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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535603/realizing-full-coverage-of-stable-perovskite-film-by-modified-anti-solvent-process
#1
Long Ji, Ting Zhang, Yafei Wang, Peng Zhang, Detao Liu, Zhi Chen, Shibin Li
Lead-free solution-processed solid-state photovoltaic devices based on formamidinium tin triiodide (FASnI3) and cesium tin triiodide (CsSnI3) perovskite semiconductor as the light harvester are reported. In this letter, we used solvent engineering and anti-solvent dripping method to fabricate perovskite films. SnCl2 was used as an inhibitor of Sn(4+) in FASnI3 precursor solution. We obtained the best films under the function of toluene or chlorobenzene in anti-solvent dripping method and monitored the oxidation of FASnI3 films in air...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535032/applying-thienyl-side-chains-and-different-%C3%AF-bridge-to-aromatic-side-chain-substituted-indacenodithiophene-based-small-molecule-donors-for-high-performance-organic-solar-cells
#2
Jin-Liang Wang, Kai-Kai Liu, Sha Liu, Feng Liu, Hongbin Wu, Yong Cao, Thomas P Russell
A pair of linear tetrafluorinated small molecular donors, named as ThIDTTh4F and ThIDTSe4F, which are with tetrathienyl-substituted IDT as electron-rich central core, electron-deficient difluorobenzothiadiazole as acceptor units, and donor end-capping groups, but having differences in the π-bridge (thiophene and selenophene), were successfully synthesized and evaluated as donor materials in organic solar cells. Such π-bridge and core units in these small molecules play a decisive role in the formation of the nanoscale separation of the blend films, which were systematically investigated through absorption spectra, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction pattern, transmission electron microscopy images, resonant soft X-ray scattering profiles, and charge mobility measurement...
May 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534907/inkjet-printed-highly-transparent-and-flexible-graphene-micro-supercapacitors
#3
Szymon Sollami Delekta, Anderson D Smith, Jiantong Li, Mikael Östling
Modern energy storage devices for portable and wearable technologies must fulfill a number of requirements, such as small size, flexibility, thinness, reliability, transparency, manufacturing simplicity and performance, in order to be competitive in an ever expanding market. To this end, a comprehensive inkjet printing process is developed for the scalable and low-cost fabrication of transparent and flexible micro-supercapacitors. These solid-state devices, with printed thin films of graphene flakes as interdigitated electrodes, exhibit excellent performance versus transparency (ranging from a single-electrode areal capacitance of 16 μF cm(-2) at transmittance of 90% to a capacitance of 99 μF cm(-2) at transmittance of 71%)...
May 23, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534675/gallium-in-depth-profile-in-bromine-etched-copper-indium-galium-di-selenide-cigs-thin-films-inspected-using-raman-spectroscopy
#4
Jacopo Parravicini, Maurizio Acciarri, Alberto Lomuscio, Matteo Murabito, Alessia Le Donne, Andrea Gasparotto, Simona Binetti
In the thin film solar cells domain, copper indium galium (di)selenide (CIGS) is a material with well-established photovoltaic purpose. Here the presence of a suitable [Ga]/([Ga]+[In]) (GGI) in-depth profile has proved to play a key role in the performance of cells. The implementation of a routine method based on reliable but easily available experimental techniques is mandatory to obtain information on the GGI profile of any CIGS layer, in order to achieve high efficiency chalcogenide layers. In this vein, we here propose and systematically test a simple method for the GGI profile determination based on repeated bromine etching of CIGS thin films followed by Raman analysis of the A1 peak position...
June 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534636/annealing-induced-shape-transformation-of-czts-nanorods-based-thin-films
#5
Govind Rajesh, Natarajan Muthukumarasamy, Dhayalan Velauthapillai, Sudip Kumar K Batabyal
Here we studied the annealing induced shape transformation of 1-D Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanorods from nanospheres and nanocubes by simple sol-gel method without using any toxic chemicals or complicated vacuum based technology. X-ray diffraction pattern and Raman Spectra reveals the formation of Kesterite structure CZTS thin films. The energy dispersive X-ray analysis results indicate the presence of Cu, Zn, Sn and S. The elemental distribution of all the CZTS samples was studied using elemental mapping. The Hall effect studies of the CZTS thin film composed of nanorods exhibits the lowest resistivity values which indicates efficient charge transfer for unidirectional structure...
