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B. subtilis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815907/t7-rna-polymerase-driven-inducible-cell-lysis-for-dna-transfer-from-escherichia-coli-to-bacillus-subtilis
#1
Mario Juhas, James W Ajioka
The majority of the good DNA editing techniques have been developed in Escherichia coli; however, Bacillus subtilis is better host for a plethora of synthetic biology and biotechnology applications. Reliable and efficient systems for the transfer of synthetic DNA between E. coli and B. subtilis are therefore of the highest importance. Using synthetic biology approaches, such as streamlined lambda Red recombineering and Gibson Isothermal Assembly, we integrated genetic circuits pT7L123, Repr-ts-1 and pLT7pol encoding the lysis genes of bacteriophages MS2, ΦX174 and lambda, the thermosensitive repressor and the T7 RNA polymerase into the E...
August 16, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811162/engineering-peptidoglycan-degradation-related-genes-of-bacillus-subtilis-for-better-fermentation-processes
#2
Liang Zhao, Jianwen Ye, Jing Fu, Guo-Qiang Chen
In this study, Bacillus subtilis 168 Δupp was engineered to change the bacterial shapes. Namely, some peptidoglycan hydrolase related genes were inactivated individually or in different combinations, including sigD, lytE, lytF, lytC, lytD and lytG. Inactivations of these genes resulted in various intensities of blockages on cell division, leading to elongation of bacterial cells. The resulted fiber phenotypes showed different lengths ranging from tens of microns to several millimeters. Mutants with multiple gene inactivations such as ΔsigDΔlytEΔlytD showed more easily precipitated phenomenon, obviously increased growth rate, more sensitive to antibiotics and improved α-amylase production compared with that of B...
June 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807600/methylglyoxal-synthase-regulates-cell-elongation-via-alterations-of-cellular-methylglyoxal-and-spermidine-content-in-bacillus-subtilis
#3
Sang-Min Shin, Sung-Hyun Song, Jin-Woo Lee, Min-Kyu Kwak, Sa-Ouk Kang
Methylglyoxal regulates cell division and differentiation through its interaction with polyamines. Loss of their biosynthesizing enzyme causes physiological impairment and cell elongation in eukaryotes. However, the reciprocal effects of methylglyoxal and polyamine production and its regulatory metabolic switches on morphological changes in prokaryotes have not been addressed. Here, Bacillus subtilis methylglyoxal synthase (mgsA) and polyamine biosynthesizing genes encoding arginine decarboxylase (SpeA), agmatinase (SpeB), and spermidine synthase (SpeE), were disrupted or overexpressed...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803028/novel-poly-l-lactide-graphene-oxide-films-with-improved-mechanical-flexibility-and-antibacterial-activity
#4
Zhijun Yang, Chen Sun, Liang Wang, Huixin Chen, Ji He, Yuan Chen
Poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) is a biocompatible polyester derived from renewable sources. It is desirable to reduce its brittleness and introduce antibacterial activity for biomedical applications by using graphene oxide (GO) as a structural and antibacterial agent. However, commonly used polymer/GO composite synthesis methods, such as physical mixing and covalent functionalization, either cause phase segregation or compromise the intrinsic properties of GO. Here, a novel approach is demonstrated to synthesize PLLA/GO films...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802046/replication-transcription-conflicts-generate-r-loops-that-orchestrate-bacterial-stress-survival-and-pathogenesis
#5
Kevin S Lang, Ashley N Hall, Christopher N Merrikh, Mark Ragheb, Hannah Tabakh, Alex J Pollock, Joshua J Woodward, Julia E Dreifus, Houra Merrikh
Replication-transcription collisions shape genomes, influence evolution, and promote genetic diseases. Although unclear why, head-on transcription (lagging strand genes) is especially disruptive to replication and promotes genomic instability. Here, we find that head-on collisions promote R-loop formation in Bacillus subtilis. We show that pervasive R-loop formation at head-on collision regions completely blocks replication, elevates mutagenesis, and inhibits gene expression. Accordingly, the activity of the R-loop processing enzyme RNase HIII at collision regions is crucial for stress survival in B...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800172/viscous-drag-on-the-flagellum-activates-bacillus-subtilis-entry-into-the-k-state
#6
