Read by QxMD icon Read

B. subtilis

Israel González, Helena Oliver-Ortega, Quim Tarrés, Marc Delgado-Aguilar, Pere Mutjé, David Andreu
In this work we report the production of cellulose nanopapers modified with alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) in order to allow the immobilization of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to produce surfaces with antimicrobial properties. Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) were prepared from softwood bleached pulp via high pressure homogenization after chemical pretreatment of fibers via TEMPO oxidation. Nanopapers were then prepared after a casting technique and functionalized with alkyl ketene dimer before AMPs were immobilized. The immobilization process was performed by submerging the samples into AMP aqueous solutions and then dried at room temperature...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sarah Kranz-Finger, Osama Mahmoud, Esther Ricklefs, Nikolas Ditz, Patrick J Bakkes, Vlada B Urlacher
The Arabidopsis thaliana gene encoding CYP71A16 is part of the gene cluster for the biosynthesis and modification of the triterpenoid marneral. Previous investigations of A. thaliana have revealed that CYP71A16 oxidizes marneral, while it also can accept marnerol as substrate. The aim of the present study was to investigate functional properties of CYP71A16 in vitro. For this purpose, heterologous expression of a N-terminally modified version of CYP71A16 was established in Escherichia coli, which yielded up to 50mg·L(-1) recombinant enzyme...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Filippo Menolascina, Roberto Rusconi, Vicente I Fernandez, Steven Smriga, Zahra Aminzare, Eduardo D Sontag, Roman Stocker
Aerotaxis, the directed migration along oxygen gradients, allows many microorganisms to locate favorable oxygen concentrations. Despite oxygen's fundamental role for life, even key aspects of aerotaxis remain poorly understood. In Bacillus subtilis, for example, there is conflicting evidence of whether migration occurs to the maximal oxygen concentration available or to an optimal intermediate one, and how aerotaxis can be maintained over a broad range of conditions. Using precisely controlled oxygen gradients in a microfluidic device, spanning the full spectrum of conditions from quasi-anoxic to oxic (60 n mol/l-1 m mol/l), we resolved B...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
Shaomin Yan, Guang Wu
Amylase plays an important role in biotechnology industries, and Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a major host to produce heterogeneous α-amylases. However, the secretion stress limits the high yield of α-amylase in B. subtilis although huge efforts have been made to address this secretion bottleneck. In this question-oriented review, every effort is made to answer the following questions, which look simple but are long-standing, through reviewing of literature: (1) Does α-amylase need a specific and dedicated chaperone? (2) What signal sequence does CsaA recognize? (3) Does CsaA require ATP for its operation? (4) Does an unfolded α-amylase is less soluble than a folded one? (5) Does α-amylase aggregate before transporting through Sec secretion system? (6) Is α-amylase sufficient stable to prevent itself from misfolding? (7) Does α-amylase need more disulfide bonds to be stabilized? (8) Which secretion system does PrsA pass through? (9) Is PrsA ATP-dependent? (10) Is PrsA reused after folding of α-amylase? (11) What is the fate of PrsA? (12) Is trigger factor (TF) ATP-dependent? The literature review suggests that not only the most of those questions are still open to answers but also it is necessary to calculate ATP budget in order to better understand how B...
July 19, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Vladimir Bidnenko, Pierre Nicolas, Aleksandra Grylak-Mielnicka, Olivier Delumeau, Sandrine Auger, Anne Aucouturier, Cyprien Guerin, Repoila Francis, Jacek Bardowski, Stéphane Aymerich, Elena Bidnenko
In eukaryotes, RNA species originating from pervasive transcription are regulators of various cellular processes, from the expression of individual genes to the control of cellular development and oncogenesis. In prokaryotes, the function of pervasive transcription and its output on cell physiology is still unknown. Most bacteria possess termination factor Rho, which represses pervasive, mostly antisense, transcription. Here, we investigate the biological significance of Rho-controlled transcription in the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
Robert Hertel, Sandra Meyerjürgens, Birgit Voigt, Heiko Liesegang, Sonja Volland
The species Bacillus licheniformis includes important strains that are used in industrial production processes. Currently the physiological model used to adapt these processes is based on the closely related model organism B. subtilis. In this study we found that both organisms reveal significant differences in the regulation of subtilisin, their main natural protease and a product of industrial fermentation processes. We identified and characterized a novel antisense sRNA AprAs, which represents an RNA based repressor of apr, the gene encoding for the industrial relevant subtilisin protease...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Prasad Thomas, Torsten Semmler, Inga Eichhorn, Antina Lübke-Becker, Christiane Werckenthin, Mostafa Y Abdel-Glil, Lothar H Wieler, Heinrich Neubauer, Christian Seyboldt
Clostridium (C.) chauvoei is a Gram-positive, spore forming, anaerobic bacterium. It causes black leg in ruminants, a typically fatal histotoxic myonecrosis. High quality circular genome sequences were generated for the C. chauvoei type strain DSM 7528(T) (ATCC 10092(T)) and a field strain 12S0467 isolated in Germany. The origin of replication (oriC) was comparable to that of Bacillus subtilis in structure with two regions containing DnaA boxes. Similar prophages were identified in the genomes of both C. chauvoei strains which also harbored hemolysin and bacterial spore formation genes...
