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Sense of Agency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821755/effects-of-emotional-valence-on-sense-of-agency-require-a-predictive-model
#1
Michiko Yoshie, Patrick Haggard
Sense of agency (SoA), a feeling that one's voluntary actions produce events in the external world, is a key factor behind every goal-directed human behaviour. Recent studies have demonstrated that SoA is reduced when one's voluntary action causes negative outcomes, compared to when it causes positive outcomes. It is yet unclear whether this emotional modulation of SoA is caused by predicting the outcome valence (prediction hypothesis) or by retrospectively interpreting the outcome (postdiction hypothesis)...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813955/robotic-therapy-for-phantom-limb-pain-in-upper-limb-amputees
#2
Peter W Snow, Imad Sedki, Marco Sinisi, Richard Comley, Rui C V Loureiro
The system described in this paper combines virtual reality with haptic feedback to increase the level of immersion and invoke the sense of agency in patients with phantom limb pain with the aim of reducing perceived pain. This paper presents three case studies of an on-going clinical study. The initial results suggest an increased sense of embodiment of the virtual limb promotes a decrease in perceived levels of pain. The results strengthen the view that the cortical map does not fully "disappear" yet lays dormant...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810157/propagating-the-haze-community-and-professional-perceptions-of-cannabis-cultivation-and-the-impacts-of-prohibition
#3
Helen Beckett Wilson, Stuart Taylor, Giles Barrett, Janet Jamieson, Lauren Grindrod
BACKGROUND: Recent decades have seen substantial changes in the UK cannabis landscape, including increased domestic production, the ascendancy of stronger strains (namely 'skunk') and the drug's reclassification under the 1971 Misuse of Drugs Act. Resultantly, cannabis retains significance in the consciousness, priorities and policy agendas of communities, drug services and criminal justice agencies. METHODS: This paper presents an empirical study, which examined both perceptions and impacts of cannabis cultivation and its control within a North-West English borough...
August 12, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808252/altered-awareness-of-action-in-parkinson-s-disease-evaluations-by-explicit-and-implicit-measures
#4
Naho Saito, Keisuke Takahata, Hodaka Yamakado, Nobukatsu Sawamoto, Satoshi Saito, Ryosuke Takahashi, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
Deficits in the integration of motor prediction and its feedback have been reported in Parkinson's disease. Conscious awareness of action is proposed to emerge under the integration of motor prediction and its feedback. Thus, it may lead to changes in the awareness of the authorship of action (in other words, the sense of agency) in Parkinson's disease. We have employed both explicit and implicit measures to assess the awareness of action in Parkinson's disease and matched controls. As an explicit measure, an action recognition task requiring explicit judgments was used...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777969/method-validation-and-nanoparticle-characterization-assays-for-an-innovative-amphothericin-b-formulation-to-reach-increased-stability-and-safety-in-infectious-diseases
#5
Maraine Catarina Tadini, Ana Maria de Freitas Pinheiro, Daniel Blascke Carrão, Ana Luiza Scarano Aguillera Forte, Sofia Nikolaou, Anderson R M de Oliveira, Andresa Aparecida Berretta, Franciane Marquele-Oliveira
Drug Delivery Systems (DDS) of known drugs are prominent candidates towards new and more-effective treatments of various infectious diseases as they may increase drug bioavailability, control drug delivery and target the site of action. In this sense, the encapsulation of Amphotericin B (AmB) in Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLCs) designed with pH-sensible phospholipids to target infectious tissues was proposed and suitable analytical methods were validated, as well as, proper nanoparticle characterization were conducted...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766730/hope-coping-and-relationship-quality-in-mothers-of-children-with-down-syndrome
#6
Jessica D Cless, Briana S Nelson Goff, Jared A Durtschi
Parenting a child with Down syndrome may pose unique challenges for parents' relationship quality. This study used structural equation modeling with a sample of 351 mothers of children with Down syndrome to test if hope mediated the association between mothers' various coping behaviors and mothers' relationship quality. Hope was defined as a generalized positive state that comes from a personal sense of agency. Results indicated a greater degree of religious coping and internal coping were each significantly associated with more hope, whereas support seeking was not related with more hope...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765857/why-the-public-health-sector-couldn-t-create-pok%C3%A3-mon-go
#7
Becky Freeman, Josephine Chau, Seema Mihrshahi
Pokémon Go has been subject to much attention - from both the players that download the augmented reality game and the news media. Amid the exaggerated media reports, Pokémon Go may have unintended health benefits. Players have reported walking more, spending more time with family, experiencing improvements in their mental health and feeling more connected to their communities. It is hard to imagine public health researchers developing a similar game that is fun, taps into pop culture, reaches a wide target audience, makes use of physical and virtual environments, creates a sense of both competition and community, and has spin-off health benefits...
