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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438599/newly-identified-invertebrate-type-lysozyme-splys-i-in-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain-exhibiting-muramidase-deficient-antimicrobial-activity
#1
Jian Zhou, Shu Zhao, Wen-Hong Fang, Jun-Fang Zhou, Jing-Xiao Zhang, Hongyu Ma, Jiang-Feng Lan, Xin-Cang Li
Lysozymes are widely distributed immune effectors exerting muramidase activity against the peptidoglycan of the bacterial cell wall to trigger cell lysis. However, some invertebrate-type (i-type) lysozymes deficient of muramidase activity still exhibit antimicrobial activity. To date, the mechanism underlying the antimicrobial effect of muramidase-deficient i-type lysozymes remains unclear. Accordingly, this study characterized a novel i-type lysozyme, Splys-i, in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain. Splys-i shared the highest identity with the Litopenaeus vannamei i-type lysozyme (Lvlys-i2, 54% identity) at the amino acid level...
April 21, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437109/structure-of-the-fundamental-lipopeptide-surfactin-at-the-air-water-interface-investigated-by-sum-frequency-generation-spectroscopy
#2
Sami Alhassan Goussous, Michael Thomas Lee Casford, Annabel C Murphy, George Salmond, Finian J Leeper, Paul B Davies
The lipopeptide surfactin produced by certain strains of Bacillus subtilis is a powerful bio-surfactant possessing potentially useful antimicrobial properties. In order to better understand its surface behaviour, we have used surface sensitive Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy in the C-H and C=O stretching regions to determine its structure at the air/water interface. Using surfactin with the leucine groups of the peptide ring perdeuterated we have shown that the majority of the SFG signals arise from the 4 leucine residues...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435840/microbial-flora-probiotics-bacillus-subtilis-and-the-search-for-a-long-and-healthy-human-longevity
#3
COMMENT
Facundo Rodriguez Ayala, Carlos Bauman, Sebastián Cogliati, Cecilia Leñini, Marco Bartolini, Roberto Grau
Probiotics are live microorganisms that have beneficial effects on host health, including extended lifespan, when they are administered or present in adequate quantities. However, the mechanisms by which probiotics stimulate host longevity remain unclear and very poorly understood. In a recent study (Nat. Commun. 8, 14332 (2017) doi: 10.1038/ncomms14332), we used the spore-forming probiotic bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to study the mechanism by which a probiotic bacterium affects host longevity...
March 16, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434086/the-inability-of-bacillus-licheniformis-perr-mutant-to-grow-is-mainly-due-to-the-lack-of-perr-mediated-fur-repression
#4
Jung-Hoon Kim, Yoon-Mo Yang, Chang-Jun Ji, Su-Hyun Ryu, Young-Bin Won, Shin-Yeong Ju, Yumi Kwon, Yeh-Eun Lee, Hwan Youn, Jin-Won Lee
PerR, a member of Fur family protein, is a metal-dependent H2O2 sensing transcription factor that regulates genes involved in peroxide stress response. Industrially important bacterium Bacillus licheniformis contains three PerR-like proteins (PerRBL, PerR2, and PerR3) compared to its close relative Bacillus subtilis. Interestingly, unlike other bacteria including B. subtilis, no authentic perR BL null mutant could be established for B. licheniformis. Thus, we constructed a conditional perR BL mutant using a xylose-inducible promoter, and investigated the genes under the control of PerRBL...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433714/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-with-fenugreek-seeds-alone-or-in-combination-with-probiotics-on-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-l-skin-mucosal-immunity
#5
F A Guardiola, A Bahi, A Bakhrouf, M A Esteban
Despite increasing interest in modulating the immune response of fish, providing a combination of probiotics and herbal immunostimulants in aquafeed has rarely has been studied. The effects on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) of the dietary administration of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds alone (FE), or combined with one of the following probiotic strains: Bacillus licheniformis (FEBL), Lactobacillus plantarum (FELP) or Bacillus subtilis (FEBS) were evaluated. Fish were fed a control or one of the supplemented diets for 3 weeks...
