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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230867/ultrafast-electron-and-hole-transfer-dynamics-of-a-solar-cell-dye-containing-hole-acceptors-on-mesoporous-tio2-and-al2o3
#1
Mirko Scholz, Oliver Flender, Gerrit Boschloo, Kawon Oum, Thomas Lenzer
The stability of dye cations against recombination with conduction band electrons in mesoporous TiO2 electrodes is a key property for improving light harvesting in dye-sensitised solar cells. Using ultrafast transient broadband absorption spectroscopy, we monitor efficient intramolecular hole transfer in the solar cell dye E6 having two peripheral triarylamine acceptors. After photoexcitation, two hole transfer mechanisms are identified: a concerted mechanism for electron injection and hole transfer (2.4 ps) and a sequential mechanism with time constants of 3...
February 23, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230354/chemical-modification-of-semiconductor-surfaces-for-molecular-electronics
#2
Ayelet Vilan, David Cahen
Inserting molecular monolayers within metal/semiconductor interfaces provides one of the most powerful expressions of how minute chemical modifications can affect electronic devices. This topic also has direct importance for technology as it can help improve the efficiency of a variety of electronic devices such as solar cells, LEDs, sensors, and possible future bioelectronic ones. The review covers the main aspects of using chemistry to control the various aspects of interface electrostatics, such as passivation of interface states and alignment of energy levels by intrinsic molecular polarization, as well as charge rearrangement with the adjacent metal and semiconducting contacts...
February 23, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230339/simultaneously-enhanced-efficiency-and-stability-of-polymer-solar-cells-by-employing-solvent-additive-and-upside-down-drying-method
#3
Qianqian Sun, Fujun Zhang, Qiaoshi An, Miao Zhang, Xiaoling Ma, Jian Zhang
The morphology of active layer plays an important role in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability of polymer solar cells (PSCs), which strongly depends on the dynamic drying process of active layer. In this work, an efficient and universal method was developed to let active layer undergo upside-down drying process in a covered glass petri dish. For the PSCs based on PTB7-Th:PC71BM, the champion PCEs were improved from 8.58% to 9.64% by mixing 3 vol% DIO, further to 10.30% by employing upside-down drying method...
February 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230153/unconventional-high-performance-laser-protection-system-based-on-dichroic-dye-doped-cholesteric-liquid-crystals
#4
Wanshu Zhang, Lanying Zhang, Xiao Liang, Le Zhou, Jiumei Xiao, Li Yu, Fasheng Li, Hui Cao, Kexuan Li, Zhou Yang, Huai Yang
High-performance and cost-effective laser protection system is of crucial importance for the rapid advance of lasers in military and civilian fields leading to severe damages of human eyes and sensitive optical devices. However, it is crucially hindered by the angle-dependent protective effect and the complex preparation process. Here we demonstrate that angle-independence, good processibility, wavelength tunability, high optical density and good visibility can be effectuated simultaneously, by embedding dichroic anthraquinone dyes in a cholesteric liquid crystal matrix...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230064/direct-observation-of-intrinsic-twin-domains-in-tetragonal-ch3nh3pbi3
#5
Mathias Uller Rothmann, Wei Li, Ye Zhu, Udo Bach, Leone Spiccia, Joanne Etheridge, Yi-Bing Cheng
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are exciting candidates for next-generation solar cells, with CH3NH3PbI3 being one of the most widely studied. While there have been intense efforts to fabricate and optimize photovoltaic devices using CH3NH3PbI3, critical questions remain regarding the crystal structure that governs its unique properties of the hybrid perovskite material. Here we report unambiguous evidence for crystallographic twin domains in tetragonal CH3NH3PbI3, observed using low-dose transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229957/origins-and-mechanisms-of-hysteresis-in-organometal-halide-perovskites
#6
Cheng Li, Antonio Guerrero, Yu Zhong, Sven Huettner
