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Sense of Agency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658733/the-paradox-of-agency-feeling-powerful-reduces-brokerage-opportunity-recognition-yet-increases-willingness-to-broker
#1
Blaine Landis, Martin Kilduff, Jochen I Menges, Gavin J Kilduff
Research suggests positions of brokerage in organizational networks provide many benefits, but studies tend to assume everyone is equally able to perceive and willing to act on brokerage opportunities. Here we challenge these assumptions in a direct investigation of whether people can perceive brokerage opportunities and are willing to broker. We propose that the psychological experience of power diminishes individuals' ability to perceive opportunities to broker between people who are not directly connected in their networks, yet enhances their willingness to broker...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652244/deriving-fuel-based-emission-factor-thresholds-to-interpret-heavy-duty-vehicle-roadside-plume-measurements
#2
David C Quiros, Jeremy D Smith, Walter A Ham, William H Robertson, Tao Huai, Alberto Ayala, Shaohua Hu
Remote sensing devices have been used for decades to measure gaseous emissions from individual vehicles at the roadside. Systems have also been developed that entrain diluted exhaust and can also measure particulate matter (PM) emissions. In 2015, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) reported that 8% of in-field diesel particulate filters (DPF) on heavy-duty (HD) vehicles were malfunctioning and emitted about 70% of total diesel PM emissions from the DPF-equipped fleet. A new high-emitter problem in the heavy-duty vehicle fleet had emerged...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650698/credit-assignment-in-a-motor-decision-making-task-is-influenced-by-agency-and-not-sensorimotor-prediction-errors
#3
Darius E Parvin, Samuel D McDougle, Jordan A Taylor, Richard B Ivry
Failures to obtain reward can occur from errors in action selection or action execution. Recently, we observed marked differences in choice behavior when the failure to obtain a reward was attributed to errors in action execution compared to errors in action selection (McDougle et al. , 2016). Specifically, participants appeared to solve this credit assignment problem by discounting outcomes in which the absence of reward was attributed to errors in action execution. Building on recent evidence indicating relatively direct communication between the cerebellum and basal ganglia, we hypothesized that cerebellar-dependent sensory-prediction errors (SPEs), a signal indicating execution failure, could attenuate value updating within a basal-ganglia dependent reinforcement learning system...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614058/an-azimuth-antenna-pattern-estimation-method-based-on-doppler-spectrum-in-sar-ocean-images
#4
Hui Meng, Xiaoqing Wang, Jinsong Chong
In synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ocean remote sensing, it is very difficult to estimate an accurate azimuth antenna pattern (AAP) from low-scattering SAR images without strong scattering targets. Therefore, an azimuth antenna pattern estimation method based on Doppler spectrum in SAR ocean images is proposed in this paper. In order to preserve the complete AAP information, an azimuth unweighted matched filter is used to re-image the SAR raw data in the proposed method. Then, the shape factor of AAP can be obtained by linear statistics of the relationship between Doppler center and edge frequency spectrum in Doppler spectrum of each distance gate...
April 3, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614016/objecthood-agency-and-mutualism-in-valenced-farm-animal-environments
#5
REVIEW
Ian G Colditz
Genetic selection of farm animals for productivity, and intensification of farming practices have yielded substantial improvements in efficiency; however, the capacity of animals to cope with environmental challenges has diminished. Understanding how the animal and environment interact is central to efforts to improve the health, fitness, and welfare of animals through breeding and management strategies. The review examines aspects of the environment that are sensed by the animal. The predictive brain model of sensory perception and motor action (the Bayesian brain model) and its recent extension to account for anticipatory, predictive control of physiological activities is described...
April 3, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605412/outside-influence-the-sense-of-agency-takes-into-account-what-is-in-our-surroundings
#6
Nicholas Hon, Yin-Yi Seow, Don Pereira
We are quite capable of distinguishing those outcomes we cause from those we do not. This ability to sense self-agency is thought to be produced by a comparison between a predictive representation of an outcome and the actual outcome that occurs. It is unclear, though, specifically what types of information can be entered into agency computations. Here, we demonstrate that information from non-target stimuli (stimuli that are not directly acted upon) incidentally present in our surroundings can influence predictions of outcomes, consequently modulating the sense of agency over clearly-defined target outcomes (those that occur to acted-upon stimuli)...
March 28, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583033/adult-self-image-and-well-being-after-testicular-cancer-the-role-of-agency-and-meaning
#7
Sean J Ryan, Michael A Hoyt
OBJECTIVE: Cancer during young adulthood can limit the extent to which one adopts an adult self-image. However, the relationship of adult self-image to cancer-related adjustment remains unexplored. The current study examines relationships of adult self-image and social/emotional well-being and job-related problems in young testicular cancer survivors. Factors thought to facilitate future-oriented goals (i.e. agency and meaning) are examined as intermediary processes. DESIGN: Testicular cancer survivors (N = 171) between the ages of 18 and 29 completed questionnaire measures of adult self-image, agency, sense of meaning and indicators of adjustment...
