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Solar cells

D Rutkowski, M D Farrar, J E Osman, A R Webb, L E Rhodes
BACKGROUND: Solar UVR is a major cause of skin cancer but also an important source of vitamin D (VitD), essential for musculoskeletal health. Conflicting public health messages may confuse skin cancer patients prone to further skin cancer. OBJECTIVE: To explore the knowledge, behaviour and attitudes of skin cancer patients to sunlight exposure and VitD sources. METHODS: Patients (n=10) previously treated for multiple basal cell cancer in a hospital setting, participated in focus group sessions with semi-structured discussions to explore: knowledge of VitD, sun-avoidance behaviour, and attitude towards sunlight exposure messages...
April 27, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
Natalya Garkusheva, Galina Matafonova, Irina Tsenter, Sara Beck, Valeriy Batoev, Karl Linden
This work evaluated the feasibility of a photo-Fenton-like process using persulfate (PS) and ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) under simulated solar radiation for degrading the herbicide atrazine (ATZ, 6-Chloro-N-ethyl-N'-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) and inactivating E. coli. Milli Q water, lake water, and diluted wastewater effluents were spiked both simultaneously and separately with ATZ (4 mg/L) and E. coli (10(5) CFU/mL), and exposed to treatment. A method for determining the average irradiance throughout the water media in the UV(A+B) range of the Xe lamp emission was developed for bench-scale experiments...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Annkatrin Lennert, Michelle Sternberg, Karsten Meyer, Rubén D Costa, Dirk M Guldi
In the current work, novel symmetrically alkyl-substituted imidazolium-based ionic liquids have been synthesized featuring either iodide (I(-)) or selenocyanate (SeCN(-)) as counteranions. Physicochemical assays based on spectroscopy and electrochemistry techniques have been performed to identify the best ionic liquid for application as electrolytes in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (qssDSSC). The latter were mixed with additives such as 4-tert-butylpyridine (4tbpy) and guanidinium thiocyanate (GuSCN) to optimize electrode surface coverage, ionic diffusion, and dye regeneration...
April 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xianfeng Zhang, Masakazu Kobayashi
Junction of Ag(In, Ga)Se2 (AIGS)/Mo and Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS)/Mo were characterized and compared from the prospect of structural and electrical properties. The region between CIGS and Mo was filled by a layered hexagonal MoSe2 layer with a thickness of 10-15 nm. The c-axis of MoSe2 was mostly perpendicular with the Mo layer, while the c value was 12.6 Å. However, no such layer was observed at the interface of AIGS and Mo. The result was also confirmed by the energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer and x-ray diffraction pattern to confirm status of MoSe2 layer...
April 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ceren Yüce, Norbert Willenbacher
A comprehensive rheological characterization of highly concentrated suspensions or pastes is mandatory for a targeted product development meeting the manifold requirements during processing and application of such complex fluids. In this investigation, measuring protocols for a conclusive assessment of different process relevant rheological parameters have been evaluated. This includes the determination of yield stress, viscosity, wall slip velocity, structural recovery after large deformation and elongation at break as well as tensile force during filament stretching...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yaohong Zhang, Guohua Wu, Ivan Mora-Sero, Chao Ding, Feng Liu, Qingxun Huang, Yuhei Ogomi, Shuzi Hayase, Taro Toyoda, Ruixiang Wang, Joe Otsuki, Qing Shen
A novel organic small molecule bis-triphenylamine with spiro(fluorene-9,9'-xanthene) as the conjugated system, named BTPA-4, is successfully synthesized and employed as the hole-selective layer (HSL) in colloidal quantum dots solar cells (CQDSCs). The introduction of BTPA-4 layer can significantly prolong effective carrier lifetime (τeff), increase charge recombination resistance (Rrec), and thus diminish the interfacial charge recombination at the PbS-QDs/Au electrode interface. The effect of BTPA-4 as HSL in the device performance is especially significant for the open-circuit voltage (Voc) and power conversion efficiency (PCE), with a ~ 10% and 15% enhancement respectively, comparing with those of device without the HSL...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Shangshang Chen, Yuhang Liu, Lin Zhang, Philip C Y Chow, Zheng Wang, Guangye Zhang, Wei Ma, He Yan
To achieve efficient non-fullerene organic solar cells, it is important to reduce the voltage loss from the optical bandgap to the open-circuit voltage of the cell. Here we report a highly efficient non-fullerene organic solar cell with a high open-circuit voltage of 1.08 V and a small voltage loss of 0.55 V. The high performance was enabled by a novel wide-bandgap (2.05 eV) donor polymer paired with a narrow-bandgap (1.63 eV) small-molecular acceptor (SMA). Our morphology characterizations show that both the polymer and the SMA can maintain high crystallinity in the blend film, resulting in crystalline and small domains...
