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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103551/ultrasound-flow-mapping-for-the-investigation-of-crystal-growth
#1
Norman Thieme, Paul Bonisch, Dagmar Meier, Richard Nauber, Lars Buttner, Kaspars Dadzis, Olf Patzold, Lamine Sylla, Jurgen Czarske
A high energy conversion and cost efficiency are keys for the transition to renewable energy sources, e.g. solar cells. The efficiency of multi-crystalline solar cells can be improved by enhancing the understanding of its crystallization process, especially the directional solidification. In this paper, a novel measurement system for the characterization of flow phenomena and solidification processes in low-temperature model experiments on the basis of ultrasound Doppler velocimetry is described. It captures turbulent flow phenomena in two planes with a frame rate of 3...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102611/realizing-small-energy-loss-of-0-55-ev-high-open-circuit-voltage-1-v-and-high-efficiency-10-in-fullerene-free-polymer-solar-cells-via-energy-driver
#2
Pei Cheng, Mingyu Zhang, Tsz-Ki Lau, Yao Wu, Boyu Jia, Jiayu Wang, Cenqi Yan, Meng Qin, Xinhui Lu, Xiaowei Zhan
A new, easy, and efficient approach is reported to enhance the driving force for charge transfer, break tradeoff between open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current, and simultaneously achieve very small energy loss (0.55 eV), very high open-circuit voltage (>1 V), and very high efficiency (>10%) in fullerene-free organic solar cells via an energy driver.
January 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102368/novel-electron-phonon-relaxation-pathway-in-graphite-revealed-by-time-resolved-raman-scattering-and-angle-resolved-photoemission-spectroscopy
#3
Jhih-An Yang, Stephen Parham, Daniel Dessau, Dmitry Reznik
Time dynamics of photoexcited electron-hole pairs is important for a number of technologies, in particular solar cells. We combined ultrafast pump-probe Raman scattering and photoemission to directly follow electron-hole excitations as well as the G-phonon in graphite after an excitation by an intense laser pulse. This phonon is known to couple relatively strongly to electrons. Cross-correlating effective electronic and phonon temperatures places new constraints on model-based fits. The accepted two-temperature model predicts that G-phonon population should start to increase as soon as excited electron-hole pairs are created and that the rate of increase should not depend strongly on the pump fluence...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100303/ethanol-glycogen-and-glucosylglycerol-represent-competing-carbon-pools-in-ethanol-producing-cells-of-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803-under-high-salt-conditions
#4
Nadin Pade, Stefan Mikkat, Martin Hagemann
Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophic microorganisms, which are increasingly being used as microbial cell factories to produce for example ethanol directly from solar energy and CO2. Here we analyzed the effects of different salt concentrations on an ethanol-producing strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 that over-expresses the pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) from Zymomonas mobilis and the native alcohol dehydrogenase (adhA). Moderate salinities of 2% NaCl had no negative impact on ethanol production, whereas the addition of 4% NaCl resulted in significantly decreased ethanol yields compared to low salt conditions...
January 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100050/charge-carrier-hopping-dynamics-in-homogeneously-broadened-pbs-quantum-dot-solids
#5
Rachel H Gilmore, Elizabeth M Y Lee, Mark C Weidman, Adam P Willard, William A Tisdale
Energetic disorder in quantum dot solids adversely impacts charge carrier transport in quantum dot solar cells and electronic devices. Here, we use ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy to show that homogeneously broadened PbS quantum dot arrays (σhom(2):σinh(2)>19:1, σinh/kBT<0.4) can be realized if quantum dot batches are sufficiently monodisperse (δ ≲ 3.3%). Homogeneous linewidth is found to be an inverse function of quantum dot size, monotonically increasing from ~25 meV for the largest quantum dots (5...
