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Sense of Agency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214772/i-could-have-done-otherwise-availability-of-counterfactual-comparisons-informs-the-sense-of-agency
#1
Eugenia Kulakova, Nima Khalighinejad, Patrick Haggard
Personal control and agency are closely associated with the counterfactual notion that a person could have done otherwise (CDO). In both philosophy and law, this counterfactual evaluation determines responsibility and punishment, yet little is known about its influence on agents' experience during action. We used a risky decision-making task to study how counterfactual evaluations influenced participants' sense of agency. Two factors were manipulated independently: the presence/absence of counterfactual comparisons between actions and the presence/absence of counterfactual comparisons between outcomes of these actions...
February 16, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212896/having-control-over-the-external-world-increases-the-implicit-sense-of-agency
#2
Brianna Beck, Steven Di Costa, Patrick Haggard
The sense of agency refers to the feeling of control over one's actions, and, through them, over external events. One proposed marker of implicit sense of agency is 'intentional binding'-the tendency to perceive voluntary actions and their outcomes as close in time. Another is attenuation of the sensory consequences of a voluntary action. Here we show that the ability to choose an outcome through action selection contributes to implicit sense of agency. We measured intentional binding and stimulus intensity ratings using painful and non-painful somatosensory outcomes...
February 14, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202426/integrated-platform-for-home-services-using-new-products-and-services-for-senior-citizens-call-cnav-carsat-2015
#3
Michel Noguès, Daniel Laune, Delphine Paccard, Anne-Laure Coupet, Justine Millot-Keurinck, Narjis Bototo, Marine Bertrand, Jean Bousquet
This project is part of: i) the risks of ageing prevention policy of the French retirement and occupational health insurance agency of Languedoc Roussillon (Carsat-LR) and ii) the European innovation partnership on active and healthy ageing (EIP on AHA). It aims to support senior citizens who live independently and have been identified at risk of frailty on a social or health level. The purpose is to increase legibility as well as technical and financial access to innovations for vulnerable seniors who are remote from the digital era, through a multiservice user-friendly platform...
February 15, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188916/how-action-selection-influences-the-sense-of-agency-an-erp-study
#4
Nura Sidarus, Matti Vuorre, Patrick Haggard
Sense of agency (SoA) refers to the feeling that we are in control of our actions and, through them, of events in the outside world. One influential view claims that the SoA depends on retrospectively matching the expected and actual outcomes of action. However, recent studies have revealed an additional, prospective component to SoA, driven by action selection processes. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to clarify the neural mechanisms underlying prospective agency. Subliminal priming was used to manipulate the fluency of selecting a left or right hand action in response to a supraliminal target...
February 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185229/the-time-course-of-intentional-binding
#5
Miriam Ruess, Roland Thomaschke, Andrea Kiesel
Stimuli caused by actions (i.e., effects) are perceived earlier than stimuli not caused by actions. This phenomenon is termed intentional binding (IB) and serves as implicit measure of sense of agency. We investigated the influence of effect delay and temporal predictability on IB, operationalized as the bias to perceive the effect as temporally shifted toward the action. For short delays, IB increased with delay (Experiment 1: 200 ms, 250 ms, 300 ms). The initial increase declined for longer delays (Experiment 2: 100 ms, 250 ms, 400 ms)...
February 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177149/relational-citizenship-supporting-embodied-selfhood-and-relationality-in-dementia-care
#6
Pia Kontos, Karen-Lee Miller, Alexis P Kontos
We draw on findings from a mixed-method study of specialised red-nosed elder-clowns in a long-term care facility to advance a model of 'relational citizenship' for individuals with dementia. Relational citizenship foregrounds the reciprocal nature of engagement and the centrality of capacities, senses, and experiences of bodies to the exercise of human agency and interconnectedness. We critically examine elder-clown strategies and techniques to illustrate how relational citizenship can be supported and undermined at the micro level of direct care through a focus on embodied expressions of creativity and sexuality...
