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Bodily illusion

Giuseppina Porciello, Ilaria Bufalari, Ilaria Minio-Paluello, Enrico Di Pace, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
Understanding how self-representation is built, maintained and updated across the lifespan is a fundamental challenge for cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Studies demonstrate that the detection of body-related multisensory congruency builds bodily and facial self-representations that are crucial to developing self-recognition. Studies showing that the bodily self is more malleable than previously believed were mainly concerned with full-bodies and non-facial body parts. Crucially, however, intriguing recent evidence indicates that simple experimental manipulations could even affect self-face representation that has long been considered a stable construct impervious to change...
February 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Barbara Caola, Martina Montalti, Alessandro Zanini, Antony Leadbetter, Matteo Martini
Classically, body ownership illusions are triggered by cross-modal synchronous stimulations, and hampered by multisensory inconsistencies. Nonetheless, the boundaries of such illusions have been proven to be highly plastic. In this immersive virtual reality study, we explored whether it is possible to induce a sense of body ownership over a virtual body part during visuomotor inconsistencies, with or without the aid of concomitant visuo-tactile stimulations. From a first-person perspective, participants watched a virtual tube moving or an avatar's arm moving, with or without concomitant synchronous visuo-tactile stimulations on their hand...
January 1, 2018: Perception
M Bassolino, M Franza, J Bello Ruiz, M Pinardi, T Schmidlin, M A Stephan, M Solca, A Serino, O Blanke
Previous evidence highlighted the multisensory-motor origin of embodiment - i.e., the experience of having a body and of being in control of it- and the possibility of experimentally manipulating it. For instance, an illusory feeling of embodiment towards a fake hand can be triggered by providing synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation to the hand of participants and to a fake hand or by asking participants to move their hand and observe a fake hand moving accordingly (rubber hand illusion, RHI). Here we tested whether it is possible to manipulate embodiment not through stimulation of the participant's hand, but by directly tapping into the brain's hand representation via non-invasive brain stimulation...
February 20, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Daniel Zeller, Marcus Hullin
A right-hemispheric specificity has been suggested both for spatial attention and for the feeling of body-ownership. Here, we assessed lateralization of spatial attention (Milner landmark task), rubber hand illusion (RHI), and their relationship in a group of 59 healthy elderly subjects. The occurrence of the RHI was assessed by objective (proprioceptive drift) and subjective (questionnaire) measures. Spatial attention was asymmetrical, with a slight, neglect-like overestimation of the right segment of mid-bisected lines...
February 6, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Ke Ma, Bernhard Hommel
The virtual hand illusion (VHI) paradigm demonstrates that people tend to perceive agency and bodily ownership for a virtual hand that moves in synchrony with their own movements. Given that this kind of effect can be taken to reflect self-other integration (i.e., the integration of some external, novel event into the representation of oneself), and given that self-other integration has been previously shown to be affected by metacontrol states (biases of information processing towards persistence/selectivity or flexibility/integration), we tested whether the VHI varies in size depending on the metacontrol bias...
January 10, 2018: Psychological Research
Sebastian Dieguez
Cotard's syndrome is often described as the delusional belief that one is dead or non-existent. However, Jules Cotard's initial description (1880) of the "delusion of negations" was much richer and also involved delusions and claims of immortality and enormity, feelings of damnation, and illusions of bodily dissolution and transformation. Alternatively conceived as an extreme case of depression, hypochondria, or psychosis, the condition is considered rare and remains poorly understood. Cotard himself provided a taxonomy and several explanations for the condition, focusing on its distinction from classical persecutory delusions and suggesting that it could be a kind of reversed grandiosity...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Max Wawrzyniak, Julian Klingbeil, Daniel Zeller, Dorothee Saur, Joseph Classen
The feeling of body-ownership can be experimentally manipulated using the rubber hand illusion (RHI) paradigm. Participants experience a sense of ownership over an artificial hand when their hidden real hand and the visible artificial hand are synchronously stroked. Using lesion masks and behavioral data from a previous study on RHI failure in acute stroke patients, we here employed lesion network-symptom-mapping (LNSM) based on normative functional connectome data to identify lesion-dependent network connectivity related to the experience of self-attribution of an artificial hand in the RHI paradigm...
