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B. subtilis

Tabitha Bucher, Elena Kartvelishvily, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal
This work assesses different methodologies to study the impact of small molecule biofilm inhibitors, such as D-amino acids, on the development and resilience of Bacillus subtilis biofilms. First, methods are presented that select for small molecule inhibitors with biofilm-specific targets in order to separate the effect of the small molecule inhibitors on planktonic growth from their effect on biofilm formation. Next, we focus on how inoculation conditions affect the sensitivity of multicellular, floating B...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Katja Nagler, Antonina O Krawczyk, Anne De Jong, Kazimierz Madela, Tamara Hoffmann, Michael Laue, Oscar P Kuipers, Erhard Bremer, Ralf Moeller
In its natural habitat, the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis often has to cope with fluctuating osmolality and nutrient availability. Upon nutrient depletion it can form dormant spores, which can revive to form vegetative cells when nutrients become available again. While the effects of salt stress on spore germination have been analyzed previously, detailed knowledge on the salt stress response during the subsequent outgrowth phase is lacking. In this study, we investigated the changes in gene expression during B...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ritu Bala, Jagriti Behal, Varinder Kaur, Subheet Kumar Jain, Riveka Rani, Rajesh Kumari Manhas, Vinit Prakash
Using ultrasonic irradiations, nano-sized cobalt(III) coordination complexes, [Co(NH3)6]Cl3·2H2O (A), [Co(en)3]Cl3·3H2O (B) (en-ethylenediamine) and [Co(dien)2]Cl3·3.5H2O (C) (dien-diethylenetriamine) were synthesized. These complexes were characterized by spectroscopic studies like IR, UV/Visible and NMR. Morphology of these complexes was determined by SEM and particle size with the help of TEM & Zeta-sizer. The comparative thermal stability along with phase difference between nano structures and their respective bulk complexes has been studied by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) study respectively...
October 8, 2016: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Jie Zhang, Hui Pang, Mengxia Ma, Yufen Bu, Wei Shao, Weijing Huang, Qianlong Ji, Yuncong Yao
Plant growth can be promoted by the application of apple fruit fermentation (AFF), despite unclear of the underlying mechanisms, the effects involved in AFF on rhizosphere microorganisms have been hypothesized. We investigated the consequences of applying AFF alone or in combination with Bacillus licheniformis to strawberry tissue culture seedlings in vitro, the analyses of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA were performed to determine AFF effects on rhizosphere. Moreover, the growth index and antioxidant enzyme activities were determined 30 days after treatments...
2016: PloS One
Shuai Jiang, Beatriz Chiyin Ma, Jonas Reinholz, Qifeng Li, Junwei Wang, Kai A I Zhang, Katharina Landfester, Daniel Crespy
Materials with a hierarchical structure often demonstrate superior properties with combined and even synergistic effects of multiple functions. Herein, we report the design of a new class of material with a multicompartment nanofibrous structure as a promising candidate for antibacterial wound dressing and functional textile applications. The design consists in first synthesizing nanocapsules loaded with functional payloads and subsequently embedding the nanocapsules into polymer nanofibers by using colloid-electrospinning technique...
October 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Valmiki B Koli, Sagar D Delekar, Shivaji H Pawar
In this study, nanocomposites of Fe-doped TiO2 with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (0.1- 0.5 wt. %) were prepared by using sol-gel method. The structural and morphological analysis were carried out with using X-ray diffraction pattern and transmission electron microscopy, which confirm the presence of pure anatase phase and particle sizes in the range 15-20 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the surface compositions of the nanocomposites. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra confirm redshift in the optical absorption edge of nanocomposites with increasing amount of multi-walled carbon nanotubes...
December 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Renwen Zhang, Xiaoxue Han, Zhanfeng Xia, Xiaoxia Luo, Chuanxing Wan, Lili Zhang
A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 49605(T), was isolated from a desert soil sample from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, north-west China, and characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain exhibited antifungal activity against the following strains: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium citrinum, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis; Antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus; and no antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli...
