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Sense of Agency

Rachel Newby, Jane Alty, Peter Kempster
Mind-brain dualism has dominated historical commentary on dystonia, a dichotomous approach that has left our conceptual grasp of it stubbornly incomplete. This is particularly true of functional dystonia, most diagnostically challenging of all functional movement disorders, in which the question of inherent psychogenicity remains a focus of debate. Phenomenological signs considered in isolation lack the specificity to distinguish organic and nonorganic forms, and dystonia's variability has frustrated attempts to develop objective laboratory-supported standards...
October 18, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Wei Cheng, Edmund T Rolls, Jiang Qiu, Wei Liu, Yanqing Tang, Chu-Chung Huang, XinFa Wang, Jie Zhang, Wei Lin, Lirong Zheng, JunCai Pu, Shih-Jen Tsai, Albert C Yang, Ching-Po Lin, Fei Wang, Peng Xie, Jianfeng Feng
The first brain-wide voxel-level resting state functional connectivity neuroimaging analysis of depression is reported, with 421 patients with major depressive disorder and 488 control subjects. Resting state functional connectivity between different voxels reflects correlations of activity between those voxels and is a fundamental tool in helping to understand the brain regions with altered connectivity and function in depression. One major circuit with altered functional connectivity involved the medial orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann area 13, which is implicated in reward, and which had reduced functional connectivity in depression with memory systems in the parahippocampal gyrus and medial temporal lobe, especially involving the perirhinal cortex Brodmann area 36 and entorhinal cortex Brodmann area 28...
October 14, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Emilie A Caspar, Andrea Desantis, Zoltan Dienes, Axel Cleeremans, Patrick Haggard
Does sense of agency (SoA) arise merely from action-outcome associations, or does an additional real-time process track each step along the chain? Tracking control predicts that deviant intermediate steps between action and outcome should reduce SoA. In two experiments, participants learned mappings between two finger actions and two tones. In later test blocks, actions triggered a robot hand moving either the same or a different finger, and also triggered tones, which were congruent or incongruent with the mapping...
2016: PloS One
Dana Alonzo, Claire Moravec, Benjamin Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Individuals experiencing suicidal ideation and/or behaviors are often difficult to engage in treatment. Up to 50% of individuals presenting to an ER for treatment of a suicidal crisis refuse outpatient treatment referrals. This study examined outpatient mental health clinicians' perceptions of the barriers to and facilitators of mental health treatment engagement of individuals at risk for suicide. METHOD: Thirty-six mental health clinicians working with clients with past and/or current suicidality (ideation, behaviors) in outpatient mental health centers participated in four focus groups...
October 12, 2016: Crisis
Shaun Gallagher, Dylan Trigg
We review the distinction between sense of agency and sense of ownership, and then explore these concepts, and their reflective attributions, in schizophrenic symptoms and agoraphobia. We show how the underlying dynamics of these experiences are different across these disorders. We argue that these concepts are complex and cannot be reduced to neural mechanisms, but involve embodied and situated processes that include the physical and social environments. We conclude by arguing that the subjective and intersubjective dimensions of agency and ownership cannot be considered in isolation from one another, but instead form an interdependent pairing...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Dengying Long, Haili Yu
We report a simple, facile, and reliable colorimetric system for detection of chromium(III) ions (Cr(3+)) using citrate- and thiourea-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The colorimetric sensing strategy is based on the synergistic coordination interaction of citrate and thiourea toward Cr(3+) on the surface of AuNPs, leading to the aggregation of AuNPs which produces a color change from red to purple. Under the optimal conditions, this colorimetric sensing system shows an excellent selectivity and sensitivity for Cr(3+), and the limit of detection (LOD) is estimated to be 0...
October 8, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
M J Edwards
Although neurobiologic theories to explain functional neurologic symptoms have a long history, a relative lack of interest in the 20th century left them far behind neurobiologic understanding of other illness. Here we review the proposals for neurobiologic mechanisms of functional neurologic symptoms that have been made over time and consider how they might inform our diagnostic and treatment methods, and how they integrate with psychologic formulations of functional symptoms. Modern approaches map on to recent developments in theoretic models of brain function, and suggest a key role for processes affecting attention, beliefs/expectations, and a resultant impairment of sense of agency...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
John M Wiesman, Suzanne M Babich, Karl Umble, Edward L Baker
CONTEXT: Turnover of top local public health officials is expected to be great, with 23% being 60 years of age or older, and another 42% being 50 to 59 years of age. Yet, we know little about the use of succession planning in public health agencies. OBJECTIVE: Describe succession planning practices in local public health agencies. DESIGN: We conducted a Web-based, cross-sectional survey of succession planning practices and followed the career paths of public health officials for 40 months...
November 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Bekir Enes Demiryürek, Aslı Aksoy Gündogdu, Bilgehan Atılgan Acar, Aybala Neslihan Alagoz
Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is an involuntary and rare neurological disorder emerges at upper extremity. AHS is a disconnection syndrome with the symptoms of losing sense of agency and sense of ownership, and presence of involuntary autonomic motor activity. There are frontal, callosal and posterior types of AHS and each of them occurs depend on the lesions of different of the brain. Posterior variant is a rarely encountered AHS type compared to others. AHS, generally regarded as persistent, but rarely maybe observed as paroxysmal...