May 23, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534628/exafs-ab-initio-molecular-dynamics-and-nicis-spectroscopy-studies-on-an-organic-dye-model-at-the-dye-sensitized-solar-cell-photoelectrode-interface
#6
Peng Liu, Viktor Johansson, Herri Trilaksana, Jan Rosdahl, Gunther G Andersson, Lars Kloo
The organization of dye molecules in the dye layer adsorbed on the semiconductor substrate in dye-sensitized solar cell has been studied using a combination of theoretical methods and experimental techniques. The model system is based on the simple D--A dye L0, which has been chemically modified to replace the acceptor group -CN by -Br (L0Br) in order to offer better X-ray contrast. Experimental EXAFS data based on the Br K-edge backscattering show no obvious difference between dye-sensitised titania powder and titania film samples, thus allowing model systems to be based on powder slurrys...
May 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531350/embedded-metal-electrode-for-organic-inorganic-hybrid-nanowire-solar-cells
#7
Han-Don Um, Deokjae Choi, Ahreum Choi, Ji Hoon Seo, Kwanyong Seo
We demonstrate here an embedded metal electrode for highly efficient organic-inorganic hybrid nanowire solar cells. The electrode proposed here is an effective alternative to the conventional bus and finger electrode which leads to a localized short circuit at a direct Si/metal contact and has a poor collection efficiency due to a nonoptimized electrode design. In our design, an Ag/SiO2 electrode is embedded into a Si substrate while being positioned between Si nanowire (SiNW) arrays underneath poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), facilitating suppressed recombination at the Si/Ag interface and notable improvements in the fabrication reproducibility...
May 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530404/role-of-crystallization-in-the-morphology-of-polymer-non-fullerene-acceptor-bulk-heterojunctions
#8
Kathryn A O'Hara, David P Ostrowski, Unsal Koldemir, Christopher J Takacs, Sean E Shaheen, Alan Sellinger, Michael L Chabinyc
Many high efficiency organic photovoltaics use fullerene-based acceptors despite their high production cost, weak optical absorption in the visible range, and limited synthetic variability of electronic and optical properties. To circumvent this deficiency, non-fullerene small-molecule acceptors have been developed that have good synthetic flexibility, allowing for precise tuning of optoelectronic properties, leading to enhanced absorption of the solar spectrum and increased open-circuit voltages (VOC). We examined the detailed morphology of bulk heterojunctions of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and the small-molecule acceptor HPI-BT to reveal structural changes that lead to improvements in the fill factor of solar cells upon thermal annealing...
May 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530392/a-hexafluoroquinoxaline-based-polymer-for-nonfullerene-solar-cells-reaching-9-4-efficiency
#9
Shutao Xu, Liuliu Feng, Jun Yuan, Zhi-Guo Zhang, Yongfang Li, Hongjian Peng, Yingping Zou
hrough introducing six fluorine atoms onto quinoxaline (Qx), a new electron acceptor unit-hexafluoroquinoxaline (HFQx) is firstly synthesized. Based on this unit, we synthesize a new donor-acceptor (D-A) copolymer (HFQx-T), which is composed of benzodithiophene (BDT) derivative donor block and an HFQx accepting block. The strong electron-withdrawing properties of fluorine atoms increase significantly the voltage open-circuit (Voc) by tuning the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level. In addition, fluorine atoms enhance the absorption coefficient of the conjugated copolymer and change the film morphology, which implies an increase of the short-circuit current density (Jsc) and fill factor (FF)...