April 27, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Qiaoyue Xi, Ge Gao, Hua Zhou, Yongxia Zhao, Cunqi Wu, Lidan Wang, Pengran Guo, Jingwei Xu
In this work, three different CuSCN nanostructures (NSs), hexagonal prism-like (3D), pyramid-like (2D) and nanowire structures (NWs) are first applied to inverted heterojunction perovskite solar cells as p-type inorganic hole transport layers (HTLs) using a moderate electrodeposition method at room temperature. It is revealed that the crystal structure and the thickness of the CuSCN layer can dramatically regulate the morphology and the crystal orientation behavior of perovskite absorbing layers, which will further have a significant influence on the following device performance...
April 27, 2017: Nanoscale
Seongtak Kim, Soohyun Bae, Sang-Won Lee, Kyungjin Cho, Kyung Dong Lee, Hyunho Kim, Sungeun Park, Guhan Kwon, Seh-Won Ahn, Heon-Min Lee, Yoonmook Kang, Hae-Seok Lee, Donghwan Kim
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have been extensively studied because of their outstanding performance: a power conversion efficiency exceeding 22% has been achieved. The most commonly used PSCs consist of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) with a hole-selective contact, such as 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9-spiro-bifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD), for collecting holes. From the perspective of long-term operation of solar cells, the cell performance and constituent layers (MAPbI3, spiro-OMeTAD, etc...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Marine E F Bouduban, Andrés Burgos-Caminal, Joël Teuscher, Jacques-E Moser
Unravelling the nature of the interactions between photogenerated charge carriers in solar energy conversion devices is key to enhance performance. In this perspective, we discuss electroabsorption spectroscopy (EAS), as the spectral bandshape of the electroabsorption (EA) signal directly depends on the strength of the charge carrier interactions. For instance, the electroabsorption response in molecular or confined excitonic systems can be modelled perturbatively yielding the Stark effect. In contrast, most solids exhibit weaker interactions, and a perturbative approach cannot be taken in general...
April 26, 2017: Chimia
Shanshan Zhang, Qingfen Niu, Tao Sun, Yang Li, Tianduo Li, Haixia Liu
A novel linear A-π-D-π-A-type organic small molecule Ph2(PDPP)2 consisting diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) as acceptor unit, biphenylene as donor unit and acetylene unit as π-linkage has been successfully designed and synthesized. Its corresponding thermal, photophysical and electrochemical properties as well as the photoinduced charge-separation process were investigated. Ph2(PDPP)2 exhibits high thermal stability and it can be soluble in common organic solvents such as chloroform and tetrahydrofuran. The photophysical properties show that DPP2Ph2 harvests sunlight over the entire visible spectrum range in the thin-film state (300-800nm)...
April 20, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Jiang Wu, Junyan Chen, Yifei Zhang, Zhaojian Xu, Lichen Zhao, Tanghao Liu, Deying Luo, Wenqiang Yang, Ke Chen, Qin Hu, Fengjun Ye, Pan Wu, Rui Zhu, Qihuang Gong
In many optoelectronic applications, patterning is required for functional and/or aesthetic purposes. However, established photolithographic technique can't be applied directly to the hybrid perovskites, which are considered as promising candidates for optoelectronic applications. In this work, a wettability-assisted photolithography (WAP) process, which employs photolithography and one-step solution process to deposit hybrid perovskite, was developed for fabricating patterned hybrid perovskite films. Uniform pinhole-free hybrid perovskite films with sharp-edged micro-patterns of any shapes can be constructed through the WAP process...
April 26, 2017: Nano Letters
Amita Ummadisingu, Ludmilla Steier, Ji-Youn Seo, Taisuke Matsui, Antonio Abate, Wolfgang Tress, Michael Grätzel
Optimizing the morphology of metal halide perovskite films is an important way to improve the performance of solar cells when these materials are used as light harvesters, because film homogeneity is correlated with photovoltaic performance. Many device architectures and processing techniques have been explored with the aim of achieving high-performance devices, including single-step deposition, sequential deposition and anti-solvent methods. Earlier studies have looked at the influence of reaction conditions on film quality, such as the concentration of the reactants and the reaction temperature...
April 26, 2017: Nature
Jingqi Tian, Houjuan Zhu, Jie Chen, Xinting Zheng, Hongwei Duan, Kanyi Pu, Peng Chen
Ultra-broadband light-absorbing materials are highly desired for effective solar-energy harvesting. Herein, novel cobalt phosphide double-shelled nanocages (CoP-NCs) are synthesized. Uniquely, these CoP-NCs are able to nonselectively absorb light spanning the full solar spectrum, benefiting from its electronic properties and hollow nanostructure. They promise a wide range of applications involving solar energy utilization. As proof-of-concept demonstrations, CoP-NCs are employed here as effective photothermal agents to ablate cancer cells by utilizing their ability of near-infrared heat conversion, and as photoactive material for self-powered photoelectrochemical sensing by taking advantage of their ability of photon-to-electricity conversion...