July 26, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758763/psychodynamizing-and-existentializing-cognitive-behavioral-interventions-the-case-of-behavioral-activation-ba
#8
Golan Shahar, Aner Govrin
From the point of view of Cognitive-Existential Psychodynamics (Shahar, 2015a, 2016; Shahar & Schiller, 2016; Ziv-Beiman & Shahar, 2016), active techniques-primarily cognitive-behavioral therapy ones-might not only reduce distress but also bolster the therapeutic relationships and serve as powerful vehicles for self-discovery and growth. This, however, is contingent upon therapists' ability to view, and present to patients, the psychodynamic and existential nature of active techniques. Our focus herein is on behavioral activation, an intervention that consists of encouraging patients to participate in enjoyable and meaningful activities, in the face of depressive anhedonia...
July 31, 2017: Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743067/-we-must-cooperate-with-one-another-against-the-enemy-agency-and-activism-in-school-aged-children-as-protective-factors-against-ongoing-war-trauma-and-political-violence-in-the-gaza-strip
#9
Guido Veronese, Alessandro Pepe, Alaa Jaradah, Feda Murannak, Housam Hamdouna
This exploratory qualitative study investigated self-perceived risk and protection factors that may reinforce the ability of children living in refugee camps on the Gaza Strip to adjust to a traumatic and risky life context characterized by loss and dispossession. The sample comprised 200 Palestinian children recruited at primary schools in four refugee camps in the Gaza Strip following the Israeli military operation "Pillar of Defence" in 2012. Thematic content analysis was applied to written materials and narratives produced by the children...
July 22, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738605/rapid-one-pot-synthesis-of-mmta-protected-fluorescent-gold-nanoclusters-for-selective-and-sensitive-detection-of-ferric-ion
#10
Jingjing Jiang, Pengfei Gao, Yan Zhang, Guomei Zhang, Ying Zhou, Chuan Dong, Shaomin Shuang
Herein, we demonstrate a straightforward synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs), employing 2-Mercapto-4-methyl-5-thiazoleacetic acid (MMTA) as a reducing and protecting agent by a rapid one-pot synthesis method with a short time of 20min. The as-synthesized MMTA-AuNCs exhibited bright blue emission with a strong peak centered at 430nm and the quantum yield (QY) was evaluated to be 4.0%. Based on the fluorescence quenching mechanism of a surface chelating reaction between MMTA and ferric ion (Fe(3+)), the MMTA-AuNCs were exploited as a fluorescence sensor for sensitive and selective detection of Fe(3+)...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725159/importance-of-social-capital-at-the-workplace-for-return-to-work-among-women-with-a-history-of-long-term-sick-leave-a-cohort-study
#11
Ingela Rydström, Lotta Dalheim Englund, Lotta Dellve, Linda Ahlstrom
BACKGROUND: The workplace is an essential source of social capital for many people; it provides mutual support and gives meaning to life. However, few prospective studies have thoroughly investigated the importance of aspects of social capital in the workplace. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between aspects of social capital (social support, sense of community, and quality of leadership) at the workplace, and work ability, working degree, and vitality among women with a history of long-term sick leave from human service organizations...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721641/attributing-agency-to-automated-systems-reflections-on-human-robot-collaborations-and-responsibility-loci
#12
Sven Nyholm
Many ethicists writing about automated systems (e.g. self-driving cars and autonomous weapons systems) attribute agency to these systems. Not only that; they seemingly attribute an autonomous or independent form of agency to these machines. This leads some ethicists to worry about responsibility-gaps and retribution-gaps in cases where automated systems harm or kill human beings. In this paper, I consider what sorts of agency it makes sense to attribute to most current forms of automated systems, in particular automated cars and military robots...
July 18, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720523/sensory-attenuation-of-self-initiated-sounds-maps-onto-habitual-associations-between-motor-action-and-sound
#13
Nathan G Mifsud, Thomas J Whitford
Sensory attenuation refers to reduced brain responses to self-initiated sensations relative to those produced by the external world, a distinction that is vital for dynamic motor control and our sense of agency. Typically, willed vocalizations elicit larger N1 reduction of the auditory evoked potential compared to indirectly evoked sounds, such as tones generated by button-presses, which is attributed to the prediction and cancellation of incoming signals enabled by speech motor commands. However, physical confounds exist, including different stimuli and the increased motor artefact associated with mouth vs...