Inorganic-organic organometal halide perovskites, such as CH<sub>3</sub>NH<sub>3</sub>PbI<sub>3</sub> or CsPbI<sub>3</sub>, etc., are an unprecedented rising star in the field of photovoltaics since 2009, owing to its exceptionally high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and simple fabrication processability. Despite its relatively short history of development, intensive investigations have been concentrating on this material, ranging from crystal structure analysis and photophysical characterization, to performance optimization and device integration, etc...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229537/high-temperature-stable-perovskite-solar-cell-based-on-low-cost-carbon-nanotube-hole-contact
#7
Kerttu Aitola, Konrad Domanski, Juan-Pablo Correa-Baena, Kári Sveinbjörnsson, Michael Saliba, Antonio Abate, Michael Grätzel, Esko Kauppinen, Erik M J Johansson, Wolfgang Tress, Anders Hagfeldt, Gerrit Boschloo
Mixed ion perovskite solar cells (PSC) are manufactured with a metal-free hole contact based on press-transferred single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film infiltrated with 2,2,7,-7-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,90-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD). By means of maximum power point tracking, their stabilities are compared with those of standard PSCs employing spin-coated Spiro-OMeTAD and a thermally evaporated Au back contact, under full 1 sun illumination, at 60 °C, and in a N2 atmosphere. During the 140 h experiment, the solar cells with the Au electrode experience a dramatic, irreversible efficiency loss, rendering them effectively nonoperational, whereas the SWCNT-contacted devices show only a small linear efficiency loss with an extrapolated lifetime of 580 h...
February 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229499/advanced-materials-for-use-in-soft-self-healing-devices
#8
REVIEW
Tan-Phat Huynh, Prashant Sonar, Hossam Haick
Devices integrated with self-healing ability can benefit from long-term use as well as enhanced reliability, maintenance and durability. This progress report reviews the developments in the field of self-healing polymers/composites and wearable devices thereof. One part of the progress report presents and discusses several aspects of the self-healing materials chemistry (from non-covalent to reversible covalent-based mechanisms), as well as the required main approaches used for functionalizing the composites to enhance their electrical conductivity, magnetic, dielectric, electroactive and/or photoactive properties...
February 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226210/real-time-nanoscale-open-circuit-voltage-dynamics-of-perovskite-solar-cells
#9
Joseph L Garrett, Elizabeth M Tennyson, Miao Hu, Jinsong Huang, Jeremy N Munday, Marina S Leite
Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites based on methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) are an emerging material with great potential for high-performance and low-cost photovoltaics. However, for perovskites to become a competitive and reliable solar cell technology, their instability and spatial variation must be understood and controlled. While the macroscopic characterization of the devices as a function of time is very informative, a nanoscale identification of their real-time local optoelectronic response is still missing...
February 22, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225257/exploiting-noncovalently-conformational-locking-as-a-design-strategy-for-high-performance-fused-ring-electron-acceptor-used-in-polymer-solar-cells
#10
Yahui Liu, Zhe Zhang, Shiyu Feng, Miao Li, Liangliang Wu, Ran Hou, Xinjun Xu, Xuebo Chen, Zhishan Bo
We have developed a kind of novel fused-ring small molecular acceptor, whose planar conformation can be locked by intramolecular noncovalent interaction. The formation of planar supramolecular fused-ring structure by conformation locking can effectively broaden its absorption spectrum, enhance the electron mobility, and reduce the nonradiative energy loss. Polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on this acceptor afforded a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.6%. In contrast, PSCs based on similar acceptor, which can't form a flat conformation, only gave a PCE of 2...