May 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530386/controllable-growth-of-ga-film-electrodeposited-from-aqueous-solution-and-cu-in-ga-se2-solar-cells
#10
Jinlian Bi, Jianping Ao, Qing Gao, Zhaojing Zhang, Guozhong Sun, Qing He, Zhiqiang Zhou, Yun Sun, Yi Zhang
Electrodepositon of Ga film is very challenging due to the high standard reduction potential (-0.53 V vs. SHE for Ga3+). In this study, Ga film with compact structure was successfully deposited on Mo/Cu/In substrate by PCE method using GaCl3 aqueous solution. High deposition rate of Ga3+ and H+ can be achieved by applying large overpotential induced by high pulse current. In the meanwhile, the concentration polarization induced by cations depletion can be minimized by changing the pulse frequency and duty-cycle...
May 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529821/fabrication-of-silicon-films-from-patterned-protruded-seeds
#11
Huang Zeng, Wei Zhang, Jizhou Li, Cong Wang, Hui Yang, Yigang Chen, Xiaoyuan Chen, Dongfang Liu
Thin, flexible silicon crystals are starting up applications such as light-weighted flexible solar cells, SOI, flexible IC chips, 3D ICs imagers and 3D CMOS imagers on the demand of high performance with low cost. Kerfless wafering technology by direct conversion of source gases into mono-crystalline wafers on reusable substrates is highly cost-effective and feedstock-effective route to cheap wafers with the thickness down to several microns. Here we show a prototype for direct conversion of silicon source gases to wafers by using the substrate with protruded seeds...
May 2017: AIP Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526863/potential-of-pedot-pss-as-a-hole-selective-front-contact-for-silicon-heterojunction-solar-cells
#12
Sara Jäckle, Martin Liebhaber, Clemens Gersmann, Mathias Mews, Klaus Jäger, Silke Christiansen, Klaus Lips
We show that the highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) can successfully be applied as a hole selective front contact in silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. In combination with a superior electron selective heterojunction back contact based on amorphous silicon (a-Si), mono-crystalline n-type silicon (c-Si) solar cells reach power conversion efficiencies up to 14.8% and high open-circuit voltages exceeding 660 mV. Since in the PEDOT:PSS/c-Si/a-Si solar cell the inferior hybrid junction is determining the electrical device performance we are capable of assessing the recombination velocity (v I ) at the PEDOT:PSS/c-Si interface...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525952/sb-and-n-incorporation-interplay-in-gaassbn-gaas-epilayers-near-lattice-matching-condition-for-1-0-1-16-ev-photonic-applications
#13
V Braza, D F Reyes, A Gonzalo, A D Utrilla, T Ben, J M Ulloa, D González
As promising candidates for solar cell and photodetection applications in the range 1.0-1.16 eV, the growth of dilute nitride GaAsSbN alloys lattice matched to GaAs is studied. With this aim, we have taken advantage of the temperature gradient in the molecular beam epitaxy reactor to analyse the impact of temperature on the incorporation of Sb and N species according to the wafer radial composition gradients. The results from the combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopies (EDS) show an opposite rate of incorporation between N and Sb as we move away from the centre of the wafer...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525677/nonlinear-optical-properties-of-sodium-copper-chlorophyllin-in-aqueous-solution
#14
Jiangting Li, Yufeng Peng, Xueyun Han, Shaoshuai Guo, Kunning Liang, Minggao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC), as one of the derivatives of chlorophyll - with its inherent green features; good stability for heat, light, acids and alkalies; unique antimicrobial capability; and particular deodori zation performance - is widely applied in some fields such as the food industry, medicine and health care, daily cosmetic industry etc. SCC, as one of the metal porphyrins, has attracted much attention because of its unique electronic band structure and photon conversion performance...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524871/in-situ-light-responses-of-the-proteorhodopsin-bearing-antarctic-sea-ice-bacterium-psychroflexus-torques
#15
David J Burr, Andrew Martin, Elizabeth W Maas, Ken G Ryan
Proteorhodopsin (PR) is a wide-spread protein found in many marine prokaryotes. PR allows for the potential conversion of solar energy to ATP, possibly assisting in cellular growth and survival during periods of high environmental stress. PR utilises either blue or green light through a single amino acid substitution. We incubated the PR-bearing bacterium Psychroflexus torquis 50 cm deep within Antarctic sea ice for 13 days, exposing cultures to diurnal fluctuations in light and temperature. Enhanced growth occurred most prominently in cultures incubated under irradiance levels of ∼50 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), suggesting PR provides a strong selective advantage...