October 17, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Lidia Araújo-Bazán, Laura B Ruiz-Avila, David Andreu, Sonia Huecas, José M Andreu
Cell division protein FtsZ is the organizer of the cytokinetic ring in almost all bacteria and a target for the discovery of new antibacterial agents that are needed to counter widespread antibiotic resistance. Bacterial cytological profiling, using quantitative microscopy, is a powerful approach for identifying the mechanism of action of antibacterial molecules affecting different cellular pathways. We have determined the cytological profile on Bacillus subtilis cells of a selection of small molecule inhibitors targeting FtsZ on different binding sites...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Youran Li, Zhenghua Gu, Liang Zhang, Zhongyang Ding, Guiyang Shi
Trehalose synthase (TreS) could transform maltose into trehalose via isomerization. It is a crucial enzyme in the process of trehalose enzymatical transformation. In this study, plasmid-based inducible expression systems were constructed to produce Thermomonospora curvata TreS in B. licheniformis. Xylose operons from B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. megaterium were introduced to regulate the expression of the gene encoding TreS. It was functionally expressed, and the BlsTs construct yielded the highest enzyme activity (12...
October 14, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
Jacob Barlow, Kevin Gozzi, Chase P Kelley, Benjamin M Geilich, Thomas J Webster, Yunrong Chai, Srinivas Sridhar, Anne L van de Ven
Encapsulating bacteria within constrained microenvironments can promote the manifestation of specialized behaviors. Using double-emulsion droplet-generating microfluidic synthesis, live Bacillus subtilis bacteria were encapsulated in a semi-permeable membrane composed of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(D,L-lactic acid) (mPEG-PDLLA). This polymer membrane was sufficiently permeable to permit exponential bacterial growth, metabolite-induced gene expression, and rapid biofilm growth. The biodegradable microparticles retained structural integrity for several days and could be successfully degraded with time or sustained bacterial activity...
October 15, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Wei Zhang, Jingbao Liu, Jocelyn M Macho, Xizhen Jiang, Dongsheng Xie, Faqin Jiang, Wenlu Liu, Lei Fu
The synthesis of (S)-2-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)-3-(benzoxazol-5-yl) propanoic acid derivatives (2a-k) were described and their in vitro antibacterial activities were determined against Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. These compounds were found to exert a broad spectrum of activity against the screened bacteria, but poor MIC values were found for Candida albicans fungi. Compound 2b bearing a hydrophobic aromatic tie was the most active derivative against all bacteria studied with MIC values ranging from 0...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Ana Claudia Sánchez-Ortiz, Carlos Angulo, Antonio Luna-González, Píndaro Álvarez-Ruiz, José Manuel Mazón-Suástegui, Ángel Isidro Campa-Córdova
The widespread overuse of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistance shrimp pathogens, the negative impact on shrimp gut microbiota, and the presence of antimicrobial residues in aquaculture products, with negative consequences on human health. Alternatively, probiotics have positive effects on immunological responses and productive performance of aquatic animals. In this study, three probiotic bacteria, (Bacillus licheniformis MAt32, B. subtilis MAt43 and B. subtilis subsp...