March 27, 2018: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572920/stakes-in-the-eye-of-the-beholder-an-international-study-of-learners-perceptions-within-programmatic-assessment
#8
Suzanne Schut, Erik Driessen, Jan van Tartwijk, Cees van der Vleuten, Sylvia Heeneman
OBJECTIVES: Within programmatic assessment, the ambition is to simultaneously optimise the feedback and the decision-making function of assessment. In this approach, individual assessments are intended to be low stakes. In practice, however, learners often perceive assessments designed to be low stakes as high stakes. In this study, we explored how learners perceive assessment stakes within programmatic assessment and which factors influence these perceptions. METHODS: Twenty-six learners were interviewed from three different countries and five different programmes, ranging from undergraduate to postgraduate medical education...
March 24, 2018: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567107/the-role-of-the-temporoparietal-junction-in-implicit-and-explicit-sense-of-agency
#9
Gethin Hughes
The experience of being in control of one's actions and outcomes is called the sense of agency. This is a fundamental feature of our human experience, and may underpin important social functions such as morality and responsibility. Sense of agency can be measured explicitly, by asking people to report their experience, or implicitly by recording the perceived time interval between actions and outcomes (intentional binding). The current studies used transcranial direct current stimulation to assess the role of left and right temporal-parietal junction in both implicit and explicit sense of agency...
March 19, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557447/colorimetric-detection-of-iron-and-fluorescence-detection-of-zinc-and-cadmium-by-a-chemosensor-containing-a-bio-friendly-octopamine
#10
Ji Hye Kang, Cheal Kim
Chemosensor 1 was synthesized by the reaction of octopamine with 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde. Sensor 1 determined iron with an obvious color change from pale yellow to brown in nearly-pure water. The detection limits (0.55 and 0.25 μM) for Fe2+ and Fe3+, respectively, were far lower than the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) guideline concentration for drinking water (5.37 μM). In addition, 1 could be employed to quantify iron in environmental water samples. Moreover, sensor 1 exhibited different fluorescence emissions in response to zinc (green) and cadmium (blue)...
March 20, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557294/supported-decision-making-the-expectations-held-by-people-with-experience-of-mental-illness
#11
Fauzia Knight, Renata Kokanović, Damien Ridge, Lisa Brophy, Nicholas Hill, Kate Johnston-Ataata, Helen Herrman
Supported decision-making (SDM) is a principle guiding mental health service provision, which aims to improve people's ability to make informed decisions about their care. Understanding diverse individual needs is vital to its success. Based on 29 narrative interviews with people diagnosed with mental illness in Australia, we examine how participants reflected on their own experiences of SDM. We find that participants' conceptualization of mental health expertise, their own experiences and sense of agency, and their varying needs for dependence and independence influenced their relationships with mental health practitioners...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547822/a-phenolic-acid-based-colourimetric-naked-eye-chemosensor-for-the-rapid-detection-of-cu-ii-ions
#12
Priti Sengupta, Aniruddha Ganguly, Adity Bose
The crucial role of chemosensor for the immediate recognition of environment pollutant motivates the researchers to develop variety of sensing protocols. Of various chemosensory protocols, the colour change observed by the naked eye is considered to be a conceivable and on-site way to indicate the presence of an analyte. We herein report a colourimetric and commercially available absorption probe, sinapic acid (SA) that is completely ready to use for "on-site" visual determination of copper ions. The molecule, SA is well-known phenolic acid, often utilized for its antibacterial activity...
March 3, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543472/being-in-between-a-model-of-cultural-identity-negotiation-for-emerging-adult-immigrants
#13
Julie A Cohen, Anusha Kassan
This qualitative study explored the cultural identity negotiation of young adult immigrants. Using a grounded theory research design, 10 semistructured interviews were conducted with emerging adult immigrants (EAI), ages 19-27. Results yielded a substantive model of cultural identity negotiation (MCIN) for EAI and posited that One's Motivation and Sense of Agency to Negotiate Cultural Identity is at the core of how participants navigate their cultural identities. This model included 6 major categories: (a) Family Cultural Rigidity ; (b) Connections Specific to Canada ; (c) Connection to a Same Cultured Community ; (d) Sense of Permanency ; (e) Desire to Preserve Culture of Origin ; (f) Desire to Fit in to Canadian Culture , as well as 2 overarching factors ( Dimension of Time and Dimension of Age ), which were found to be influential on participants' cultural identity negotiation...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543166/-do-you-feel-in-control-towards-novel-approaches-to-characterise-manipulate-and-measure-the-sense-of-agency-in-virtual-environments
#14
Camille Jeunet, Louis Albert, Ferran Argelaguet, Anatole Lecuyer
While the Sense of Agency (SoA) has so far been predominantly characterised in VR as a component of the Sense of Embodiment, other communities (e.g., in psychology or neurosciences) have investigated the SoA from a different perspective proposing complementary theories. Yet, despite the acknowledged potential benefits of catching up with these theories a gap remains. This paper first aims to contribute to fill this gap by introducing a theory according to which the SoA can be divided into two components, the feeling and the judgment of agency, and relies on three principles, namely the principles of priority, exclusivity and consistency...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543084/finding-freedom-exploring-the-relationship-between-agency-motility-and-aggression
#15
Tom Wooldridge
After an overview of the opposed concepts of freedom and psychic determinism, and of the compatibilist reconciliation between the two that is most appropriate for psychoanalysis, the importance of agency as a psychoanalytic idea is considered. In particular, two ways in which the term agency may be used are examined: agency as fact and agency as experience. The former refers to the degree of relative freedom an individual possesses from "inner" constraints, whereas the latter refers to the experience of oneself as having an active impact on the self, other people, and/or the world...
