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Bodily illusion

Laura Aymerich-Franch, Damien Petit, Gowrishankar Ganesh, Abderrahmane Kheddar
Whole-body embodiment studies have shown that synchronized multi-sensory cues can trick a healthy human mind to perceive self-location outside the bodily borders, producing an illusion that resembles an out-of-body experience (OBE). But can a healthy mind also perceive the sense of self in more than one body at the same time? To answer this question, we created a novel artificial reduplication of one's body using a humanoid robot embodiment system. We first enabled individuals to embody the humanoid robot by providing them with audio-visual feedback and control of the robot head movements and walk, and then explored the self-location and self-identification perceived by them when they observed themselves through the embodied robot...
September 27, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Satoshi Shibuya, Satoshi Unenaka, Yukari Ohki
Body ownership and agency are fundamental to self-consciousness. These bodily experiences have been intensively investigated using the rubber hand illusion, wherein participants perceive a fake hand as their own. After presentation of the illusion, the position of the participant's hand then shifts toward the location of the fake hand (proprioceptive drift). However, it remains controversial whether proprioceptive drift is able to provide an objective measurement of body ownership, and whether agency also affects drift...
September 20, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Kyran T Graham-Schmidt, Mathew T Martin-Iverson, Nicholas P Holmes, Flavie Waters
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with schizophrenia, particularly those with passivity symptoms, often feel that their actions and thoughts are controlled by an external agent. Recent evidence has elucidated the role of body representations in the aetiology of passivity symptoms, yet one representation - body structural description - has not yet been examined. Additionally, body image has rarely been examined outside of bodily illusions (e.g., rubber hand experiments) and external validation is required...
July 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Regine Zopf, Erika Contini, Chris Fowler, Naresh Mondraty, Mark A Williams
Body size and shape distortion is a core feature of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) - patients experience their body as fat while objectively being very thin. The cause of this distortion is unclear and disturbances in body perception could be involved. Body perception comprises estimating shape and location of one's body and requires integrating multisensory signals. We investigated if and how body location perception is changed and tested 23 AN patients and 23 healthy controls (HC) in a Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) reaching paradigm...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Noriaki Kanayama, Alberto Morandi, Kazuo Hiraki, Francesco Pavani
Rubber hand illusion (RHI) is an important phenomenon for the investigation of body ownership and self/other distinction. The illusion is promoted by the spatial and temporal contingencies of visual inputs near a fake hand and physical touches to the real hand. The neural basis of this phenomenon is not fully understood. We hypothesized that the RHI is associated with a fronto-parietal circuit, and the goal of this study was to determine the dynamics of neural oscillation associated with this phenomenon. We measured electroencephalography while delivering spatially congruent/incongruent visuo-tactile stimulations to fake and real hands...
September 12, 2016: Brain Topography
Hyeong-Dong Park, Fosco Bernasconi, Javier Bello-Ruiz, Christian Pfeiffer, Roy Salomon, Olaf Blanke
UNLABELLED: Recent research has investigated self-consciousness associated with the multisensory processing of bodily signals (e.g., somatosensory, visual, vestibular signals), a notion referred to as bodily self-consciousness, and these studies have shown that the manipulation of bodily inputs induces changes in bodily self-consciousness such as self-identification. Another line of research has highlighted the importance of signals from the inside of the body (e.g., visceral signals) and proposed that neural representations of internal bodily signals underlie self-consciousness, which to date has been based on philosophical inquiry, clinical case studies, and behavioral studies...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Antonella Maselli, Konstantina Kilteni, Joan López-Moliner, Mel Slater
Experimental work on body ownership illusions showed how simple multisensory manipulation can generate the illusory experience of an artificial limb as being part of the own-body. This work highlighted how own-body perception relies on a plastic brain representation emerging from multisensory integration. The flexibility of this representation is reflected in the short-term modulations of physiological states and perceptual processing observed during these illusions. Here, we explore the impact of ownership illusions on the temporal dimension of multisensory integration...
2016: Scientific Reports
Silvia Serino, Federica Scarpina, Anouk Keizer, Elisa Pedroli, Antonios Dakanalis, Gianluca Castelnuovo, Alice Chirico, Margherita Novelli, Santino Gaudio, Giuseppe Riva
INTRODUCTION: The available clinical guidelines for super-super obese patients (i.e., with body mass index (BMI) > 60 kg/m(2)) that are not suitable for bariatric surgery mandate a palliative multidisciplinary treatment (i.e., production and maintenance of weight loss) provided in a center of excellence. However, the modality and the impact of this approach are still controversial. Moreover, it is not able to address the high level of body dissatisfaction and body distortions that are common among these patients...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Maayke Klaver, H Chris Dijkerman
Emerging evidence is now challenging the view that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia experience a selective deficit in their sense of agency. Additional disturbances seem to exist in their sense of body ownership. However, the factors underlying this disturbance in body ownership remain elusive. Knowledge of these factors, and increased understanding of how body ownership is related to other abnormalities seen in schizophrenia, could ultimately advance development of new treatments. Research on body ownership in schizophrenia has mainly been investigated with the rubber hand illusion (RHI)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Elena Kokkinara, Konstantina Kilteni, Kristopher J Blom, Mel Slater
Agency, the attribution of authorship to an action of our body, requires the intention to carry out the action, and subsequently a match between its predicted and actual sensory consequences. However, illusory agency can be generated through priming of the action together with perception of bodily action, even when there has been no actual corresponding action. Here we show that participants can have the illusion of agency over the walking of a virtual body even though in reality they are seated and only allowed head movements...
