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Sense of Agency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227882/kalaban-young-drug-users-engagements-with-law-enforcement-in-the-philippines
#1
Gideon Lasco
BACKGROUND: A violent 'war on drugs' continues to be waged in the Philippines, even as the use of drugs - particular methamphetamine - continues to rise. Furnishing contextual background to the current situation, this paper explores how long-running law enforcement approaches in the Philippines might be viewed by those in their receiving end by presenting findings of an ethnography among marginalized young men. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among 20 young men throughout a 12-month period of participant-observation from December 2011 to September 2013...
December 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227684/tas3-nanofibers-layered-trichalcogenide-for-high-performance-electronic-and-sensing-devices
#2
Carmen C Mayorga-Martínez, Zdenek Sofer, Jan Luxa, Stepan Huber, David Sedmidubsky, Petr Brázda, Lukas Palatinus, Martin Mikulics, Petr Lazar, Rostislav Medlín, Martin Pumera
The layered materials like transition metal dichalcogenides exhibit broad spectra of outstanding properties with huge application potential, while another group of related materials, layered transition metal trichalcogenides remains unexplored. Here we show a broad application potential of this interesting structural type of layered tantalum trisulfide prepared in a form of nanofibers. This material shows tailorable attractive electronic properties dependent on the tensile strain applied to it. Structure of this so-called orthorhombic phase of TaS3 grown in a form of long nanofibers has been solved and refined...
December 11, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223073/evidence-for-pain-attenuation-by-the-motor-system-based-judgment-of-agency
#3
N Karsh, O Goldstein, B Eitam
Pain is an integral part of our lives. Although the effect of 'control' on sensed pain has been extensively studied and discussed, recent findings seem to be at odds with the substantial evidence for a robust motor-based sensory attenuation effect - an indirect marker for one's sense of agency. The goal of the current study was to re-examine whether there is evidence for such an effect in the context of pain. In three experiments, human participants were aversively stimulated and the sensitivity of self-reported pain to factors previously shown to modulate the sensory attenuation effect was tested (control over parameters of the stimulation; temporal contiguity and predictability, and stimulation intensity)...
December 6, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223059/a-highly-selective-fluorescence-sensing-platform-for-nanomolar-hg-ii-detection-based-on-cytosine-derived-quantum-dot
#4
Liang Luo, Ting Song, Haoqiang Wang, Qunhui Yuan, Shenghai Zhou
Inspired by low toxicity and good biocompatibility of biomass derived quantum dot (QD), we herein developed a cytosine derived quantum dot, namely cyt-dot, via a one-step hydrothermal synthesis. The as-prepared cyt-dot emits blue fluorescence (FL) containing abundant oxygen (20.6at.%) and nitrogen (24.1at.%) contents. The cyt-dot based sensing platform shows exclusive selectivity for Hg(II) while being insensitive towards Fe(III) and Ag(I), which are important interference that usually cannot be ruled out. The detection limit for Hg(II) is of 11nM, which is very close to the guideline value of 10nM allowed by the U...
November 22, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209260/awareness-and-awakening-a-narrative-oriented-inquiry-of-undergraduate-students-development-of-mindful-agency-in-china
#5
Qing Wang, Ho Chung Law, Yan Li, Zhanfei Xu, Weiguo Pang
The article explores undergraduate students' experiences of developing mindful agency as a positive learning disposition, their perceived change as a learner, and the possible impact of mindful agency coaching on students' learning and personal growth, using a narrative research method. Seventy Chinese undergraduate students generated personal reflective journals and eight participants' journals were selected to enter into the narrative-oriented inquiry. Our analysis revealed a number of primary themes based on which we produced a meta-story...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209181/the-agent-brain-a-review-of-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-studies-on-sensing-agency
#6
REVIEW
Davide Crivelli, Michela Balconi
According to philosophy of mind and neuroscientific models, the sense of agency can be defined as the sense that I am the one that is generating an action and causing its effects. Such ability to sense ourselves as causal agents is critical for the definition of intentional behavior and is a primary root for human interaction skills. The present mini-review aims at discussing evidences from non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) studies targeting functional correlates of different aspects of agency and evidences on the way stimulation techniques affect such core feature of human subjective experience...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201248/a-qualitative-study-with-healthcare-staff-exploring-the-facilitators-and-barriers-to-engaging-in-a-self-help-mindfulness-based-intervention
#7
Moitree Banerjee, Kate Cavanagh, Clara Strauss
In order to increase the cost-efficiency, availability and ease of accessing and delivering mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), clinical and research interest in mindfulness-based self-help (MBSH) interventions has increased in recent years. Several studies have shown promising results of effectiveness of MBSH. However, like all self-help interventions, dropout rates and disengagement from MBSH are high. The current study explored the facilitators and barriers of engaging in a MBSH intervention. Semi-structured interviews with members of healthcare staff who took part in an MBSH intervention (n = 16) were conducted...