July 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
C Yu, J Jin, L-Q Meng, H-H Xia, H-F Yuan, J Wang, D-S Yu, X-Y Zhao, C-Q Sha
Given the close genetic relationship between Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis, distinguishing the two solely based on their physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequences is difficult. Molecular identification was used to discover suitable genes for distinguishing the two bacteria, and to identify the bio-controlling strain B29, due to molecular identification has been paid more and more attention. The similarity of four genes, cheA, gyrB, groEL and phoR, of the two species was compared by the software BLASTN and MAGA, and phylogenetic tree was constructed...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Mohamed I Nounou, Taha I Zaghloul, Nehal A Ahmed, Amira A Eid, Labiba K El-Khordagui
Enzymes may offer great potentials in topical pharmaceutical applications provided that treatment conditions are controlled for efficacy and safety. In this study, the effect of alkaline protease produced by recombinant Bacillus subtilis cells on the ex-vivo permeability of rabbit ear skin was investigated under different conditions of enzyme activity (5-60 units) and exposure time (15-60min). Data for transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and permeation of a hydrophilic dye, rhodamine B (Rb), indicated biphasic activity-dependent and exposure time-dependent skin permeability...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Li Jia, Mi Yan, Yan Shen, Yinhui Qin, Shengsheng Qiang, Shutao Ma
A series of novel 11-O-carbamoyl clarithromycin ketolides were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity. The results showed that the majority of the target compounds displayed improved activity compared with references against erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae A22072 expressing the mef gene, S. pneumoniae B1 expressing the erm gene and S. pneumoniae AB11 expressing the mef and erm genes. In particular, compounds 9, 18, 19 and 22 showed the most potent activity against erythromycin-resistant S...
July 5, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Kirtimaan Syal
Biofilm protects bacteria from stress and hostile environment. Crystal violet (CV) assay is the most popular method for biofilm determination adopted by different laboratories so far. However, biofilm layer formed at the liquid-air interphase known as pellicle is extremely sensitive to its washing and staining steps. Early phase biofilms are also prone to damage by the latter steps. In bacteria like mycobacteria, biofilm formation occurs largely at the liquid-air interphase which is susceptible to loss. In the proposed protocol, loss of such biofilm layer was prevented...
July 14, 2017: Current Microbiology
Christoph Geiger, Tobias Spieß, Sophie Marianne Korn, Peter Kötter, Karl-Dieter Entian
Autoinduction via two-component systems is a widespread regulatory mechanism that senses environmental and metabolic changes. Although the lantibiotics nisin and subtilin are closely related and share the same lanthionine ring structure, they autoinduce their biosynthesis in a highly specific manner. Subtilin can only activate the two-component system SpaRK of Bacillus subtilis, whereas nisin activates solely the two-component system NisRK of Lactococcus lactis To identify components that determine the specificity of subtilin autoinduction, several variants of the respective lantibiotic were analyzed for their autoinduction capacity...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Kajal Chakraborty, Bini Thilakan, Vamshi Krishna Raola
Brown seaweed Anthophycus longifolius (Turner) Kützing (family Sargassaceae) associated heterotrophic bacterium Bacillus subtilis MTCC 10403 was found to be a potent isolate with broad range of antibacterial activity against important perceptive food pathogens Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and Aeromonas hydrophila. This bacterium was positive for polyketide synthetase gene (KC589397), and therefore, was selected to bioprospect specialized metabolites bearing polyketide backbone. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the seaweed-associated bacterium segregated four homologous polyketide furanoterpenoids with potential antibacterial activities against clinically important pathogens...