October 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Joey B Tanney, David R McMullin, Blake D Green, J David Miller, Keith A Seifert
The genus Diaporthe comprises close to 800 species, with around 2000 names attributed to it and its asexual morphs previously recognized in Phomopsis. Diaporthe species are common plant associates, including saprotrophs, pathogens, and endophytes affiliated with a diverse range of hosts worldwide. In this study, an unknown Diaporthe sp. was frequently isolated as an endophyte from healthy Picea mariana and Picea rubens needles in the Acadian forest of Eastern Canada. Morphological observations and the application of the genealogical concordance phylogenetic species recognition concept using four unlinked loci (internal transcribed spacer (ITS), DNA-lyase (Apn2), translation elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α), and beta-tubulin (TUB)) support the distinctiveness of this species, described here as Diaporthe maritima...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
A A Al-Gheethi, R M S R Mohamed, A N Efaq, I Norli, Abdullah Abd Halid, H K Amir, M O Ab Kadir
The study probed into reducing faecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria, heavy metals and β-lactam antibiotics, from four types of secondary effluents by bioaugmentation process, which was conducted with Bacillus subtilis strain at 45 °C. As a result, faecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria were reduced due to the effect of thermal treatment process (45 °C), while the removal of heavy metals and β-lactam antibiotics was performed through the functions of bioaccumulation and biodegradation processes of B...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Waheed Ullah Khan, Nasim Ahmad Yasin, Sajid Rashid Ahmad, Aamir Ali, Shakil Ahmed, Aqeel Ahmad
In our current study four nickel tolerant (Ni-tolerant) bacterial species viz: Bacillus thuringiensis 002, Bacillus fortis 162, Bacillus subtilis 174 and Bacillus farraginis 354 were screened by using Ni contaminated media. The screened microbes exhibited positive results for synthesis of indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore production and phosphate solubilization. The effects of these screened microbes on Ni mobility in the soil, root elongation, plant biomass and Ni uptake in Althea rosea plants grown in Ni contaminated soil (200 mg Ni kg(-1)) were evaluated...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Jian Cheng, Wei Zhuang, Nana Li, Chenglun Tang, Hanjie Ying
Low D-ribose production by B. subtilis was resulted from plenty of acid formation as responsible for carbon overflow. An approach of co-feeding glucose and sodium citrate is developed here and proved to be useful for D-ribose production. This strategy is critical because it affects the cell concentration, the productivity of D-ribose and, especially, the formation of by-products such as acetoin, lactate, and acetate. D-ribose production was increased by 59.6% from 71.06 to 113.41 g l(-1) without acid formation via co-feeding of 2...
October 14, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Yaseen A M M Elshaier, Assem Barakat, Bander M Al-Qahtany, Abdullah Mohammed Al-Majid, Mohamed H Al-Agamy
A one-pot reaction was described that results in various pyrazole-thiobarbituric acid derivatives as new pharmacophore agents. These new heterocycles were synthesized in high yields with a broad substrate scope under mild reaction conditions in water mediated by NHEt₂. The molecular structures of the synthesized compounds were assigned based on different spectroscopic techniques. The new compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Compounds 4h and 4l were the most active compounds against C...
October 9, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chaoyang Zhou, Lingling Shi, Bin Ye, Haichao Feng, Ji Zhang, Ruifu Zhang, Xin Yan
Aside from applications in the production of commercial enzymes and metabolites, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is also an important group of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that supports plant growth and suppresses phytopathogens. A host-genotype-independent counter-selectable marker would enable rapid genetic manipulation and metabolic engineering, accelerating the study of B. amyloliquefaciens and its development as both a microbial cell factory and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Here, a host-genotype-independent counter-selectable marker pheS (*) was constructed through a point mutation of the gene pheS, which encodes the α-subunit of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase in Bacillus subtilis strain 168...
October 11, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Marina Borisova, Rosmarie Gaupp, Amanda Duckworth, Alexander Schneider, Désirée Dalügge, Maraike Mühleck, Denise Deubel, Sandra Unsleber, Wenqi Yu, Günther Muth, Markus Bischoff, Friedrich Götz, Christoph Mayer
: Peptidoglycan recycling is a metabolic process by which Gram-negative bacteria reutilize up to half of their cell wall within one generation during vegetative growth. Whether peptidoglycan recycling also occurs in Gram-positive bacteria has so far remained unclear. We show here that three Gram-positive model organisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptomyces coelicolor, all recycle the sugar N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) of their peptidoglycan during growth in rich medium...
October 11, 2016: MBio
Hongye Jiang, Tingjin Chen, Hengchang Sun, Zeli Tang, Jinyun Yu, Zhipeng Lin, Pengli Ren, Xinyi Zhou, Yan Huang, Xuerong Li, Xinbing Yu
Clonorchiasis, caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish containing infective metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensisis (C.sinensis), remains a common public health problem. New effective prevention strategies are still urgent to control this food-borne infectious disease. The previous studies suggested Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) spores was an ideal vaccines delivery system, and the C.sinensis enolase (CsENO) was a potential vaccine candidate against clonorchiasis. In the current study, we detected CsENO-specific IgM levels by ELISA in sera, intestinal mucus and skin mucus in grass carps (Ctenopharyngodon idella) through oral administration with B...
October 8, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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