2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195454/broadband-ship-noise-and-its-potential-impacts-on-indo-pacific-humpback-dolphins-implications-for-conservation-and-management
#8
Mingming Liu, Lijun Dong, Mingli Lin, Songhai Li
Ship noise pollution has raised considerable concerns among regulatory agencies and cetacean researchers worldwide. There is an urgent need to quantify ship noise in coastal areas and assess its potential biological impacts. In this study, underwater broadband noise from commercial ships in a critical habitat of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins was recorded and analyzed. Data analysis indicated that the ship noise caused by the investigated commercial ships with an average length of 134 ± 81 m, traveling at 18...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190383/bionic-vision-social-work-and-community-development-a-research-participant-s-reflections
#9
Dianne Ashworth
This article discusses bionic vision through the author's experiences as Australia's first research participant in an early prototype bionic eye trial. During her two-year participation, she drew on various theoretical perspectives, including critical and community development approaches that not only influence her professional social work perspective, but extend to her personal worldview. In a rapidly emerging biotechnological age, this article contributes a holistic perspective, bringing into focus theory and practice; issues of human experience, human rights, and oppressive relationships; tensions between agency and structure (particularly relating to disability from a social model of disability and the medical model); and practical applications of artificial vision...
November 28, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185540/functional-movement-disorders-five-new-things
#10
Tamara Pringsheim, Mark Edwards
Purpose of review: Functional movement disorders (FMD) are commonly seen in neurologic practice, but are associated with poor outcomes. Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in this area, with new developments in pathophysiologic understanding and therapeutic management. Recent findings: Individuals with FMD are a psychologically heterogeneous group, with many individuals having no detectable psychopathology on symptom screening measures, and possibly significant etiologically relevant life events only revealed through in-depth interviews...
April 2017: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184516/chasing-the-rainbow-the-non-conscious-nature-of-being
#11
David A Oakley, Peter W Halligan
Despite the compelling subjective experience of executive self-control, we argue that "consciousness" contains no top-down control processes and that "consciousness" involves no executive, causal, or controlling relationship with any of the familiar psychological processes conventionally attributed to it. In our view, psychological processing and psychological products are not under the control of consciousness. In particular, we argue that all "contents of consciousness" are generated by and within non-conscious brain systems in the form of a continuous self-referential personal narrative that is not directed or influenced in any way by the "experience of consciousness...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181699/benefits-benefits-once-more-benefits-with-no-risk-stop-overlooking-the-harms-of-medicines
#12
REVIEW
Silvio Garattini, Vittorio Bertele'
Consideration of drug benefits and harms is asymmetric. Approval of drugs is mainly based on efficacy, while the assessment of their safety is left to post-marketing commitments or spontaneous reporting. Benefits are overestimated as a result of pharmaceutical companies' advertisements, the paucity of independent information, and the scant understanding of the effectiveness of medicines in real life. Polypharmacy in older adults-even during the last period of their life-reflects the tendency to assign priority to efficacy and overlook harms, although nobody knows what happens when three or more drugs are given chronically...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161965/i-am-there-%C3%A2-but-not-quite-an-unfaithful-mirror-that-reduces-feelings-of-ownership-and-agency
#13
Noreen O'Sullivan, Christophe de Bezenac, Andrea Piovesan, Hannah Cutler, Rhiannon Corcoran, David Fenyvesi, Marco Bertamini
The experience of seeing one's own face in a mirror is a common experience in daily life. Visual feedback from a mirror is linked to a sense of identity. We developed a procedure that allowed individuals to watch their own face, as in a normal mirror, or with specific distortions (lag) for active movement or passive touch. By distorting visual feedback while the face is being observed on a screen, we document an illusion of reduced embodiment. Participants made mouth movements, while their forehead was touched with a pen...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160331/primum-non-nocere-or-primum-facere-meliorem-hacking-the-brain-in-the-21st-century
#14
Lucas Borrione, Andre R Brunoni
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that modulates cortical excitability. It is devoid of serious adverse events and exerts variable effects on cognition, with several research findings suggesting that it can improve memory, verbal and mathematical skills. Because tDCS devices are low-cost, portable and relatively easy to assemble, they have become available outside of the medical setting and used for non-medical ("cosmetic") purposes by laypersons. In this sense, tDCS has become a popular technique aiming to improve cognition and the achievement of a better performance not only at work, but also in other fields such as sports, leisure activities (video games) and even the military...