February 2018: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540617/illusory-movement-perception-improves-motor-control-for-prosthetic-hands
#16
Paul D Marasco, Jacqueline S Hebert, Jon W Sensinger, Courtney E Shell, Jonathon S Schofield, Zachary C Thumser, Raviraj Nataraj, Dylan T Beckler, Michael R Dawson, Dan H Blustein, Satinder Gill, Brett D Mensh, Rafael Granja-Vazquez, Madeline D Newcomb, Jason P Carey, Beth M Orzell
To effortlessly complete an intentional movement, the brain needs feedback from the body regarding the movement's progress. This largely nonconscious kinesthetic sense helps the brain to learn relationships between motor commands and outcomes to correct movement errors. Prosthetic systems for restoring function have predominantly focused on controlling motorized joint movement. Without the kinesthetic sense, however, these devices do not become intuitively controllable. We report a method for endowing human amputees with a kinesthetic perception of dexterous robotic hands...
March 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540181/improvement-of-medication-adherence-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-sle-using-web-based-education-with-and-without-a-social-media-intervention-a-pilot-study
#17
Lisabeth V Scalzi, Christopher S Hollenbeak, Emily Mascuilli, Nancy Olsen
BACKGROUND: Self-management skills, including medication management, are vital to the health of adolescents and young adults with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and preliminary effects of an online educational program in a cohort of adolescent and young adults with SLE with and without a social media (SM) experience. METHODS: Adolescents and young adults with SLE participated weekly for 8 sessions on a web-based educational program about SLE created specifically for this project...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536792/friendship-and-money-a-qualitative-study-of-service-users-experiences-of-participating-in-a-supported-socialisation-programme
#18
Ann Sheridan, Donal O'Keeffe, Barbara Coughlan, Kate Frazer, Johnathan Drennan, Mary Kemple
BACKGROUND: Social opportunities can be limited in the lives of people with enduring mental illness (EMI) due to psychiatric stigma, restricted home environments and employment barriers. Supported socialisation programmes have the potential to redress the impact of social isolation. AIM: To explore the experiences of service users with EMI taking part in a supported socialisation programme, using written diary entries. METHODS: This article reports on the qualitative component of a randomised controlled trial of supported socialisation for people with EMI (published previously in this journal)...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533775/on-the-relation-between-body-ownership-and-sense-of-agency-a-link-at-the-level-of-sensory-related-signals
#19
Maria Pyasik, Dalila Burin, Lorenzo Pia
The relation between sense of body ownership and sense of agency is still highly debated. Here we investigated in a large sample of healthy participants the associations between several implicit and explicit indexes of the two senses. Specifically, we examined the correlations between proprioceptive shift (implicit measure) and questionnaire on the subjective experience of ownership (explicit measure) within the rubber hand illusion paradigm (body ownership), and intentional binding (implicit measure), attenuation of the intensity of auditory outcomes of actions (implicit measure) and questionnaire on the subjective experience of authorship (explicit measure) within the Libet's clock paradigm (sense of agency)...
March 10, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529412/transsaccadic-perception-deficits-in-schizophrenia-reflect-the-improper-internal-monitoring-of-eye-movement-rather-than-abnormal-sensory-processing
#20
Sonia Bansal, Laurence C Jayet Bray, Barbara L Schwartz, Wilsaan M Joiner
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of psychosis in schizophrenia reflect disturbances in sense of agency-difficulty distinguishing internally from externally generated sensory and perceptual experiences. One theory attributes these anomalies to a disruption in corollary discharge (CD), an internal copy of generated motor commands used to distinguish self-movement-generated sensations from externally generated stimulation. METHODS: We used a transsaccadic shift detection paradigm to examine possible deficits in CD and sense of agency based on the ability to perceive visual changes in 31 schizophrenia patients (SZPs) and 31 healthy control subjects...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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