October 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Molly K Reif, Heather J Theel
Restoration monitoring is generally perceived as costly and time-consuming, given the assumptions of successfully restoring ecological functions and services of a particular ecosystem or habitat. Opportunities exist for remote sensing to bolster the restoration science associated with a wide variety of injured resources, including resources affected by fire, hydropower operations, chemical releases and oil spills, among others. In the last decade, the role of remote sensing to support restoration monitoring has increased, in part due to the advent of high resolution satellite sensors as well as other sensor technology, such as lidar...
September 14, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Nima Khalighinejad, Bahador Bahrami, Emilie A Caspar, Patrick Haggard
The sense of controlling one's own actions is fundamental to normal human mental function, and also underlies concepts of social responsibility for action. However, it remains unclear how the wider social context of human action influences sense of agency. Using a simple experimental design, we investigated, for the first time, how observing the action of another person or a robot could potentially influence one's own sense of agency. We assessed how observing another's action might change the perceived temporal relationship between one's own voluntary actions and their outcomes, which has been proposed as an implicit measure of sense of agency...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Pablo Garaizar, Carmelo P Cubillas, Helena Matute
Libet's clock is a well-known procedure in experiments in psychology and neuroscience. Examples of its use include experiments exploring the subjective sense of agency, action-effect binding, and subjective timing of conscious decisions and perceptions. However, the technical details of the apparatus used to conduct these types of experiments are complex, and are rarely explained in sufficient detail as to guarantee an exact replication of the procedure. With this in mind, we developed Labclock Web, a web tool designed to conduct online and offline experiments using Libet's clock...
2016: Scientific Reports
James W Moore
Sense of agency refers to the feeling of control over actions and their consequences. In this article I summarize what we currently know about sense of agency; looking at how it is measured and what theories there are to explain it. I then explore some of the potential applications of this research, something that the sense of agency research field has been slow to identify and implement. This is a pressing concern given the increasing importance of 'research impact.'
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Emma E Howard, S Gareth Edwards, Andrew P Bayliss
We investigated the effect of effort on implicit agency ascription for actions performed under varying levels of physical effort or cognitive load. People are able to estimate the interval between two events accurately, but they underestimate the interval between their own actions and their outcomes. This effect is known as 'intentional binding', and may provide feedback regarding the consequences of our actions. Concurrently with the interval reproduction task, our participants pulled sports resistance bands at high and low resistance levels (Experiments 1 and 2), or performed a working memory task with high and low set-sizes (Experiment 3)...
September 6, 2016: Cognition
Gesine K Veits, Kelsey K Carter, Sarah J Cox, Anne J McNeil
The stimuli-responsive nature of molecular gels makes them appealing platforms for sensing. The biggest challenge is in identifying an appropriate gelator for each specific chemical or biological target. Due to the similarities between crystallization and gel formation, we hypothesized that the tools used to predict crystal morphologies could be useful for identifying gelators. Herein, we demonstrate that new gelators can be discovered by focusing on scaffolds with predicted high aspect ratio crystals. Using this morphology prediction method, we identified two promising molecular scaffolds containing lead atoms...
September 21, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Maryam Alimardani, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro
Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) have been developed and implemented in many areas as a new communication channel between the human brain and external devices. Despite their rapid growth and broad popularity, the inaccurate performance and cost of user-training are yet the main issues that prevent their application out of the research and clinical environment. We previously introduced a BCI system for the control of a very humanlike android that could raise a sense of embodiment and agency in the operators only by imagining a movement (motor imagery) and watching the robot perform it...
2016: PloS One
Yingying Qi, Fu-Rong Xiu, Gending Yu, Lili Huang, Baoxin Li
Detection of ultralow concentration of heavy metal ion Hg(2+) is important for human health protection and environment monitoring because of the gradual accumulation in environmental and biological fields. Herein, we report a convenient chemiluminescence (CL) biosensing platform for ultrasensitive Hg(2+) detection by signal amplification mechanism from positively charged gold nanoparticles ((+)AuNPs). It is based on (+)AuNPs charge effect and aptamer conformation change induced by target to stimulate the generation of CL in the presence of H2O2 and luminol without high salt medium...
August 9, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
C Jeunet, B N'Kaoua, F Lotte
While being very promising for a wide range of applications, mental-imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (MI-BCIs) remain barely used outside laboratories, notably due to the difficulties users encounter when attempting to control them. Indeed, 10-30% of users are unable to control MI-BCIs (so-called BCI illiteracy) while only a small proportion reach acceptable control abilities. This huge interuser variability has led the community to investigate potential predictors of performance related to users' personality and cognitive profile...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
Andi Petculescu
Generic predictions for acoustic dispersion and absorption in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus are presented. For Mars, Pathfinder and Mars Express ambient data and averaged thermophysical parameters are used as inputs to a preliminary model based on the continuum approximation for Mars' thin atmosphere-the need for Boltzmann-based treatment is discussed in the context of Knudsen numbers. Strong absorption constrains acoustic sensing within the Martian planetary boundary layer. For the dense atmosphere of Venus, the van der Waals equation of state is used...
August 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Romina Rodela, Dušan Alašević
Contemporary approaches to environmental research are calling for a type of scientific inquiry that is able to bring together the natural and social sciences. This with the aim to advance our understanding of environmental issues and produce synthetic and actionable knowledge meant to address these. Yet, interdisciplinarity research of this type is a demanding and challenging pursuit; many have shown that in certain thematic areas and geographic regions practice falls behind discourse. We bring together ideas about interdisciplinary research collaborations (after Patricia L...
August 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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