April 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431560/a-new-generation-of-bacillus-subtilis-cell-factory-for-further-elevated-scyllo-inositol-production
#6
Kosei Tanaka, Ayane Natsume, Shu Ishikawa, Shinji Takenaka, Ken-Ichi Yoshida
BACKGROUND: A stereoisomer of inositol, scyllo-inositol (SI), has been regarded as a promising therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease. However, this compound is relatively rare, whereas another stereoisomer of inositol, myo-inositol (MI) is abundant in nature. Bacillus subtilis 168 has the ability to metabolize inositol stereoisomers, including MI and SI. Previously, we reported a B. subtilis cell factory with modified inositol metabolism that converts MI into SI in the culture medium...
April 21, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430084/the-spo0a-sini-sinr-regulatory-circuit-plays-an-essential-role-in-biofilm-formation-nematicidal-activities-and-plant-protection-in-bacillus-cereus-ar156
#7
Sunde Xu, Nan Yang, Shiyu Zheng, Fang Yan, Chunhao Jiang, Yiyang Yu, Jianhua Guo, Yunrong Chai, Yun Chen
The rhizosphere bacterium Bacillus cereus AR156 is capable of forming biofilms, killing nematodes, and protecting plants. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of these processes are not well understood. In this study, we found that the isogenic mutants ΔBcspo0A and ΔBcsinI have significantly reduced colonization and nematicidal activity in vitro and biological control efficacy on the tomato plant under greenhouse conditions. We further investigated the role of the spo0A-sinI-sinR regulatory circuit in biofilm formation, killing against nematodes, and biological control in AR156...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426995/antibacterial-activity-of-n-methylbenzofuro-3-2-b-quinoline-and-n-methylbenzoindolo-3-2-b-quinoline-derivatives-and-study-of-their-mode-of-action
#8
Ning Sun, Ruo-Lan Du, Yuan-Yuan Zheng, Bao-Hua Huang, Qi Guo, Rui-Fang Zhang, Kwok-Yin Wong, Yu-Jing Lu
The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria causes an urgent need for new generation of antibiotics, which may have a different mechanism of inhibition or killing action from the existing. Targeting at the inhibition of bacterial cell division via the control of FtsZ function is one of the effective and promising approaches. Some natural extracts from plants such as sanguinarine and berberine (analogs of pyridinium compounds) are known to alter FtsZ function. In this study, a series of novel quaternary pyridinium compounds was constructed based on the N-methylbenzofuro[3,2-b]quinoline and N-methylbenzoindolo[3,2-b]-quinoline derivatives and their antibacterial activity against nine significant pathogens was investigated using broth microdilution method...
April 15, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426331/effect-of-deletion-of-2-3-butanediol-dehydrogenase-gene-bdha-on-acetoin-production-of-bacillus-subtilis
#9
Junjiao Zhang, Xiangying Zhao, Jiaxiang Zhang, Chen Zhao, Jianjun Liu, Yanjun Tian, Liping Yang
The present work aims to block 2,3-butanediol synthesis in acetoin fermentation of Bacillus subtilis. First, we constructed a recombinant strain BS168D by deleting the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase gene bdhA of the B. subtilis168 and there was almost no 2,3-butanediol production in 20 g/L of glucose media. The acetoin yield of BS168D reached 6.61 g/L, which was about 1.5 times higher than that of the control B. subtilis168 (4.47 g/L). Then, when the glucose concentration was rised to 100 g/L, the acetoin yield reached 24...
April 20, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424690/bacillus-subtilis-improves-immunity-and-disease-resistance-in-rabbits
#10
Mengjiao Guo, Fahao Wu, Guangen Hao, Qin Qi, Rong Li, Ning Li, Liangmeng Wei, Tongjie Chai
Probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have been successfully used to promote growth and prevent diseases. Previous reports have demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) was a potential probiotic for animals. In this research, 180 B. subtilis were isolated from the soil, identified, and investigated in vitro. Furthermore, five B. subtilis were selected and mixed to investigate their effect on growth performance, immune response, intestine microbiota, and disease resistance in rabbits...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423869/protective-effects-of-bacillus-subtilis-against-salmonella-infection-in-the-microbiome-of-hy-line-brown-layers
#11
Ju Kyoung Oh, Edward Alain B Pajarillo, Jong Pyo Chae, In Ho Kim, D-K Kang
Objective: This study investigated the effects of Bacillus subtilis CSL2 administration before Salmonella challenge on the fecal microbiota and microbial functionality of Hy-line Brown (HLB) laying hens. Methods: Fecal samples were collected from control (CON), Salmonella-infected (SAL) and Salmonella-infected, probiotic-treated (PRO) groups before and after Salmonella challenge for microbiome analysis using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Results: Infection with Salmonella led to decreased microbial diversity in hen feces; diversity was recovered with Bacillus administration...