Christine Diethmaier, Ravi Chawla, Alexandra Canzoneri, Daniel B Kearns, Pushkar P Lele, David Dubnau
Bacillus subtilis flagella are not only required for locomotion but also act as sensors that monitor environmental changes. Although how the signal transmission takes place is poorly understood, it has been shown that flagella play an important role in surface sensing by transmitting a mechanical signal to control the DegS-DegU two-component system. Here we report a role for flagella in the regulation of the K-state, which enables transformability and antibiotic tolerance (persistence). Mutations impairing flagellar synthesis are inferred to increase DegU-P, which inhibits the expression of ComK, the master regulator for the K-state, and reduces transformability...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800088/upregulation-and-identification-of-antibiotic-activity-of-a-marine-derived-streptomyces-sp-via-co-cultures-with-human-pathogens
#7
Anne A Sung, Samantha M Gromek, Marcy J Balunas
Marine natural product drug discovery has begun to play an important role in the treatment of disease, with several recently approved drugs. In addition, numerous microbial natural products have been discovered from members of the order Actinomycetales, particularly in the genus Streptomyces, due to their metabolic diversity for production of biologically active secondary metabolites. However, many secondary metabolites cannot be produced under laboratory conditions because growth conditions in flask culture differ from conditions in the natural environment...
August 11, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799106/chemical-sterilization-of-allograft-dermal-tissues
#8
Abigail Phipps, Edward Vaynshteyn, John B Kowalski, Manh-Dan Ngo, Karen Merritt, Joel Osborne, Evangelia Chnari
Common terminal sterilization methods are known to alter the natural structure and properties of soft tissues. One approach to providing safe grafts with preserved biological properties is the combination of a validated chemical sterilization process followed by an aseptic packaging process. This combination of processes is an accepted method for production of sterile healthcare products as described in ANSI/AAMI ST67:2011. This article describes the validation of the peracetic acid and ethanol-based (PAAE) chemical sterilization process for allograft dermal tissues at the Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation (MTF, Edison, NJ)...
August 10, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799041/synergistic-interface-behavior-of-strontium-adsorption-using-mixed-microorganisms
#9
Wenyuan Hu, Faqin Dong, Guangmin Yang, Xin Peng, Xiaojun Huang, Mingxue Liu, Jing Zhang
The proper handling of low-level radioactive waste is crucial to promote the sustainable development of nuclear power. Research into the mechanism for interactions between bacterium and radionuclides is the starting point for achieving successful remediation of radionuclides with microorganisms. Using Sr(II) as a simulation radionuclide and the mixed microorganisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus subtilis as the biological adsorbent, this study investigates behavior at the interface between Sr(II) and the microorganisms as well as the mechanisms governing that behavior...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798404/an-in-vivo-high-throughput-screening-for-riboswitch-ligands-using-a-reverse-reporter-gene-system
#10
Marion Kirchner, Kenji Schorpp, Kamyar Hadian, Sabine Schneider
Riboswitches are bacterial RNA elements that regulate gene expression in response to metabolite or ion abundance and are considered as potential drug targets. In recent years a number of methods to find non-natural riboswitch ligands have been described. Here we report a high-throughput in vivo screening system that allows identifying OFF-riboswitch modulators in a 384 well bioluminescence assay format. We use a reverse reporter gene setup in Bacillus subtilis, consisting of a primary screening assay, a secondary assay as well as counter assays to detect compounds in a library of 1,280 molecules that act on the guanine-responsive xpt riboswitch from B...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792661/multi-effect-of-the-water-soluble-moringa-oleifera-lectin-against-serratia-marcescens-and-bacillus-sp-antibacterial-antibiofilm-and-anti-adhesive-properties
#11
M C Moura, D S Trentin, T H Napoleão, M Primon Barros, A S Xavier, N P Carneiro, P M G Paiva, A J Macedo, L C B B Coelho
