life histories of individual B. subtilis cells using fluorescent reporters, we demonstrate that sporulation timing controls nutrient-induced spore revival...
January 4, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291491/triphenyltin-derivatives-of-sulfanylcarboxylic-esters
#20
José S Casas, María D Couce, Agustín Sánchez, Rafael Seoane, José Sordo, Antonio Perez-Estévez, Ezequiel Vázquez-López
The reaction of 3-(aryl)-2-sulfanylpropenoic acids [H2xspa; x: p=3-phenyl-, f=3-(2-furyl)-, t=3-(2-thienyl)-] with methanol or ethanol gave the corresponding methyl (Hxspme) or ethyl (Hxspee) esters. The reaction of these esters (HL) with triphenyltin(IV) hydroxide gave compounds of the type [SnPh3L], which were isolated and characterized as solids by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry and in solution by multinuclear (1H, 13C and 119Sn) NMR spectroscopy. The structures of [SnPh3(pspme)], [SnPh3(fspme)] and [SnPh3(fspee)] were determined by X-ray diffractometry and the antimicrobial activity against E...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
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