April 26, 2017: Small
Nalaka P Liyanage, Hammad Cheema, Alexandra R Baumann, Alexa R Zylstra, Jared Heath Delcamp
NIR absorbing organic dyes are critically needed in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine (TPz) based dyes can access the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region and show power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of up to 8.1% with sunlight being converted at wavelengths up to 800 nm for 17.6 mA/cm2 of photocurrent in a co-sensitized DSC device. Precisely controlling dye excited-state energies is critical for good performances in NIR DSCs. Strategies to control TPz dye energetics with stronger donor groups and TPz substituent choice are evaluated in this manuscript...
April 25, 2017: ChemSusChem
Pip C J Clark, Hanna Radtke, Atip Pengpad, Andrew I Williamson, Ben F Spencer, Samantha J O Hardman, Marina A Leontiadou, Darren C J Neo, Simon M Fairclough, Andrew A R Watt, Igor Pis, Silvia Nappini, Federica Bondino, Elena Magnano, Karsten Handrup, Karina Schulte, Mathieu G Silly, Fausto Sirotti, Wendy R Flavell
Achieving control of the surface chemistry of colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is essential to fully exploit their properties in solar cells, but direct measurement of the chemistry and electronic structure in the outermost atomic layers is challenging. Here we probe the surface oxidation and passivation of cation-exchanged PbS/CdS core/shell CQDs with sub nm-scale precision using synchrotron-radiation-excited depth-profiling photoemission. We investigate the surface composition of the topmost 1-2.5 nm of the CQDs as a function of depth, for CQDs of varying CdS shell thickness, and examine how the surface changes after prolonged air exposure...
April 26, 2017: Nanoscale
Maxim Guc, Dimitrios Hariskos, Lorenzo Calvo-Barrio, Philip Jackson, Florian Oliva, Paul Pistor, Alejandro Perez-Rodriguez, Victor Izquierdo-Roca
This work reports a detailed resonant Raman scattering analysis of ZnMgO solid solution nanometric layers that are being developed for high efficiency chalcogenide solar cells. This includes layers with thicknesses below 100 nm and compositions corresponding to Zn/(Zn + Mg) content rations in the range between 0% and 30%. The vibrational characterization of the layers grown with different compositions and thicknesses has allowed deepening in the knowledge of the sensitivity of the different Raman spectral features on the characteristics of the layers, corroborating the viability of resonant Raman scattering based techniques for their non-destructive quantitative assessment...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shang-Ru Tsai, Michael R Hamblin
Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 760nm and 100,000nm. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy generally employs light at red and near-infrared wavelengths (600-100nm) to modulate biological activity. Many factors, conditions, and parameters influence the therapeutic effects of IR, including fluence, irradiance, treatment timing and repetition, pulsing, and wavelength. Increasing evidence suggests that IR can carry out photostimulation and photobiomodulation effects particularly benefiting neural stimulation, wound healing, and cancer treatment...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Minghui He, Kaili Zhang, Guangxue Chen, Junfei Tian, Bin Su
Conductive paper owns low-cost, lightweight, sustainable, easy to scale-up and tailorable advantages, allowing for its promising potential in flexible electronics, such as bendable supercapacitors, solar cells, electromagnetic shields and actuators. Ionic gels, exhibiting a lower Young's modulus together with facile manufacturing, can fully serve as the conductive component to prepare conductive paper. Herein we report a low-cost (~1.3 dollars/m(2)), continuous and high-throughput (up to ~ 30 m/min) fabrication of reliable and long-term (stable for more than two months) conductive paper...
April 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Luca Passoni, Francesco Fumagalli, Andrea Perego, Sebastiano Bellani, Piero Mazzolini, Fabio di Fonzo
Monolithic dye sensitized solar cell architectures hold great potential for building integrated photovoltaics applications. They indeed benefit from lower weight and manufacturing costs as they avoid the use of a transparent conductive oxide coated glass counter electrode. In this work a transparent monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell comprising hierarchical 1D nanostructures stack is fabricated by physical vapour deposition techniques. The proof of concept device comprises hyperbranched TiO<sub>2 </sub> nanostructures, sensitized by the prototypical N719, as photoanode, a hierarchical nanoporous Al<sub>2 </sub>O<sub>3 </sub> spacer and a microporous ITO top electrode...
April 25, 2017: Nanotechnology
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