January 19, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099917/cleavage-of-fibulin-2-by-the-aggrecanases-adamts-4-and-adamts-5-contributes-to-the-tumorigenic-potential-of-breast-cancer-cells
#6
Tania Fontanil, Saúl Álvarez-Teijeiro, M Ángeles Villaronga, Yamina Mohamedi, Laura Solares, Angela Moncada-Pazos, José A Vega, Olivia García-Suárez, Marcos Pérez-Basterrechea, Juana M García-Pedrero, Alvaro J Obaya, Santiago Cal
Fibulin-2 participates in the assembly of extracellular matrix components through interactions with multiple ligands and promotes contacts between cells and their surrounding environment. Consequently, identification of processes that could lead to an altered Fibulin-2 could have a major impact not only in the maintenance of tissue architecture and morphogenesis but also in pathological situations including cancer. Herein, we have investigated the ability of the secreted metalloproteases ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 to digest Fibulin-2...
January 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099813/photoactive-donor-acceptor-composite-nanoparticles-dispersed-in-water
#7
Laurie Parrenin, Gildas Laurans, Eleni Pavlopoulou, Guillaume Fleury, Gilles Pecastaings, Cyril Brochon, Laurence Vignau, Georges Hadziioannou, Eric Cloutet
A major issue that inhibits large-scale fabrication of organic solar modules is the use of chlorinated solvents considered as toxic and hazardous. In this work, composite particles of poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4,7-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole] (PCDTBT) and [6,6]-Phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) were obtained in water from a versatile and a ready-to-market methodology based on miniemulsion post-polymerization. Depending on experimental conditions, size-controlled particles comprising both the electron-donor and the electron-acceptor were obtained and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopic (AFM), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies...
January 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098986/investigation-of-the-energy-transfer-mechanism-in-ho-3-and-yb-3-codoped-lu2o3-phosphor-with-efficient-near-infrared-downconversion
#8
Guotao Xiang, Yan Ma, Xianju Zhou, Sha Jiang, Li Li, Xiaobing Luo, Zhendong Hao, Xia Zhang, Guo-Hui Pan, Yongshi Luo, Jiahua Zhang
A high-temperature solid-state method was used to synthesize the Ho(3+)- and Yb(3+)-codoped cubic Lu2O3 powders. The crystal structures of the as-prepared powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The energy-transfer (ET) phenomenon between Ho(3+) ions and Yb(3+) ions was verified by the steady-state spectra including visible and near-infrared (NIR) regions. Beyond that, the decay curves were also measured to certify the existence of the ET process. The downconversion phenomena appeared when the samples were excited by 446 nm wavelength corresponding to the transition of Ho(3+): (5)I8→(5)G6/(5)F1...
January 18, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098975/development-of-spiro-cyclopenta-1-2-b-5-4-b-dithiophene-4-9-fluorene-based-a-%C3%AF-d-%C3%AF-a-small-molecules-with-different-acceptor-units-for-efficient-organic-solar-cells
#9
Wengong Wang, Ping Shen, Xinning Dong, Chao Weng, Guo Wang, Haijun Bin, Jing Zhang, Zhi-Guo Zhang, Yongfang Li
Three acceptor-π-donor-π-acceptor (A-π-D-π-A) small molecules (STFYT, STFRDN, and STFRCN) with spiro[cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophene-4,9'-fluorene] (STF) as the central donor unit, terthiophene as the π-conjugated bridge, indenedione, 3-ethylrhodanine, or 2-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)rhodanine as the acceptor unit are designed, synthesized and characterized as electron donor materials in solution-processing organic solar cells (OSCs). The effects of the spiro STF-based central core and different acceptors on the molecular configuration, absorption properties, electronic energy levels, carrier transport properties, the morphology of active layers, and photovoltaic properties are investigated in detail...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098970/strong-enhancement-of-photoelectric-conversion-efficiency-of-co-hybridized-polymer-solar-cell-by-silver-nanoplates-and-core-shell-nanoparticles
#10
Wenfei Shen, Jianguo Tang, Yao Wang, Jixian Liu, Linjun Huang, Weichao Chen, Lanlan Yang, Wei Wang, Yanxin Wang, Renqiang Yang, Jungheum Yun, Laurence A Belfiore
