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Cardiac prevention

Rupen Shah, Kristopher Attwood, Shipra Arya, Daniel E Hall, Jason M Johanning, Emmanuel Gabriel, Anthony Visioni, Steven Nurkin, Moshim Kukar, Steven Hochwald, Nader N Massarweh
Importance: Failure to rescue (FTR), or death after a potentially preventable complication, is a nationally endorsed, publicly reported quality measure. However, little is known about the impact of frailty on FTR, in particular after low-risk surgical procedures. Objective: To assess the association of frailty with FTR in patients undergoing inpatient surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study assessed a cohort of 984 550 patients undergoing inpatient general, vascular, thoracic, cardiac, and orthopedic surgery in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Alberto Zullo, Emanuela Simone, Maddalena Grimaldi, Vincenzina Musto, Francesco Paolo Mancini
Fighting diseases and controlling the signs of ageing are the major goals of biomedicine. Sirtuins, enzymes with mainly deacetylating activity, could be pivotal targets of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies to reach such aims. Scientific proofs are accumulating in experimental models, but, to a minor extent, also in humans, that the ancient practice of calorie restriction could prove an effective way to prevent several degenerative diseases and to postpone the detrimental signs of ageing. In the present review, we summarize the evidence about the central role of sirtuins in mediating the beneficial effects of calorie restriction in skeletal and cardiac muscle since these tissues are greatly damaged by diseases and advancing years...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Andrea I Guaricci, Delia De Santis, Mark G Rabbat, Gianluca Pontone
: Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have proven to be the most effective preventive therapy of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Based on current guidelines, the indication for prophylactic ICD therapy is primarily based on a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 35%. However, patients with low LVEF may never have an arrhythmic event while patients with normal to moderately reduced LVEF, who are traditionally felt to be at lower risk, can experience SCD. Therefore, LVEF alone is not an ideal risk stratification parameter to determine ICD therapy...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Lidia Capotosto, Francesco Massoni, Simone De Sio, Serafino Ricci, Antonio Vitarelli
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) still remains the main cause of morbidity and mortality and consequently early diagnosis is of paramount importance. Working conditions can be regarded as an additional risk factor for CVD. Since different aspects of the job may affect vascular health differently, it is important to consider occupation from multiple perspectives to better assess occupational impacts on health. Standard echocardiography has several targets in the cardiac population, as the assessment of myocardial performance, valvular and/or congenital heart disease, and hemodynamics...
2018: BioMed Research International
Mark F McCarty, James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio
Background: Glutathione is a key scavenging antioxidant that opposes the proinflammatory signaling of hydrogen peroxide. Boosting cellular glutathione levels may have broad utility in the prevention and treatment of disorders driven by oxidative stress. Supplemental N-acetylcysteine has been employed for this purpose. Could supplemental glycine likewise promote glutathione synthesis? Methods: We conducted a review of the pertinent literature using PubMed. Results: Tissue glycine levels are lower than the glutathione synthase Michaelis constant (Km ) for glycine...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Fei Wang, Brian Iskra, Eugenie Kleinerman, Claudia Alvarez-Florez, Thomas Andrews, Angela Shaw, Joya Chandra, Keri Schadler, Gregory J Aune
We report the cardioprotective effects of moderate aerobic exercise from parallel pediatric murine models of doxorubicin (Doxo) exposure in non-tumor-bearing immune competent (NTB-IC) mice and tumor-bearing nude mice (TB-NM). In both models, animals at 4 weeks of age underwent Doxo treatment with or without 2 weeks of simultaneous exercise. In sedentary NTB-IC or TB-NM mice, Doxo treatment resulted in a statistically significant decrease in ejection fraction and fractional shortening compared with control animals...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Ramoji Kosuru, Vidya Kandula, Uddipak Rai, Swati Prakash, Zhengyuan Xia, Sanjay Singh
PURPOSE: Oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of diabetes-associated cardiovascular problems, which has remained a primary cause of the increased morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. It is of paramount importance to prevent the diabetes-associated cardiac complications by reducing oxidative stress with the help of nutritional or pharmacological agents. Pterostilbene (PT), the primary antioxidant in blueberries, has recently gained attention for its promising health benefits in metabolic and cardiac diseases...