AIMS: To evaluate the antibiofilm potential of water-soluble Moringa oleifera seed lectin (WSMoL) on Serratia marcescens and Bacillus sp. METHODS AND RESULTS: WSMoL inhibited biofilm formation by S. marcescens at concentrations lower than 2.6 μg ml(-1) and impaired bacterial growth at higher concentrations, avoiding biofilm formation. For Bacillus sp., the lectin inhibited bacterial growth at all concentrations. The antibiofilm action of WSMoL is associated with damage to bacterial cells...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791618/boosting-isoprene-production-via-heterologous-expression-of-the-kudzu-isoprene-synthase-gene-kisps-into-bacillus-spp-cell-factory
#12
Lamis Gomaa, Michael E Loscar, Haggag S Zein, Nahed Abdel-Ghaffar, Abdelhadi A Abdelhadi, Ali S Abdelaal, Naglaa A Abdallah
Isoprene represents a key building block for the production of valuable materials such as latex, synthetic rubber or pharmaceutical precursors and serves as basis for advanced biofuel production. To enhance the production of the volatile natural hydrocarbon isoprene, released by plants, animals and bacteria, the Kudzu isoprene synthase (kIspS) gene has been heterologously expressed in Bacillus subtilis DSM 402 and Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13 using the pHT01 vector. As control, the heterologous expression of KIspS in E...
August 8, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782510/contributions-of-5-utr-and-3-utr-cis-elements-to-cyt1aa-synthesis-in-bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp-israelensis
#13
Yuko Sakano, Hyun-Woo Park, Dennis K Bideshi, Baoxue Ge, Brian A Federici
The biopesticide used most effectively to control mosquito and blackfly vectors of human diseases worldwide is Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. The high efficacy of this bacterium is due to synergistic interactions among four protein entomotoxins assembled individually into a single parasporal body (PB) during sporulation. Cyt1Aa, the primary synergist, is the most abundant toxin, comprising approximately 55% of the PB's mass. The other proteins are Cry11Aa at ∼35%, and Cry4Aa and Cry4Ba, which together account for the remaining ∼10%...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772597/antimicrobial-bamboo-materials-functionalized-with-zno-and-graphene-oxide-nanocomposites
#14
Junyi Zhang, Bo Zhang, Xiufang Chen, Bingbing Mi, Penglian Wei, Benhua Fei, Xindong Mu
Bamboo materials with improved antibacterial performance based on ZnO and graphene oxide (GO) were fabricated by vacuum impregnation and hydrothermal strategies. The Zn2+ ions and GO nanosheets were firstly infiltrated into the bamboo structure, followed by dehydration and crystallization upon hydrothermal treatment, leading to the formation of ZnO/GO nanocomposites anchored in the bulk bamboo. The bamboo composites were characterized by several techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), which confirmed the existence of GO and ZnO in the composites...
February 27, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769037/mechanism-of-biofilm-mediated-stress-resistance-and-lifespan-extension-in-c-elegans
#15
Olga Smolentseva, Ivan Gusarov, Laurent Gautier, Ilya Shamovsky, Alicia S DeFrancesco, Richard Losick, Evgeny Nudler
Bacteria naturally form communities of cells known as biofilms. However the physiological roles of biofilms produced by non-pathogenic microbiota remain largely unknown. To assess the impact of a biofilm on host physiology we explored the effect of several non-pathogenic biofilm-forming bacteria on Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Pseudomonas fluorescens induces C. elegans stress resistance. Biofilm also protects against pathogenic infection and prolongs lifespan...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767052/strepchazolins-a-and-b-two-new-alkaloids-from-a-marine-streptomyces-chartreusis-na02069
#16
Cheng-Long Yang, Yi-Shuang Wang, Cheng-Li Liu, Ying-Jie Zeng, Ping Cheng, Rui-Hua Jiao, Shi-Xiang Bao, Hui-Qin Huang, Ren-Xiang Tan, Hui-Ming Ge
Two new alkaloids, strepchazolins A (1) and B (2), together with a previously reported compound, streptazolin (3), were isolated from a marine actinomycete, Streptomyces chartreusis NA02069, collected in the Coast of Hainan Island, China. The structures of new compounds were determined by extensive NMR, mass spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic analysis, as well as modified Mosher's method. Compound 1 showed weak anti-Bacillus subtilis activity with the MIC value of 64.0 μM, and weak inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in vitro with IC50 value of 50...