April 19, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421423/the-effects-of-direct-fed-microbial-supplementation-as-an-alternative-to-antibiotics-on-growth-performance-intestinal-immune-status-and-epithelial-barrier-gene-expression-in-broiler-chickens
#12
U Gadde, S T Oh, Y S Lee, E Davis, N Zimmerman, T Rehberger, Hyun S Lillehoj
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic supplementation in broiler chicken diets on growth performance, feed efficiency, intestinal cytokine, and tight junction (TJ) protein mRNA expression. Zero-day-old broiler chicks (n = 140) were randomly assigned to one of five dietary treatments: basal diet (CON); basal diet supplemented with either antibiotic bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD); or probiotics, namely, B. subtilis strain 1781 (PB1), a combination of B...
April 18, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420878/synergistic-antimicrobial-effects-of-silver-transition-metal-combinatorial-treatments
#13
Javier A Garza-Cervantes, Arturo Chávez-Reyes, Elena C Castillo, Gerardo García-Rivas, Oscar Antonio Ortega-Rivera, Eva Salinas, Margarita Ortiz-Martínez, Sara Leticia Gómez-Flores, Jorge A Peña-Martínez, Alan Pepi-Molina, Mario T Treviño-González, Xristo Zarate, María Elena Cantú-Cárdenas, Carlos Enrique Escarcega-Gonzalez, J Rubén Morones-Ramírez
Due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains, development of novel antibiotics has become a critical issue. One promising approach is the use of transition metals, since they exhibit rapid and significant toxicity, at low concentrations, in prokaryotic cells. Nevertheless, one main drawback of transition metals is their toxicity in eukaryotic cells. Here, we show that the barriers to use them as therapeutic agents could be mitigated by combining them with silver. We demonstrate that synergism of combinatorial treatments (Silver/transition metals, including Zn, Co, Cd, Ni, and Cu) increases up to 8-fold their antimicrobial effect, when compared to their individual effects, against E...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416546/anti-influenza-activity-of-bacillus-subtilis-probiotic-strain
#14
Darya Starosila, Svetlana Rybalko, Ludmila Varbanetz, Naila Ivanskaya, Iryna Sorokulova
Among Bacillus bacteria, B. subtilis is the most productive species of antimicrobial compounds. In this study, we analyzed the activity of probiotic strain B. subtilis 3 against influenza virus. The antiviral effect of this strain has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo New peptide P18 produced by probiotic strain was isolated, purified, chemically synthesized, and characterized. Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated no toxic effect of P18 on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, even in the highest tested concentration (100 μg/mL)...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416134/syntheses-of-benzophenone-xanthone-hybrid-polyketides-and-their-antibacterial-activities
#15
Takeshi Kodama, Takuya Ito, Dya Fita Dibwe, So-Yeun Woo, Hiroyuki Morita
Muchimangins are benzophenone-xanthone hybrid polyketides produced by Securidaca longepedunculata. However, their biological activities have not been fully investigated, since they are minor constituents in this plant. To evaluate the possibility of muchimangins as antibacterial agent candidates, five muchimangin analogs were synthesized from 2,4,5-trimethoxydiphenyl methanol and the corresponding xanthones, by utilizing p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate for the Brønsted acid-catalysis. The antibacterial assays against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and Gram-negative bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, revealed that the muchimangin analogs (±)-1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxy-4-(phenyl-(2',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl)-xanthone (1), (±)-1,3,6-trihydroxy-4-(phenyl-(2',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl)-xanthone (2), and (±)-1,3-dihydroxy-4-(phenyl-(2',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl)-xanthone (3) showed significant activities against S...