February 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170406/youth-as-contested-sites-of-culture-the-intergenerational-acculturation-gap-amongst-new-migrant-communities-parental-and-young-adult-perspectives
#7
Andre M N Renzaho, Nidhi Dhingra, Nichole Georgeou
BACKGROUND: Immigration often results in changes in family dynamics, and within this process of dynamic relational adjustment youth can be conceptualised as contested sites of culture and associated intergenerational conflicts. This paper considers the experiences of migrant youth in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia using conflict as a useful lens through which to view issues of migrant youth identity and their sense of social connectedness, belonging, and agency. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to explore how migrant youth cope with acculturative stress and intergenerational conflicts, and 2) to better understand the systemic and family-related factors that facilitate positive settlement experiences for migrant youth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159363/do-the-european-medicines-agency-decisions-hurt-pediatric-melanoma-patients
#8
REVIEW
Klaus Rose, Philip D Walson
PURPOSE: US pediatric legislation was introduced in 1997 and was followed by European Union pediatric legislation that, since 2007, requires a European Medicines Agency (EMA)-approved pediatric investigation plan (PIP) for registration of new medicines unless they are PIP exempted. In 2008, the EMA decided that enough adolescent patients with melanoma existed and removed melanoma from the list of PIP-exempted diseases (class waiver list). We examined the logic and the results of this decision...
January 31, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144228/the-influence-of-dis-belief-in-free-will-on-immoral-behavior
#9
Emilie A Caspar, Laurène Vuillaume, Pedro A Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama, Axel Cleeremans
One of the hallmarks of human existence is that we all hold beliefs that determine how we act. Amongst such beliefs, the idea that we are endowed with free will appears to be linked to prosocial behaviors, probably by enhancing the feeling of responsibility of individuals over their own actions. However, such effects appear to be more complex that one might have initially thought. Here, we aimed at exploring how induced disbeliefs in free will impact the sense of agency over the consequences of one's own actions in a paradigm that engages morality...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135804/the-interaction-between-equipoise-and-logistics-in-clinical-trials-a-case-study
#10
Meredith G Warshaw, Vincent J Carey, Elizabeth J McFarland, Liza Dawson, Elaine Abrams, Ann Melvin, Lee Fairlie, Hans Spiegel, Jonathan Jay, Allison L Agwu
INTRODUCTION: Equipoise is usually discussed as an ethical issue in clinical trials. However, it also has practical implications. BACKGROUND: Clinical equipoise is usually construed to mean uncertainty or disagreement among the expert clinician community. However, an individual physician's sense of equipoise may vary by location, based on the local standard of care or availability of specific treatment options, and these differences can affect providers' willingness to enroll participants into clinical trials...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120205/the-use-of-spatial-empirical-models-to-estimate-soil-erosion-in-arid-ecosystems
#11
Meshal Abdullah, Rusty Feagin, Layla Musawi
The central objective of this project was to utilize geographical information systems and remote sensing to compare soil erosion models, including Modified Pacific South-west Inter Agency Committee (MPSIAC), Erosion Potential Method (EPM), and Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), and to determine their applicability for arid regions such as Kuwait. The northern portion of Umm Nigga, containing both coastal and desert ecosystems, falls within the boundaries of the de-militarized zone (DMZ) adjacent to Iraq and has been fenced off to restrict public access since 1994...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110236/the-predictability-of-a-partner-s-actions-modulates-the-sense-of-joint-agency
#12
Nicole K Bolt, Janeen D Loehr
When people coordinate their actions with others, they experience a sense of joint agency, i.e., shared control over actions and their consequences. The current study examined whether the predictability of others' actions modulates joint agency. Each participant coordinated with two confederate partners to produce tone sequences that matched a metronome pace. The timing of the confederates' actions was manipulated so that one partner's actions were highly predictable in time and the other's less predictable...
January 19, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088637/multi-scale-control-influences-sense-of-agency-investigating-intentional-binding-using-event-control-approach
#13
Devpriya Kumar, Narayanan Srinivasan
Control exercised by humans through interactions with the environment is critical for sense of agency. Here, we investigate how control at multiple levels influence implicit sense of agency measured using intentional binding. Participants are asked to hit a moving target using a joystick with noisy control followed by an intentional binding task initiated by the target hitting action. Perceptual-motor level control was manipulated through noise in the joystick controller (experiment 1) and goal-level control in terms of feedback about successful hit (experiments 2a and 2b)...