March 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Johan Spetz, Javid Moslehi, Kristopher Sarosiek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ionizing radiation is a highly effective treatment for a wide range of malignancies, yet the cardiovascular (CV) toxicity that can result from chest radiotherapy impairs the long-term health of cancer survivors and can be a limiting factor for its use. Despite over 100 years of successful clinical use, the mechanisms by which high-energy photons damage critical components within cells of the heart's myocardium, pericardium, vasculature, and valves remain unclear. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies exploring the acute and chronic effects of radiation therapy on cardiac and vascular tissue have provided new insights into the development and progression of heart disease, including the identification and understanding of age- and complication-associated risk factors...
March 20, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Jiao Li, Shu-Hong Li, Jun Wu, Richard D Weisel, Alina Yao, William L Stanford, Shi-Ming Liu, Ren-Ke Li
Background: To improve the regenerative capacity of aged individuals, we reconstituted bone marrow (BM) of aged mice with young Sca-1 cells, which repopulated cardiac progenitors and prevented cardiac dysfunction after a myocardial infarction (MI). However, the mechanisms involved were incompletely elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether young, highly regenerative BM Sca-1 cells exert their cardio-protective effects on the aged heart through reactivation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process...
2018: Theranostics
Ge Li-Sha, Liu Li, Zhou De-Pu, Shi Zhe-Wei, Gu Xiaohong, Chen Guang-Yi, Li Jia, Lin Jia-Feng, Chu Maoping, Li Yue-Chun
This study was designed to explore the effects of ivabradine on cardiomyocyte apoptosis in a murine model of chronic viral myocarditis (CVMC). Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with Coxsackievirus B3 at days 1, 14, and 28, respectively. On day 42, the mice were gavaged with ivabradine for 30 days until the 72nd day. The heart of infected mice was dilated and a large number of interstitial fibroblasts infiltrated into the myocardium on day 42. Compared with the untreated CVMC mice, mice treated with ivabradine showed a significant reduction in heart rate and less impairment of left ventricular function on day 72...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Chau Le Bao Ho, Monique Breslin, Jenny Doust, Christopher M Reid, Mark R Nelson
OBJECTIVES: In many current guidelines, blood pressure (BP)-lowering drug treatment for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is based on absolute risk. However, in clinical practice, therapeutic decisions are often based on BP levels alone. We sought to investigate which approach was superior by conducting a post hoc analysis of the Australian National Blood Pressure (ANBP) cohort, a seminal study establishing the efficacy of BP lowering in 'mild hypertensive' persons. DESIGN: A post hoc subgroup analysis of the ANBP trial results by baseline absolute risk tertile...
March 19, 2018: BMJ Open
Bradley A Perkins, C Thomas Caskey, Pamila Brar, Eric Dec, David S Karow, Andrew M Kahn, Ying-Chen Claire Hou, Naisha Shah, Debbie Boeldt, Erin Coughlin, Gabby Hands, Victor Lavrenko, James Yu, Andrea Procko, Julia Appis, Anders M Dale, Lining Guo, Thomas J Jönsson, Bryan M Wittmann, Istvan Bartha, Smriti Ramakrishnan, Axel Bernal, James B Brewer, Suzanne Brewerton, William H Biggs, Yaron Turpaz, J Craig Venter
Reducing premature mortality associated with age-related chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, is an urgent priority. We report early results using genomics in combination with advanced imaging and other clinical testing to proactively screen for age-related chronic disease risk among adults. We enrolled active, symptom-free adults in a study of screening for age-related chronic diseases associated with premature mortality. In addition to personal and family medical history and other clinical testing, we obtained whole-genome sequencing (WGS), noncontrast whole-body MRI, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), global metabolomics, a new blood test for prediabetes (Quantose IR), echocardiography (ECHO), ECG, and cardiac rhythm monitoring to identify age-related chronic disease risks...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Akihiko Kimura, Yuko Ishida, Machi Furuta, Mizuho Nosaka, Yumi Kuninaka, Akira Taruya, Naofumi Mukaida, Toshikazu Kondo
BACKGROUND: A clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying hemodynamic stress-initiated cardiac hypertrophy is important for preventing heart failure. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has been suggested to play crucial roles in various diseases other than immunological disorders by modulating the expression of myriad genes. However, the involvement of IFN-γ in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy still remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: In order to elucidate the roles of IFN-γ in pressure overload-induced cardiac pathology, we subjected Balb/c wild-type (WT) or IFN-γ-deficient ( Ifng -/- ) mice to transverse aortic constriction (TAC)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Paula Ortiz-Romero, Cristina Borralleras, Mònica Bosch-Morató, Biuse Guivernau, Guillermo Albericio, Francisco J Muñoz, Luis A Pérez-Jurado, Victoria Campuzano
Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a heterozygous deletion of 26-28 genes at chromosome band 7q11.23. The complete deletion (CD) mouse model mimics the most common deletion found in WBS patients and recapitulates most neurologic features of the disorder along with some cardiovascular manifestations leading to significant cardiac hypertrophy with increased cardiomyocytes' size. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin found in green tea, has been associated with potential health benefits, both on cognition and cardiovascular phenotypes, through several mechanisms...