April 7, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408070/cell-death-pathway-that-monitors-spore-morphogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Amanda R Decker, Kumaran S Ramamurthi
The use of quality control mechanisms to stall developmental pathways or completely remove defective cells from a population is a widespread strategy to ensure the integrity of morphogenetic programs. Endospore formation (sporulation) is a well conserved microbial developmental strategy in the Firmicutes phylum wherein a progenitor cell that faces starvation differentiates to form a dormant spore. Despite the conservation of this strategy, it has been unclear what selective pressure maintains the fitness of this developmental program, composed of hundreds of unique genes, during multiple rounds of vegetative growth when sporulation is not required...
April 10, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407967/molecular-characterization-of-an-unauthorized-genetically-modified-bacillus-subtilis-production-strain-identified-in-a-vitamin-b2-feed-additive
#17
Valentina Paracchini, Mauro Petrillo, Ralf Reiting, Alexandre Angers-Loustau, Daniela Wahler, Andrea Stolz, Birgit Schönig, Anastasia Matthies, Joachim Bendiek, Dominik M Meinel, Sven Pecoraro, Ulrich Busch, Alex Patak, Joachim Kreysa, Lutz Grohmann
Many food and feed additives result from fermentation of genetically modified (GM) microorganisms. For vitamin B2 (riboflavin), GM Bacillus subtilis production strains have been developed and are often used. The presence of neither the GM strain nor its recombinant DNA is allowed for fermentation products placed on the EU market as food or feed additive. A vitamin B2 product (80% feed grade) imported from China was analysed. Viable B. subtilis cells were identified and DNAs of two bacterial isolates (LHL and LGL) were subjected to three whole genome sequencing (WGS) runs with different devices (MiSeq, 454 or HiSeq system)...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403782/synthesis-cytotoxicity-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-new-enmein-type-kauranoid-diterpenoid-derivatives
#18
Dahong Li, Tong Han, Xu Hu, Kangtao Tian, Shengtao Xu, Tingting Zhou, Keguang Cheng, Zhanlin Li, Huiming Hua, Jinyi Xu
Eleven new enmein-type diterpenoid derivatives with different substituents and drug-like properties were designed and synthesized. The antimicrobial activities against E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis and M. albicans were disclosed. The results revealed that enmein-type diterpenoids showed more promising activities against tested gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacterium and fungus. Compound 9 with R of 2-quinolyl group exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activities with MIC values of 7.81 μg/ml and 0...
April 12, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402520/a-non-canonical-multisubunit-rna-polymerase-encoded-by-the-ar9-phage-recognizes-the-template-strand-of-its-uracil-containing-promoters
#19
Maria Sokolova, Sergei Borukhov, Daria Lavysh, Tatjana Artamonova, Mikhail Khodorkovskii, Konstantin Severinov
AR9 is a giant Bacillus subtilis phage whose uracil-containing double-stranded DNA genome encodes distant homologs of β and β' subunits of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP). The products of these genes are thought to assemble into two non-canonical multisubunit RNAPs - a virion RNAP (vRNAP) that is injected into the host along with phage DNA to transcribe early phage genes, and a non-virion RNAP (nvRNAP), which is synthesized during the infection and transcribes late phage genes. We purified the AR9 nvRNAP from infected B...
April 11, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401144/insights-into-the-activity-change-of-spore-photoproduct-lyase-induced-by-mutations-at-a-peripheral-glycine-residue
#20
Linlin Yang, Lei Li
UV radiation triggers the formation of 5-thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothymine, i.e., the spore photoproduct (SP), in the genomic DNA of bacterial endospores. These SPs, if not repaired in time, may lead to genome instability and cell death. SP is mainly repaired by spore photoproduct lyase (SPL) during spore outgrowth via an unprecedented protein-harbored radical transfer pathway that is composed of at least a cysteine and two tyrosine residues. This mechanism is consistent with the recently solved SPL structure that shows all three residues are located in proximity and thus able to participate in the radical transfer process during the enzyme catalysis...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
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