February 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Albulena Shaqiri, Maya Roinishvili, Mariia Kaliuzhna, Ophélie Favrod, Eka Chkonia, Michael H Herzog, Olaf Blanke, Roy Salomon
Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder, in which patients experience an abnormal sense of self. While deficits in sensorimotor self-representation (agency) are well documented in schizophrenia, less is known about other aspects of bodily self-representation (body ownership). Here, we tested a large cohort (N = 59) of chronic schizophrenia patients and matched controls (N = 30) on a well-established body illusion paradigm, the Full Body Illusion (FBI). In this paradigm, changes in body ownership are induced through prolonged multisensory stimulation, in which participants are stroked on their back while seeing the stroking on the back of a virtual body...
July 25, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Elena Nava, Flavia Mattioli, Chiara Gamberini, Chiara Stampatori, Fabio Bellomi, Chiara Turati, Ruggero Capra, Nadia Bolognini
In this study, we assessed the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) on bodily self-consciousness (BSC) using the Rubber Hand Illusion. Patients with MS showed a dissociation between body ownership and self-location: they did report an explicit ownership of the rubber hand, but they did not point towards it, showing a defective ability of localizing body parts in space. This evidence indicates that MS may affect selective components of BSC, whose impairment may contribute to, and even worsen, the functional disability of MS...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Marta Siedlecka, Nadine Spychała, Marta Łukowska, Karolina Wiercioch, Michał Wierzchoń
The rubber hand illusion (RHI) has been shown to alter the experience of pain, although studies have yielded inconsistent results. In this experiment tested the influence of RHI on the intensity of pain caused by electric stimuli. Electric stimuli were delivered to participants' experimental and control hands before RHI induction (control condition) and afterwards (experimental condition), in a procedure that was double-blind in respect to location and strength of noxious stimulation All hands were covered during the stimulation to avoid the analgesic effect of seeing one's own body part...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Alyanne M de Haan, Haike E Van Stralen, Miranda Smit, Anouk Keizer, Stefan Van der Stigchel, H Chris Dijkerman
In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), participants view a rubber hand that is stroked synchronously with their real, hidden hand. This procedure results in experiencing an increased sense of ownership over the rubber hand and demonstrates how multisensory information (vision, touch) can influence the sense of body ownership. However, it has also been suggested that a (lack of) sense of ownership over an own body part may in turn influence bodily processes. This suggestion has previously been supported by the observation that a decrease in skin temperature in the real hand correlated with ownership over the rubber hand...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
Veronica Weser, Gianluca Finotti, Marcello Costantini, Dennis R Proffitt
Bodily boundaries are computed by integrating multisensory bodily signals and can be experimentally manipulated using bodily illusions. Research on tool use demonstrates that tools alter body representations motorically to account for changes in a user's action repertoire. The present experiment sought to unify perceptual and motoric accounts of tool embodiment using a modified Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) that also addressed the skill and practice aspects of the tool use literature. In Experiment 1, synchronous multisensory stimulation induced perceptual embodiment of a tool, chopsticks...
July 16, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Angela Marotta, Federica Bombieri, Massimiliano Zampini, Federico Schena, Carlo Dallocchio, Mirta Fiorio, Michele Tinazzi
Functional movement disorders (FMD) are characterized by motor symptoms (e.g., tremor, gait disorder, and dystonia) that are not compatible with movement abnormalities related to a known organic cause. One key clinical feature of FMD is that motor symptoms are similar to voluntary movements but are subjectively experienced as involuntary by patients. This gap might be related to abnormal self-recognition of bodily action, which involves two main components: sense of agency and sense of body ownership. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate whether this function is altered in FMD, specifically focusing on the subjective feeling of agency, body ownership, and their interaction during normal voluntary movements...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Laura Crucianelli, Charlotte Krahé, Paul M Jenkinson, Aikaterini Katerina Fotopoulou
The sense of body ownership represents a fundamental aspect of bodily self-consciousness. Using multisensory integration paradigms, recent studies have shown that both exteroceptive and interoceptive information contribute to our sense of body ownership. Interoception refers to the physiological sense of the condition of the body, including afferent signals that originate inside the body and outside the body. However, it remains unclear whether individual sensitivity to interoceptive modalities is unitary or differs between modalities...