February 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225146/effect-of-the-microstructure-of-the-functional-layers-on-the-efficiency-of-perovskite-solar-cells
#11
REVIEW
Fuzhi Huang, Alexander R Pascoe, Wu-Qiang Wu, Zhiliang Ku, Yong Peng, Jie Zhong, Rachel A Caruso, Yi-Bing Cheng
The efficiencies of the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells have been rapidly approaching the benchmarks held by the leading thin-film photovoltaic technologies. Arguably, one of the most important factors leading to this rapid advancement is the ability to manipulate the microstructure of the perovskite layer and the adjacent functional layers within the device. Here, an analysis of the nucleation and growth models relevant to the formation of perovskite films is provided, along with the effect of the perovskite microstructure (grain sizes and voids) on device performance...
February 22, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225039/ruthenium-based-metallopolymer-grafted-reduced-graphene-oxide-as-a-new-hybrid-solar-light-harvester-in-polymer-solar-cells
#12
R Vinoth, S Ganesh Babu, Vishal Bharti, V Gupta, M Navaneethan, S Venkataprasad Bhat, C Muthamizhchelvan, Praveen C Ramamurthy, Chhavi Sharma, Dinesh K Aswal, Yasuhiro Hayakawa, B Neppolian
A new class of pyridyl benzimdazole based Ru complex decorated polyaniline assembly (PANI-Ru) was covalently grafted onto reduced graphene oxide sheets (rGO) via covalent functionalization approach. The covalent attachment of PANI-Ru with rGO was confirmed from XPS analysis and Raman spectroscopy. The chemical bonding between PANI-Ru and rGO induced the electron transfer from Ru complex to rGO via backbone of the conjugated PANI chain. The resultant hybrid metallopolymer assembly was successfully demonstrated as an electron donor in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs)...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224984/abnormal-strong-burn-in-degradation-of-highly-efficient-polymer-solar-cells-caused-by-spinodal-donor-acceptor-demixing
#13
Ning Li, José Darío Perea, Thaer Kassar, Moses Richter, Thomas Heumueller, Gebhard J Matt, Yi Hou, Nusret S Güldal, Haiwei Chen, Shi Chen, Stefan Langner, Marvin Berlinghof, Tobias Unruh, Christoph J Brabec
The performance of organic solar cells is determined by the delicate, meticulously optimized bulk-heterojunction microstructure, which consists of finely mixed and relatively separated donor/acceptor regions. Here we demonstrate an abnormal strong burn-in degradation in highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal demixing of the donor and acceptor phases, which dramatically reduces charge generation and can be attributed to the inherently low miscibility of both materials. Even though the microstructure can be kinetically tuned for achieving high-performance, the inherently low miscibility of donor and acceptor leads to spontaneous phase separation in the solid state, even at room temperature and in the dark...
February 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223751/secondary-cutaneous-amyloidosis-in-a-patient-with-mycosis-fungoides
#14
Chan Hee Nam, Min Kee Park, Mi Soo Choi, Seung Phil Hong, Byung Cheol Park, Myung Hwa Kim
Secondary cutaneous amyloidosis refers to clinically unapparent amyloid deposits within the skin in association with a pre-existing skin condition or skin tumors, such as basal cell carcinoma, porokeratosis, solar elastosis, Bowen's disease, and mycosis fungoides. A 70-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of asymptomatic multiple yellowish plaques on both legs. She had been diagnosed with mycosis fungoides 7 years ago and was treated with psoralen and ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy, narrow-band ultraviolet B (UVB) therapy, and acitretin for 5 years...
February 2017: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222601/energy-related-small-molecule-activation-reactions-oxygen-reduction-and-hydrogen-and-oxygen-evolution-reactions-catalyzed-by-porphyrin-and-corrole-based-systems
#15
Wei Zhang, Wenzhen Lai, Rui Cao
Globally increasing energy demands and environmental concerns related to the use of fossil fuels have stimulated extensive research to identify new energy systems and economies that are sustainable, clean, low cost, and environmentally benign. Hydrogen generation from solar-driven water splitting is a promising strategy to store solar energy in chemical bonds. The subsequent combustion of hydrogen in fuel cells produces electric energy, and the only exhaust is water. These two reactions compose an ideal process to provide clean and sustainable energy...