2016: Scientific Reports
Arvid Guterstam, Hugo Zeberg, Vedat Menderes Özçiftci, H Henrik Ehrsson
To accurately localize our limbs and guide movements toward external objects, the brain must represent the body and its surrounding (peripersonal) visual space. Specific multisensory neurons encode peripersonal space in the monkey brain, and neurobehavioral studies have suggested the existence of a similar representation in humans. However, because peripersonal space lacks a distinct perceptual correlate, its involvement in spatial and bodily perception remains unclear. Here, we show that applying brushstrokes in mid-air at some distance above a rubber hand-without touching it-in synchrony with brushstrokes applied to a participant's hidden real hand results in the illusory sensation of a "magnetic force" between the brush and the rubber hand, which strongly correlates with the perception of the rubber hand as one's own...
October 2016: Cognition
Jamie Michael, Sohee Park
BACKGROUND: Disturbances of the bodily self are fundamental to the phenomenological experience of individuals with schizophrenia, a population at risk for social isolation. Both proprioception and exteroception contribute to a sense of consistent body boundary that contains the self across time and space, and this process is influenced by self-other (social) interactions. However, the relationship between social isolation, exteroception, and in-the-moment changes in body representation has not been elucidated...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Matteo Martini
In the last few years a branch of pain research has been focussing on the modulatory effects of the vision of the body on pain perception. So, for instance, the vision of one's own real body has been proven to induce analgesic effects. On the other hand, bodily illusions such as the rubber hand illusion have provided new tools for the study of perceptual processes during altered body ownership states. Recently, new paradigms of body ownership made use of a technology that is going places both in clinical and in experimental settings, i...
July 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Daniel Zeller, Karl J Friston, Joseph Classen
The neural substrate of bodily ownership can be disclosed by the rubber hand illusion (RHI); namely, the illusory self-attribution of an artificial hand that is induced by synchronous tactile stimulation of the subject's hand that is hidden from view. Previous studies have pointed to the premotor cortex (PMC) as a pivotal area in such illusions. To investigate the effective connectivity between - and within - sensory and premotor areas involved in bodily perceptions, we used dynamic causal modeling of touch-evoked responses in 13 healthy subjects...
September 2016: NeuroImage
Mariella Pazzaglia, Patrick Haggard, Giorgio Scivoletto, Marco Molinari, Bigna Lenggenhager
PURPOSE: Spinal cord injury (SCI), a profound impairment of sensorimotor functions, is often associated with pain related phenomena, including mechanical allodynia, a condition in which non-painful tactile sensation is perceived as pain. Pain and somatic sensation are undeniable markers of normal bodily awareness. However, the mechanism by which they are integrated into a coherent sense of the bodily self remains largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of high-level multisensory manipulation on subjective experiences of pain, touch, and body-ownership...
April 11, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Vebjørn Ekroll, Bilge Sayim, Ruth Van der Hallen, Johan Wagemans
In a well-known magic trick known as multiplying balls, conjurers fool their audience with the use of a semi-spherical shell, which the audience perceives as a complete ball [1]. Here, we report that this illusion persists even when observers touch the inside of the shell with their own finger. Even more intriguingly, this also produces an illusion of bodily self-awareness in which the finger feels shorter, as if to make space for the purely illusory volume of the visually completed ball. This observation provides strong evidence for the controversial and counterintuitive idea that our experience of the hidden backsides of objects is shaped by genuine perceptual representations rather than mere cognitive guesswork or imagery [2]...
April 25, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Gergely Darnai, Tibor Szolcsányi, Gábor Hegedüs, Péter Kincses, János Kállai, Márton Kovács, Eszter Simon, Zsófia Nagy, József Janszky
The rubber hand illusion (RHI) and its variant the invisible hand illusion (IHI) are useful for investigating multisensory aspects of bodily self-consciousness. Here, we explored whether auditory conditioning during an RHI could enhance the trisensory visuo-tactile-proprioceptive interaction underlying the IHI. Our paradigm comprised of an IHI session that was followed by an RHI session and another IHI session. The IHI sessions had two parts presented in counterbalanced order. One part was conducted in silence, whereas the other part was conducted on the backdrop of metronome beats that occurred in synchrony with the brush movements used for the induction of the illusion...
February 25, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Polona Pozeg, Giulia Galli, Olaf Blanke
Experiencing a body part as one's own, i.e., body ownership, depends on the integration of multisensory bodily signals (including visual, tactile, and proprioceptive information) with the visual top-down signals from peripersonal space. Although it has been shown that the visuo-spatial viewpoint from where the body is seen is an important visual top-down factor for body ownership, different studies have reported diverging results. Furthermore, the role of visuo-spatial viewpoint (sometime also called first-person perspective) has only been studied for hands or the whole body, but not for the lower limbs...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Masayuki Hara, Polona Pozeg, Giulio Rognini, Takahiro Higuchi, Kazunobu Fukuhara, Akio Yamamoto, Toshiro Higuchi, Olaf Blanke, Roy Salomon
Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Dorothy Cowie, Samantha Sterling, Andrew J Bremner
Recent research using the "rubber hand illusion" shows that the multisensory processes underlying body representations are markedly different in children of 4 to 9years and adults. In representing the position of their own hand in external space, children of this age rely more on the sight of the hand, and less on its proprioceptively felt position, than adults do. The current study investigated when during later childhood the balance between visual and proprioceptive inputs reaches an adult-like weighting...
February 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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