A new way was meticulously designed to utilize the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect and the light scattering effect of silver nanoplate (Ag-nPl) and core-shell Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2-NPs) to enhance the photovoltaic performances of polymer solar cells (PSCs). To prevent direct contact between silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and photo-active materials which will cause electrons quenching, bare Ag-nPl were spin-coated on indium tin oxide and silica capsulated Ag-NPs were incorporated to PBDTTT-C-T:PC71BM active layer...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098441/ultrasmooth-perovskite-film-via-mixed-anti-solvent-strategy-with-improved-efficiency
#11
Yu Yu, Songwang Yang, Lei Lei, Qipeng Cao, Jun Shao, Sheng Zhang, Yan Liu
Most antisolvents employed in previous research were miscible with perovskite precursor solution. They always led to fast formation of perovskite even if the intermediate stage existed, which was not beneficial to obtain high quality perovskite films and made the formation process less controllable. In this work, a novel ethyl ether/n-hexane mixed antisolvent (MAS) was used to achieve high nucleation density and slow down the formation process of perovskite, producing films with improved orientation of grains and ultrasmooth surfaces...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097596/enhancement-of-perovskite-solar-cells-efficiency-using-n-doped-tio2-nanorod-arrays-as-electron-transfer-layer
#12
Zhen-Long Zhang, Jun-Feng Li, Xiao-Li Wang, Jian-Qiang Qin, Wen-Jia Shi, Yue-Feng Liu, Hui-Ping Gao, Yan-Li Mao
In this paper, N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) nanorod arrays were synthesized with hydrothermal method, and perovskite solar cells were fabricated using them as electron transfer layer. The solar cell performance was optimized by changing the N doping contents. The power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on N-TiO2 with the N doping content of 1% (N/Ti, atomic ratio) has been achieved 11.1%, which was 14.7% higher than that of solar cells based on un-doped TiO2. To get an insight into the improvement, some investigations were performed...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097274/inverted-perovskite-solar-cells-based-on-lithium-functionalized-graphene-oxide-as-an-electron-transporting-layer
#13
Esmaiel Nouri, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Panagiotis Lianos
Perovskite solar cells with an inverted p-i-n architecture were constructed under ambient conditions by employing materials of lower cost than standard cells. Thus, graphene oxide was used as a hole transporting material and Li-modified graphene oxide as an electron transporting material, while Al was used as a counter electrode. A maximum solar conversion efficiency of 10.2% was achieved by adding a Ti-based sol on the top of the Li-modified graphene oxide layer.
January 18, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094957/spatially-resolved-imaging-on-photocarrier-generations-and-band-alignments-at-perovskite-pbi2-hetero-interfaces-of-perovskite-solar-cells-by-light-modulated-scanning-tunneling-microscopy
#14
Min-Chuan Shih, Shao-Sian Li, Cheng-Hua Hsieh, Ying-Chiao Wang, Hung-Duen Yang, Ya-Ping Chiu, Chia-Seng Chang, Chun-Wei Chen
The presence of the PbI2 passivation layers at perovskite crystal grains has been found to con-siderably affect the charge carrier transport behaviors and device performance of perovskite so-lar cells. This work demonstrates the application of a novel light-modulated scanning tunneling microscopy (LM-STM) technique to reveal the interfacial electronic structures at the hetero-interfaces between CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite crystals and PbI2 passivation layer of individual perovskite grains under light illumination...
January 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094922/nano-photoelectrochemical-cell-arrays-with-spatially-isolated-oxidation-and-reduction-channels
#15
Hang-Ah Park, Siyuan Liu, Youngseok Oh, Paul A Salvador, Gregory S Rohrer, Mohammad F Islam
Photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy is explored for many diverse applications but suffers from poor efficiencies due to limited solar absorption, inadequate charge carrier separation, redox half-reactions occurring in close proximity, and/or long ion diffusion lengths. We have taken a drastically different approach to the design of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) to spatially isolate reaction sites at the nanoscale to different materials and flow channels, suppressing carrier recombination and back-reaction of intermediates while shortening ion diffusion paths and, importantly, avoiding mixed product generation...