May 19, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524540/antineoplastic-effects-of-clove-buds-syzygium-aromaticum-l-in-the-model-of-breast-carcinoma
#16
Peter Kubatka, Sona Uramova, Martin Kello, Karol Kajo, Peter Kruzliak, Jan Mojzis, Desanka Vybohova, Marian Adamkov, Karina Jasek, Zora Lasabova, Pavol Zubor, Silvia Fialova, Svetlana Dokupilova, Peter Solar, Martin Pec, Katarina Adamicova, Jan Danko, Mariusz Adamek, Dietrich Busselberg
It is supposed that plant functional foods, rich in phytochemicals, may potentially have preventive effects in carcinogenesis. In this study, the anticancer effects of cloves in the in vivo and in vitro mammary carcinoma model were assessed. Dried flower buds of cloves (CLOs) were used at two concentrations of 0.1% and 1% through diet during 13 weeks after the application of chemocarcinogen. After autopsy, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of rat mammary carcinomas were performed. Moreover, in vitro evaluation using MCF-7 cells was carried out...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524262/thermally-stable-mapbi3-perovskite-solar-cells-with-efficiency-of-19-19-and-area-over-1-cm-2-achieved-by-additive-engineering
#17
Yongzhen Wu, Fengxian Xie, Han Chen, Xudong Yang, Huimin Su, Molang Cai, Zhongmin Zhou, Takeshi Noda, Liyuan Han
Solution-processed perovskite (PSC) solar cells have achieved extremely high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) over 20%, but practical application of this photovoltaic technology requires further advancements on both long-term stability and large-area device demonstration. Here, an additive-engineering strategy is developed to realize a facile and convenient fabrication method of large-area uniform perovskite films composed of large crystal size and low density of defects. The high crystalline quality of the perovskite is found to simultaneously enhance the PCE and the durability of PSCs...
May 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524245/towards-efficient-spectral-converters-through-materials-design-for-luminescent-solar-devices
#18
REVIEW
Barry McKenna, Rachel C Evans
Single-junction photovoltaic devices exhibit a bottleneck in their efficiency due to incomplete or inefficient harvesting of photons in the low- or high-energy regions of the solar spectrum. Spectral converters can be used to convert solar photons into energies that are more effectively captured by the photovoltaic device through a photoluminescence process. Here, recent advances in the fields of luminescent solar concentration, luminescent downshifting, and upconversion are discussed. The focus is specifically on the role that materials science has to play in overcoming barriers in the optical performance in all spectral converters and on their successful integration with both established (e...
May 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523914/polymerizable-supramolecular-approach-to-highly-conductive-pedot-pss-patterns
#19
Taegeun Kim, Suryong Ha, Hyosung Choi, Kyungchan Uh, Umesha Kundapur, Sumin Park, Chan Woo Lee, Sang-Hwa Lee, Jaeyong Kim, Jong-Man Kim
Owing to its high conductivity, solution processability, mechanical flexibility and transparency, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been extensively explored for use in functional devices including solar cells, sensors, light emitting diodes and supercapacitors. The ability to fabricate patterned PEDOT:PSS on a solid substrate is of significant importance in order to develop practical applications of this conducting polymer. Herein we describe a new approach to obtain PEDOT:PSS patterns that is based on a polymerizable supramolecular concept...
May 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520434/the-nature-of-electron-mobility-in-hybrid-perovskite-ch3nh3pbi3
#20
Jie Ma, Lin-Wang Wang
CH3NH3PbI3 is one of the most promising candidates for cheap and high-efficiency solar cells. One of its unique features is the long carrier diffusion length (> 100 μm), but its carrier mobility is rather modest. The nature of the mobility is unclear. Here, using non-adiabatic wave function dynamics simulations, we show that the random rotations of the CH3NH3 cations play an important role in the carrier mobility. Our previous work showed that the electron and hole wave functions were localized and spatially separated due to the random orientations of the CH3NH3 cations in the tetragonal phase...
May 18, 2017: Nano Letters
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