July 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716392/the-amount-of-recent-action-outcome-coupling-modulates-the-mechanisms-of-the-intentional-binding-effect-a-behavioral-and-erp-study
#14
Michael Goldberg, Niko Busch, Elke van der Meer
Our everyday interactions depend on the ability to maintain a feeling of control over our bodily actions, that is, the sense of agency. The intentional binding effect - a perceived temporal shortening between voluntary actions and sensory outcomes - has been shown to implicitly measure agency. We investigated the effect's underlying mechanisms: prediction and retrospective inference. First, long-term and recent action-outcome coupling were compared. Second, brain activity was recorded to uncover the neural correlates of the two mechanisms...
July 14, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704734/metacognition-of-agency-is-reduced-in-high-hypnotic-suggestibility
#15
Devin B Terhune, Love R A Hedman
A disruption in the sense of agency is the primary phenomenological feature of response to hypnotic suggestions but its cognitive basis remains elusive. Here we tested the proposal that distorted volition during response to suggestions arises from poor metacognition pertaining to the sources of one's control. Highly suggestible and control participants completed a motor task in which performance was reduced through surreptitious manipulations of cursor lag and stimuli speed. Highly suggestible participants did not differ from controls in performance or metacognition of performance, but their sense of agency was less sensitive to cursor lag manipulations, suggesting reduced awareness that their control was being manipulated...
July 10, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704639/a-sense-of-agency-an-ethnographic-exploration-of-being-awake-during-mechanical-ventilation-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#16
Eva Laerkner, Ingrid Egerod, Finn Olesen, Helle Ploug Hansen
BACKGROUND: There is a current trend towards lighter or no sedation of mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit. The advantages of less sedation have been demonstrated as shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and reduced length of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital. Non-sedated patients are more awake during mechanical ventilation, but little is known about how this affects the intensive care patient. AIM: To explore patients' experiences of being awake during critical illness and mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697690/try-and-try-again-post-error-boost-of-an-implicit-measure-of-agency
#17
S Di Costa, H Théro, V Chambon, P Haggard
The sense of agency refers to the feeling that we control our actions and, through them, effects in the outside world. Reinforcement learning provides an important theoretical framework for understanding why people choose to make particular actions. Few previous studies have considered how reinforcement and learning might influence the subjective experience of agency over actions and outcomes. In two experiments, participants chose between two action alternatives, which differed in reward probability. Occasional reversals of action-reward mapping required participants to monitor outcomes and adjust action selection processing accordingly...
July 12, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695402/wanted-a-transdisciplinary-knowledge-domain-for-urban-health
#18
EDITORIAL
Roderick J Lawrence, Franz W Gatzweiler
The current disconnection between access to increasing amounts of data about urbanization, health, and other global changes and the conflicting meanings and values of that data has created uncertainty and reduced the ability of people to act upon available information which they do not necessarily understand. We see a disconnection between increasing data availability and data processing capability and capacity. In response to this disconnection, modeling has been attributed an important role in international and national research programs in order to predict the future based on past and recent trends...
August 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691835/agency-before-action-the-application-of-behavioral-activation-in-psychotherapy-with-persons-with-psychosis
#19
Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon, Nitzan Arnon-Ribenfeld, Jay A Hamm, Paul H Lysaker
Incorporating behavioral activation into psychotherapy with persons with psychosis requires adaptation in its conceptualization and application owing to special deficits in the self-experience. Persons with psychosis often experience a diminished or disorganized sense of self, and have deficits in coherently narrating the experience of the self and in the ability to make sense of how to take action and direct their own lives. Based on a metacognitive model of disability in psychosis, the current paper presents a therapy process of a woman coping with schizophrenia using Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy (Lysaker and Dimaggio, 2014) in the framework of an intersubjective model for psychotherapy with persons with psychosis presented by Hasson-Ohayon, Kravetz, and Lysaker (2016a)...
July 10, 2017: Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686198/towards-a-cognitive-radar-canada-s-third-generation-high-frequency-surface-wave-radar-hfswr-for-surveillance-of-the-200-nautical-mile-exclusive-economic-zone
#20
Anthony Ponsford, Rick McKerracher, Zhen Ding, Peter Moo, Derek Yee
Canada's third-generation HFSWR forms the foundation of a maritime domain awareness system that provides enforcement agencies with real-time persistent surveillance out to and beyond the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Cognitive sense-and-adapt technology and dynamic spectrum management ensures robust and resilient operation in the highly congested High Frequency (HF) band. Dynamic spectrum access enables the system to simultaneously operate on two frequencies on a non-interference and non-protected basis, without impacting other spectrum users...
July 7, 2017: Sensors
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