July 10, 2017: Phytochemistry
Ni Xiang, Kathy S Lawrence, Joseph W Kloepper, Patricia A Donald, John A McInroy
Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, is the most economically important plant-parasitic nematode on soybean production in the U.S. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains for mortality of H. glycines J2 in vitro and for reducing nematode population density on soybean in greenhouse, microplot, and field trials. The major group causing mortality to H. glycines in vitro was the genus Bacillus that consisted of 92.6% of the total 663 PGPR strains evaluated...
2017: PloS One
Dongyang Wang, Cong Wang, Pengyan Gui, Haishan Liu, Sameh M H Khalaf, Elsayed A Elsayed, Mohammed A M Wadaan, Wael N Hozzein, Weiming Zhu
In the process of profiling the secondary metabolites of actinobacteria isolated from the Saudi coastal habitats for production of antibiotics and anti-cancer drugs, the cultures of strain WH1 that was identified as Streptomyces heliomycini exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. By means of MS and NMR techniques, the active compounds were characterized as actinomycins X0β, X2, and D, respectively. The research on the productivity of this strain for actinomycins revealed that the highest production of actinomycins X0β, X2, and D was reached in the medium MII within 5% salinity and pH 8...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Norberto Villegas-Negrete, Eduardo A Robleto, Armando Obregón-Herrera, Ronald E Yasbin, Mario Pedraza-Reyes
A forward mutagenesis system based on the acquisition of mutations that inactivate the thymidylate synthase gene (TMS) and confer a trimethoprim resistant (Tmpr) phenotype was developed and utilized to study transcription-mediated mutagenesis (TMM). In addition to thyA, Bacillus subtilis possesses thyB, whose expression occurs under conditions of cell stress; therefore, we generated a thyB- thyA+ mutant strain. Tmpr colonies of this strain were produced with a spontaneous mutation frequency of ~1.4 × 10-9...
2017: PloS One
Christine Muth, Meike Buchholz, Christina Schmidt, Sonja Volland, Friedhelm Meinhardt
Natural genetic competence renders bacteria able to take up and, in case there is sufficient homology to the recipient's chromosome, integrate exogenously supplied DNA. Well studied in Bacillus subtilis, genetic competence is-in several aspects-known to be differently regulated in Bacillus licheniformis. We now report on the identification of a novel, chromosomally encoded homolog of a competence inhibitor in B. licheniformis (ComI) that has hitherto only been described as a plasmid borne trait in the ancestral B...
December 2017: AMB Express
Tamar Khardziani, Eva Kachlishvili, Kakha Sokhadze, Vladimir Elisashvili, Richard Weeks, Michael L Chikindas, Vladimir Chistyakov
In this study, the effects of several key factors to increase spore production by Bacillus subtilis subsp. KATMIRA 1933 were evaluated in shake flask experiments. In a synthetic medium, glucose concentration played a crucial role in the expression of bacilli sporulation capacity. In particular, maximum spore yield (2.3 × 10(9) spores/mL) was achieved at low glucose concentration (2 g/L), and further gradual increase of the carbon source content in the medium caused a decrease in sporulation capacity. Substitution of glucose with several inexpensive lignocellulosic materials was found to be a reasonable way to achieve high cell density and sporulation...
July 10, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Marjolein Heuker, Jürgen W A Sijbesma, Rocío Aguilar Suárez, Johan R de Jong, Hendrikus H Boersma, Gert Luurtsema, Philip H Elsinga, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Gooitzen M van Dam, Jan Maarten van Dijl, Riemer H J A Slart, Marleen van Oosten
Positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) can be applied to detect infection and inflammation. However, it was so far not known to what extent bacterial pathogens may contribute to the PET signal. Therefore, we investigated whether clinical isolates of frequently encountered bacterial pathogens take up (18)F-FDG in vitro, and whether FDG inhibits bacterial growth as previously shown for 2-deoxy-glucose. 22 isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens implicated in fever and inflammation were incubated with (18)F-FDG and uptake of (18)F-FDG was assessed by gamma-counting and µPET imaging...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Fan Yang, Qun Jiang, Weiling Xie, Ying Zhang
The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with different diameters on the destruction degree toward cellular membranes of bacterial has been explored by investigating the viability of bacteria and the change of composition and surface properties in cellular membranes with the exposure of MWNTs. The atrazine degrading bacteria Acinetobacter lwoffii DNS32 (DNS32) is chosen as the model species and Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) are selected as the comparison specie...
July 3, 2017: Chemosphere
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"