May 1, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Natasha Ratcliffe, Roger Newport
The feeling of owning and controlling the body relies on the integration and interpretation of sensory input from multiple sources with respect to existing representations of the bodily self. Illusion paradigms involving multisensory manipulations have demonstrated that while the senses of ownership and agency are strongly related, these two components of bodily experience may be dissociable and differentially affected by alterations to sensory input. Importantly, however, much of the current literature has focused on the application of sensory manipulations to external objects or virtual representations of the self that are visually incongruent with the viewer's own body and which are not part of the existing body representation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Giuseppe Riva, Silvia Serino, Daniele Di Lernia, Enea Francesco Pavone, Antonios Dakanalis
Progress in medical science and technology drastically improved physicians' ability to interact with patient's physical body. Nevertheless, medicine still addresses the human body from a Hippocratic point of view, considering the organism and its processes just as a matter of mechanics and fluids. However, the interaction between the cognitive neuroscience of bodily self-consciousness (BSC), fundamentally rooted in the integration of multisensory bodily inputs, with virtual reality (VR), haptic technologies and robotics is giving a new meaning to the classic Juvenal's latin dictum "Mens sana in corpore sano" (a healthy mind in a healthy body)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Alejandra Sel, Ruben T Azevedo, Manos Tsakiris
The sense of body-ownership relies on the representation of both interoceptive and exteroceptive signals coming from one's body. However, it remains unknown how the integration of bodily signals coming from "outside" and "inside" the body is instantiated in the brain. Here, we used a modified version of the Enfacement Illusion to investigate whether the integration of visual and cardiac information can alter self-face recognition (Experiment 1) and neural responses to heartbeats (Experiment 2). We projected a pulsing shade, that was synchronous or asynchronous with the participant's heartbeat, onto a picture depicting the participant's face morphed with the face of an unfamiliar other...
November 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Dorothy Cowie, Aisling McKenna, Andrew J Bremner, Jane E Aspell
The present work investigates the development of bodily self-consciousness and its relation to multisensory bodily information, by measuring for the first time the development of responses to the full body illusion in childhood. We tested three age groups of children: 6- to 7-year-olds (n = 28); 8- to 9-year-olds (n = 21); 10- to 11-year-olds (n = 19), and a group of adults (n = 31). Each participant wore a head-mounted display (HMD) which displayed a view from a video camera positioned 2 metres behind their own back...
March 22, 2017: Developmental Science
Jutta R de Jong, Anouk Keizer, Manja M Engel, H Chris Dijkerman
The sense of how we experience our physical body as our own represents a fundamental component of human self-awareness. Body ownership can be studied with bodily illusions which are generated by inducing a visuo-tactile conflict where individuals experience illusionary ownership over a fake body or body part, such as a rubber hand. Previous studies showed that different types of touch modulate the strength of experienced ownership over a rubber hand. Specifically, participants experienced more ownership after the rubber hand illusion was induced through affective touch vs non-affective touch...
June 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Valeria Bellan, Sarah B Wallwork, Alberto Gallace, Charles Spence, G Lorimer Moseley
The ability to know where our own body and body parts are in space is often taken for granted, yet it is of fundamental importance for the majority of our everyday activities, let alone high performance activities such as dancing. This review focuses on the concept of self-localization, the monitoring of the space surrounding one's body, and the disruptions that occur in the presence of pain. A conceptual model is presented of the cortical body matrix with which to consider self-localization; also provided are its historical context, underlying assumptions, and current limitations...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Dance Medicine & Science
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