August 2, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764775/an-assessment-on-the-role-of-endophytic-microbes-in-the-therapeutic-potential-of-fagonia-indica
#17
Lubna Rahman, Zabta K Shinwari, Irum Iqrar, Lutfur Rahman, Faouzia Tanveer
BACKGROUND: Natural products of animals, plants and microbes are potential source of important chemical compounds, with diverse applications including therapeutics. Endophytic bacteria that are especially associated with medicinal plants presents a reservoir of therapeutic compounds. Fagonia indica has been recently investigated by numerous researchers because of its striking therapeutic potential especially in cancer. It is also reported that endophytes play a vital role in the biosynthesis of various metabolites; therefore we believe that endophytes associated with F...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761979/probiotics-and-probiotic-metabolic-product-improved-intestinal-function-and-ameliorated-lps-induced-injury-in-rats
#18
Bo Deng, Jie Wu, Xiaohui Li, Xiaoming Men, Ziwei Xu
In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of Bacillus subtilis (BAS) and Bacillus licheniformis (BAL) in rats after lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute intestinal inflammation. We also determined whether the B. subtilis metabolic product (BASM) is as effective as the live-cell probiotic. 60 male SD rats were randomly assigned to five groups and administered a diet containing 0.05% B. licheniformis (BAL group), 0.05% B. subtilis (BAS group), 0.5% B. subtilis metabolic product (BASM group), or a basic diet (PC group and NC group) for 40 days...
July 31, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761094/xylapeptide-a-an-antibacterial-cyclopentapeptide-with-an-uncommon-l-pipecolinic-acid-moiety-from-the-associated-fungus-xylaria-sp-gdg-102
#19
Wei-Feng Xu, Xue-Mei Hou, Fei-Hua Yao, Na Zheng, Jun Li, Chang-Yun Wang, Rui-Yun Yang, Chang-Lun Shao
Two new cyclopentapeptides, xylapeptide A (1) with an uncommon L-pipecolinic acid moiety, and xylapeptide B (2) having a common L-proline residue were identified from an associated fungus Xylaria sp. isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Sophora tonkinensis. Their planar structures were elucidated by a comprehensive analysis of NMR and MS spectroscopic spectra. The absolute configurations were determined by Marfey's method and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (Cu Kα) analysis. Xylapeptide A (1) is the first example of cyclopentapeptide with L-Pip of terrestrial origin and showed strong antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and B...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760849/stability-of-proteins-out-of-service-the-gapb-case-of-bacillus-subtilis
#20
Ulf Gerth, Eleonora Krieger, Daniela Zühlke, Alexander Reder, Uwe Völker, Michael Hecker
Bacillus subtilis possesses two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases with opposite roles, the glycolytic NAD-dependent GapA and the NADP-dependent GapB enzyme, which is exclusively required during gluconeogenesis but not active under conditions promoting glycolysis. We propose, that proteins no longer needed will be recognized and proteolyzed by Clp proteases and thereby recycled. To test this postulation, we analyzed the stability of the glycolytic enzyme GapA and the gluconeogenetic enzyme GapB in the presence and absence of glucose...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
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