January 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094911/co-dependence-between-crystalline-and-photovoltage-evolutions-in-p3ht-pcbm-solar-cells-probed-with-in-operando-giwaxs
#16
Daniel Moseguí González, Christoph J Schaffer, Stephan Pröller, Johannes Schlipf, Lin Song, Sigrid Bernstorff, Eva M Herzig, Peter Muller-Buschbaum
We address the correlation between the crystalline state of photoactive materials in model organic solar cell based on poly(3-hexylthiophen-2,5-diyl):phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) and the photovoltage in an in-operando investigation. I-V curves are simultaneously measured together with grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering probing the crystalline state of the device active layer as function of the operation time. The results show a high degree of correlation between open-circuit voltage VOC and the crystalline state of P3HT...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094830/molecular-electron-acceptors-for-efficient-fullerene-free-organic-solar-cells
#17
Shuixing Li, Zhongqiang Zhang, Minmin Shi, Chang-Zhi Li, Hongzheng Chen
Nowadays, organic solar cells (OSCs) with efficiencies over 10% have been achieved through the elaborate design of electron donors and fullerene acceptors. However, the drawbacks of fullerene acceptors, like poor absorption, limited chemical and energetic tunabilities, high-cost purification and morphological instability, have become the bottlenecks for the further improvement of OSCs. To overcome the mentioned shortages from fullerene, research studies on non-fullerene electron acceptors have boomed. To date, the highest efficiency of fullerene-free OSCs has been pushed to be 12%, which surpasses that of fullerene-based OSCs...
January 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094499/organic-solar-cells-with-controlled-nanostructures-based-on-microphase-separation-of-fullerene-attached-thiophene-selenophene-heteroblock-copolymers
#18
Peihong Chen, Kyohei Nakano, Kaori Suzuki, Kazuhito Hashimoto, Tomoka Kikitsu, Daisuke Hashizume, Tomoyuki Koganezawa, Keisuke Tajima
Heteroblock copolymers consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene-attached poly(3-alkylselenophene) (T-b-Se-PCBP) were synthesized for organic photovoltaic applications by quasi-living catalyst transfer polycondensation and subsequent conversion reactions. Characterization of the polymers confirmed the formation of well-defined diblock structures with high loading of the fullerene at the side chain (~40 wt%). Heteroblock copolymer cast as a thin film showed a clear microphase-separated nanostructure approximately 30 nm in repeating unit after thermal annealing, which is identical to the microphase-separated nanostructure of diblock copolymer consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene-attached poly(3-alkylthiophene) (T-b-T-PCBP)...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094376/cyclopentadithiophene-organic-core-in-small-molecule-organic-solar-cells-morphological-control-of-carrier-recombination
#19
Rocío Domínguez, Núria F Montcada, Pilar de la Cruz, Emilio Palomares, Fernando Langa
Two new planar and symmetrical A-D-A (electron acceptor-electron donor-electron acceptor) small molecules based on a commercial cyclopentadithiophene derivative have been synthesized for solution processed small molecule organic solar cells. The aim was to synthesise the molecules to be energetically identical (similar HOMO-LUMO energy levels) in order to assign the differences observed to changes in the film morphology or to differences in the interfacial recombination kinetics or both. Devices were electrically characterized under one sun simulated (1...
January 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092935/alloying-strategy-in-cu-in-ga-se-quantum-dots-for-high-efficiency-quantum-dot-sensitized-solar-cells
#20
Wenxiang Peng, Jun Du, Zhenxiao Pan, Naoki Nakazawa, Jiankun Sun, Zhonglin Du, Gencai Shen, Juan Yu, Jin-Song Hu, Qing Shen, Xinhua Zhong
I-III-VI2 group "green" quantum dots (QDs) are attracting increasing attentions in photoelectronic conversion applications. Herein, based on the "simultaneous nucleation and growth" approach, Cu-In-Ga-Se (CIGSe) QDs with light harvesting range about 1000 nm were synthetized and used as sensitizer to construct quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), wild-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses demonstrate that the Ga element was alloyed in the Cu-In-Se (CISe) host...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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