February 22, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221697/solution-processable-hyperbranched-conjugated-polymer-nanoparticles-based-on-c3h-symmetric-benzotrithiophene-for-polymer-solar-cells
#16
Xiaofu Wu, Zijian Zhang, Hao Hang, Yonghong Chen, Yuxiang Xu, Hui Tong, Lixiang Wang
The development of photovoltaic polymers based on C3h -symmetric benzotrithiophene (C3h -BTT), an analogue of the well-known benzodithiophene (BDT) donor unit, has been severely limited due to difficult processability. Here the authors report the preparation of solution-processable C3h -BTT-based hyperbranched conjugated polymer nanoparticles (BTT-HCPNs) with tunable particle sizes via Stille miniemulsion polymerization. Compared with the corresponding star-shaped small molecule (C3h -BTT core with three diketopyrrolopyrrole arms, BTT-3DPP) with a wide bandgap (1...
February 21, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221382/mechanistic-insights-into-the-photoinduced-charge-carrier-dynamics-of-biobr-cds-nanosheet-heterojunctions-for-photovoltaic-application
#17
Huimin Jia, Beibei Zhang, Weiwei He, Yong Xiang, Zhi Zheng
The rational design of high performance hetero-structure photovoltaic devices requires a full understanding of the photoinduced charge transfer mechanism and kinetics at the interface of heterojunctions. In this paper, we intelligently fabricated p-BiOBr/n-CdS heterojunctions with perfect nanosheet arrays by using a facile successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction and chemical bath deposition methods at low temperature. A BiOBr/CdS heterojunction based solar cell has been fabricated which exhibited enhanced photovoltaic responses...
February 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220970/in-situ-growth-of-120-cm-2-ch3-nh3-pbbr3-perovskite-crystal-film-on-fto-glass-for-narrowband-photodetectors
#18
Hua-Shang Rao, Wen-Guang Li, Bai-Xue Chen, Dai-Bin Kuang, Cheng-Yong Su
Organometal trihalide perovskites have been attracting intense attention due to their enthralling optoelectric characteristics. Thus far, most applications focus on polycrystalline perovskite, which however, is overshadowed by single crystal perovskite with superior properties such as low trap density, high mobility, and long carrier diffusion length. In spite of the inherent advantages and significant optoelectronic applications in solar cells and photodetectors, the fabrication of large-area laminar perovskite single crystals is challenging...
February 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220961/carbon-based-perovskite-solar-cells-without-hole-transport-materials-the-front-runner-to-the-market
#19
REVIEW
Haining Chen, Shihe Yang
Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have garnered recent interest in the scientific community. In the past few years, they have achieved power conversion efficiencies comparable to traditional commercial solar cells (e.g., crystalline Si, CuInGaSe and CdTe) due to their low-cost of production via solution-processed fabrication techniques. However, the stability of PSCs must be addressed before their commercialization is viable. Among various kinds of PSCs, carbon-based PSCs without hole transport materials (C-PSCs) seem to be the most promising for addressing the stability issue because carbon materials are stable, inert to ion migration (which originates from perovskite and metal electrodes), and inherently water-resistant...
February 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220791/quantification-of-re-absorption-and-re-emission-processes-to-determine-photon-recycling-efficiency-in-perovskite-single-crystals
#20
Yanjun Fang, Haotong Wei, Qingfeng Dong, Jinsong Huang
Photon recycling, that is, iterative self-absorption and re-emission by the photoactive layer itself, has been speculated to contribute to the high open-circuit voltage in several types of high efficiency solar cells. For organic-inorganic halide perovskites that have yielded highly efficient photovoltaic devices, however, it remains unclear whether the photon recycling effect is significant enough to improve solar cell efficiency. Here we quantitatively evaluate the re-absorption and re-emission processes to determine photon recycling efficiency in hybrid perovskite with its single crystals by measuring the ratio of the re-emitted photons to the initially excited photons, which is realized by modulating their polarization to differentiate them...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
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