January 12, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079364/dna-modified-fe3o4-au-magnetic-nanoparticles-as-selective-probes-for-simultaneous-detection-of-heavy-metal-ions
#14
Peng Miao, Yuguo Tang, Lei Wang
Driven by the urgent need to detect trace heavy metal ions in various real water samples, this article demonstrates for the first time an electrochemical biosensor based on DNA modified Fe3O4@Au magnetic nanoparticles (NPs). Three DNA probes are designed to contain certain mismatched base pairs. One is thiolated and modified on the surface of Fe3O4@Au NPs (DNA 1). The other two probes (DNA 2 and 3) are labeled with two independent electrochemical species. Stable structures of cytosine-Ag(+)-cytosine and thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine formed in the presence of Ag(+) and Hg(2+) can assist the hybridization of DNA 1/DNA 2 and DNA 1/DNA 3, which locate corresponding electrochemical species onto the surface of the magnetic NPs...
February 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077329/body-schema-plasticity-after-stroke-subjective-and-neurophysiological-correlates-of-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#15
Roberto Llorens, Adrián Borrego, Priscila Palomo, Ausiàs Cebolla, Enrique Noé, Sergi Bermúdez I Badia, Rosa Baños
Stroke can lead to motor impairments that can affect the body structure and restraint mobility. We hypothesize that brain lesions and their motor sequelae can distort the body schema, a sensorimotor map of body parts and elements in the peripersonal space through which human beings embody the reachable space and ready the body for forthcoming movements. Two main constructs have been identified in the embodiment mechanism: body-ownership, the sense that the body that one inhabits is his/her own, and agency, the sense that one can move and control his/her body...
February 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073333/how-orthogonal-are-the-big-two-of-social-perception-on-the-curvilinear-relation-between-agency-and-communion
#16
Roland Imhoff, Alex Koch
Humans make sense of their social environment by forming impressions of others that allow predicting others' actions. In this process of social perception, two types of information carry pivotal importance: other entities' communion (i.e., warmth and trustworthiness) and agency (i.e., status and power). Although commonly thought of as orthogonal dimensions, we propose that these Big Two of social perception are curvilinearly related. Specifically, as we delineate from four different theoretical explanations, impressions of communion should peak at average agency, while entities too high or too low on agency should be perceived as low on communion...
January 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028677/psychosocial-influences-on-disaster-preparedness-in-san-francisco-recipients-of-home-care
#17
Robyn R Gershon, Elena Portacolone, Ezinne M Nwankwo, Qi Zhi, Kristine A Qureshi, Victoria H Raveis
Disasters disproportionately impact certain segments of the population, including children, pregnant women, people living with disabilities and chronic conditions and those who are underserved and under-resourced. One of the most vulnerable groups includes the community-dwelling elderly. Post-disaster analyses indicate that these individuals have higher risk of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. They also have suboptimal levels of disaster preparedness in terms of their ability to shelter-in-place or evacuate to a shelter...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027675/nurses-moral-experiences-of-assisted-death
#18
James Elmore, David Kenneth Wright, Maude Paradis
BACKGROUND: Legislative changes are resulting in assisted death as an option for people at the end of life. Although nurses' experiences and perspectives are underrepresented within broader ethical discourses about assisted death, there is a small but significant body of literature examining nurses' experiences of caring for people who request this option. AIM: To synthesize what has been learned about nurses' experiences of caring for patients who request assisted death and to highlight what is morally at stake for nurses who undertake this type of care...
January 1, 2016: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027510/sense-of-agency-in-continuous-action-assistance-induced-performance-improvement-is-self-attributed-even-with-knowledge-of-assistance
#19
Kazuya Inoue, Yuji Takeda, Motohiro Kimura
In a task involving continuous action to achieve a goal, the sense of agency increases with an improvement in task performance that is induced by unnoticed computer assistance. This study investigated how explicit instruction about the existence of computer assistance affects the increase of sense of agency that accompanies performance improvement. Participants performed a continuous action task in which they controlled the direction of motion of a dot to a goal by pressing keys. When instructions indicated the absence of assistance, the sense of agency increased with performance improvement induced by computer assistance, replicating previous findings...
February 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025063/was-it-me-filling-the-interval-between-action-and-effects-increases-agency-but-not-sensory-attenuation
#20
Lisa Weller, Katharina A Schwarz, Wilfried Kunde, Roland Pfister
Sensory stimuli resulting from one's own actions are perceptually attenuated compared to identical but externally produced stimuli. This may enable the organism to discriminate between self-produced events and externally produced events, suggesting a strong link between sensory attenuation and a subjective sense of agency. To investigate this supposed link, we compared the influence of filled and unfilled action-effect delays on both, judgements of agency for self-produced sounds and attenuation of the event-related potential (ERP)...
December 23, 2016: Biological Psychology
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