2018: PloS One
Hayley L Letson, Geoffrey P Dobson
BACKGROUND: Currently no drug therapy prevents secondary injury progression after TBI. Our aim was to investigate the effects of small-volume intravenous adenosine, lidocaine and Mg (ALM) resuscitation fluid after moderate-TBI in a rat fluid-percussion injury model. METHODS: Anesthetized, mechanically-ventilated male Sprague-Dawley rats (449±5g) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: 1) Sham (craniotomy without TBI), 2) No-Treatment, 3) Saline-controls or 4) ALM therapy (all n=16)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Mariusz Kusztal, Krzysztof Nowak
For arrhythmia treatment or sudden cardiac death prevention in hemodialysis patients, there is a frequent need for placement of a cardiac implantable electronic device (pacemaker, implantable cardioverter defibrillator, or cardiac resynchronization device). Leads from a cardiac implantable electronic device can cause central vein stenosis and carry the risk of tricuspid regurgitation or contribute to infective endocarditis. In patients with end-stage kidney disease requiring vascular access and cardiac implantable electronic device, the best strategy is to create an arteriovenous fistula on the contralateral upper limb for a cardiac implantable electronic device and avoidance of central vein catheter...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Shang Wang, Manmohan Singh, Thuy Tien Tran, John Leach, Salavat R Aglyamov, Irina V Larina, James F Martin, Kirill V Larin
Myocardial infarction (MI) leads to cardiomyocyte loss, impaired cardiac function, and heart failure. Molecular genetic analyses of myocardium in mouse models of ischemic heart disease have provided great insight into the mechanisms of heart regeneration, which is promising for novel therapies after MI. Although biomechanical factors are considered an important aspect in cardiomyocyte proliferation, there are limited methods for mechanical assessment of the heart in the mouse MI model. This prevents further understanding the role of tissue biomechanics in cardiac regeneration...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Song-Jian He, Qiang Liu, Hua-Qiu Li, Fang Tian, Shi-Yu Chen, Jian-Xin Weng
Background: The prevention of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) by statins remains controversial. Therefore, the present meta-analysis including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to assess the effect of perioperative statin on CSA-AKI. Methods: Two reviewers independently searched for RCTs about perioperative statin for prevention of CSA-AKI. The primary endpoint was CSA-AKI. Relative risk was calculated between statin and placebo for preventing CSA-AKI using the random-effect model or fixed-effect model according to different heterogeneity...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Ayako Uchinaka, Maho Yoshida, Kiyoka Tanaka, Yoshinosuke Hamada, Seiji Mori, Yoshitaka Maeno, Shigeru Miyagawa, Yoshiki Sawa, Kohzo Nagata, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Naomasa Kawaguchi
OBJECTIVE: Left ventricular (LV) remodeling alters the contractile and relaxation properties and induces myocardial stiffness. As LV remodeling progresses, the amount of collagen type III (Col3) is gradually decreased, being replaced by collagen type I (Col1). We evaluated whether Col3 overexpression improved cardiac function and remodeling in a rat with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). We also investigated the functional motif and mechanism of thrombin-cleaved N-terminal osteopontin (N-OPN) on cardiac remodeling...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Andrea Igoren Guaricci, Pier Giorgio Masci, Valentina Lorenzoni, Jurg Schwitter, Gianluca Pontone
BACKGROUND: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) represents the most valuable sudden cardiac death (SCD) prophylactic strategy in patients with heart failure and severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). To date, it is still unknown how to integrate the information given by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) into clinical and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) work-up of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) and ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) patients for accurate risk stratification...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
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