November 13, 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156623/omi-and-ground-based-in-situ-tropospheric-nitrogen-dioxide-observations-over-several-important-european-cities-during-2005-2014
#15
Spiru Paraschiv, Daniel-Eduard Constantin, Simona-Lizica Paraschiv, Mirela Voiculescu
In this work we present the evolution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) content over several important European cities during 2005-2014 using space observations and ground-based in-situ measurements. The NO₂ content was derived using the daily observations provided by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), while the NO₂ volume mixing ratio measurements were obtained from the European Environment Agency (EEA) air quality monitoring stations database. The European cities selected are: Athens (37.98° N, 23...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119996/reversion-of-gold-nanoparticle-aggregates-for-the-detection-of-cu-2-and-its-application-in-immunoassays
#16
Chia-Chen Chang, Chung-Han Lee, Tzu-Heng Wu, Chie-Pein Chen, Chen-Yu Chen, Chii-Wann Lin
A high concentration of copper is a hazardous element to organisms and human health. Although various strategies have been reported for the sensitive detection of copper, a facile and rapid detection of aqueous copper has seldom been addressed to date. Here, we present an easy and accessible colorimetric method to detect Cu(2+) using the redispersion of cysteamine-modified gold nanoparticles (CA-AuNPs). Initially, CA caused the aggregation of AuNPs due to the electrostatic interaction and aggregated AuNPs can be regenerated in basic medium...
November 9, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119156/sequential-detection-of-fe-3-2-and-pyrophosphate-by-a-colorimetric-chemosensor-in-a-near-perfect-aqueous-solution
#17
Ju Byeong Chae, Hyo Jung Jang, Cheal Kim
A novel colorimetric chemosensor 1 was designed and synthesized for Fe(3+/2+) and pyrophosphate. Sensor 1 showed a selective color change toward both Fe(3+) and Fe(2+) from yellow to brown in a near-perfect aqueous solution. The detection limits (0.36 μM and 0.37 μM) for Fe(3+) and Fe(2+) were much lower than the guideline (5.37 μM) set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for iron in drinking water. Sensor 1 could be used to quantify Fe(3+) in real water samples. Moreover, the resulting Fe(3+)-2·1 complex can detect pyrophosphate selectively over various anions especially including phosphate-based anions through a metal-complex displacement method...
November 9, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112384/efficient-capture-and-effective-sensing-of-cr2o7-2-from-water-using-a-zirconium-metal-organic-framework
#18
Zu-Jin Lin, He-Qi Zheng, Huan-Yu Zheng, Li-Ping Lin, Qin Xin, Rong Cao
Highly efficient decontamination of heavily toxic Cr2O7(2-) from water remains a serious task for public health and ecosystem protection. An easily regenerative and reused sorbent with suitable porosity may address this task. Herein, a series of water-stable and ecofriendly metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with large surface areas were assessed for their ability to adsorb and separate Cr2O7(2-) from aqueous solutions. Among these tested MOFs, NU-1000 shows an extraordinary capability to efficiently capture (within 3 min) Cr2O7(2-) with a sorption capacity of up to 76...
November 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105374/from-adult-finger-tapping-to-fetal-heart-beating-retracing-the-role-of-coordination-in-constituting-agency
#19
Alessandro Solfo, Cees van Leeuwen
Sense of agency can be defined as the self-awareness of bodily movement, whereas extended agency as the self-awareness of affecting, through movement, events concomitant with movement. As a distinctive manifestation of agency, we review Spizzo's effect. This effect arises when agents coordinate their rhythmic movements with visual pulses. Once coordination is established, agents feel controlling the onset or the offset of the pulses through their movements. Spizzo's effect, therefore, constitutes a manifest case of extended agency, in which agents are aware of controlling, through movement, the pulses temporally concomitant with movement...
November 3, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096130/impaired-self-agency-inferences-in-schizophrenia-the-role-of-cognitive-capacity-and-causal-reasoning-style
#20
M Prikken, A van der Weiden, R S Kahn, H Aarts, N E M van Haren
BACKGROUND: The sense of self-agency, i.e., experiencing oneself as the cause of one's own actions, is impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Normally, inferences of self-agency are enhanced when actual outcomes match with pre-activated outcome information, where this pre-activation can result from explicitly set goals (i.e., goal-based route) or implicitly primed outcome information (i.e., prime-based route). Previous research suggests that patients show specific impairments in the prime-based route, implicating that they do not rely on matches between implicitly available outcome information and actual action-outcomes when inferring self-agency...
September 20, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
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