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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088771/do-we-still-need-cross-sectional-studies-in-nephrology-yes-we-do
#1
Giovanni Tripepi, Graziella D'Arrigo, Kitty J Jager, Vianda S Stel, Friedo W Dekker, Carmine Zoccali
Cross-sectional studies represent the second line of evidence (after case reports) in the ladder of evidence aimed at defining disease aetiology. This study design is used to generate hypotheses about the determinants of a given disease but also to investigate the accuracy of diagnostic tests and to assess the burden of a given disease in a population. The intrinsic limitation of cross-sectional studies, when applied to generate aetiological hypotheses, is that both the exposure under investigation and the disease of interest are measured at the same point in time...
January 14, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088580/grand-round-anticoagulation-in-chronic-liver-disease
#2
REVIEW
Ameet Dhar, Benjamin H Mullish, Mark R Thursz
In this Grand Round, we first present a case of a man with decompensated liver disease who subsequently developed a fatal pulmonary embolism, having not been prescribed prophylactic anticoagulation to prevent venous thromboembolic disease. We go on to discuss the burden of thrombotic disease in those with chronic liver disease, before a more detailed discussion regarding the current evidence, safety data, and clinical dilemmas regarding the use of anticoagulation in patients with chronic liver disease, as well as discussing potential future directions within this field...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088461/changes-in-the-prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-alcoholic-liver-disease-among-patients-with-cirrhosis-or-liver-failure-on-the-waitlist-for-liver-transplantation
#3
David Goldberg, Ivo C Ditah, Kia Saeian, Mona Lalehzari, Andrew Aronsohn, Emmanuel C Gorospe, Michael Charlton
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Concurrent to development of more effective drugs for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV), infection, there has been an increase in the incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Data indicate that liver transplantation prolongs survival times of patient with acute hepatitis associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We compared data on disease prevalence in the population with data from liver transplantation waitlists to evaluate changes in the burden of liver disease in the United States...
January 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088326/acute-kidney-injury-due-to-tropical-infectious-diseases-and-animal-venoms-a-tale-of-2-continents
#4
REVIEW
Emmanuel A Burdmann, Vivekanand Jha
South and Southeast Asia and Latin American together comprise 46 countries and are home to approximately 40% of the world population. The sociopolitical and economic heterogeneity, tropical climate, and malady transitions characteristic of the region strongly influence disease behavior and health care delivery. Acute kidney injury epidemiology mirrors these inequalities. In addition to hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in tertiary care centers, these countries face a large preventable burden of community-acquired acute kidney injury secondary to tropical infectious diseases or animal venoms, affecting previously healthy young individuals...
January 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088304/mechanical-biomarkers-of-medial-compartment-knee-osteoarthritis-diagnosis-and-severity-grading-discovery-phase
#5
Neila Mezghani, Youssef Ouakrim, Alexandre Fuentes, Amar Mitiche, Nicola Hagemeister, Pascal-André Vendittoli, Jacques A de Guise
OBJECTIVE: To investigate, as a discovery phase, if 3D knee kinematics assessment parameters can serve as mechanical biomarkers, more specifically as diagnostic biomarker and burden of disease biomarkers, as defined in the Burden of Disease, Investigative, Prognostic, Efficacy of Intervention and Diagnostic classification scheme for osteoarthritis (OA) (Altman et al., 1986). These biomarkers consist of a set of biomechanical parameters discerned from 3D knee kinematic patterns, namely, flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, and tibial internal/external rotation measurements, during gait recording...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088248/the-spectrum-of-rheumatic-in-patient-diagnoses-at-a-pediatric-hospital-in-kenya
#6
Angela Migowa, Inés Colmegna, Carol Hitchon, Eugene Were, Evelyn Ng'ang'a, Thomas Ngwiri, John Wachira, Sasha Bernatsky, Rosie Scuccimarri
BACKGROUND: Pediatric rheumatic diseases are chronic illnesses that can cause considerable disease burden to children and their families. There is limited epidemiologic data on these diseases in East Africa. The aim of this study was to assess the spectrum of pediatric rheumatic diagnoses in an in-patient setting and determine the accuracy of ICD-10 codes in identifying these conditions. METHODS: Medical records from Gertrude's Children's Hospital in Kenya were reviewed for patients diagnosed with "diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue" as per ICD-10 diagnostic codes assigned at discharge between January and December 2011...
January 14, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088246/budget-impact-analysis-of-vaccination-against-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-as-a-part-of-a-pentavalent-vaccine-in-the-childhood-immunization-schedule-of-iran
#7
Fatemeh Teimouri, Abbas Kebriaeezadeh, Seyed Mohsen Zahraei, MohammadMahdi Gheiratian, Shekoufeh Nikfar
BACKGROUND: Health decision makers need to know the impact of the development of a new intervention on the public health and health care costs so that they can plan for economic and financial objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the budget impact of adding Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) as a part of a Pentavalent vaccine (Hib-HBV-DTP) to the national childhood immunization schedule of Iran. METHODS: An excel-based model was developed to determine the costs of including the Pentavalent vaccine in the national immunization program (NIP), comparing the present schedule with the previous one (including separate DTP and hepatitis B vaccines)...
January 14, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088237/association-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Balewgizie Sileshi Tegegne, Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold, Melkamu Merid Mengesha, Johannes G M Burgerhof
INTRODUCTION: Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a challenge to global tuberculosis (TB) control and remains a major public health concern in many countries. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an increasingly recognized comorbidity that can both accelerate TB disease and complicate its treatment. The aim of this study is to summarize available evidence on the association of DM and MDR-TB among TB patients and to provide a pooled estimate of risks. METHODS: All studies published in English before October 2016 will be searched using comprehensive search strings through PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and WHO Global Health Library databases which have reported the association of DM and MDR-TB in adults with TB (age > =15)...
January 14, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087975/screening-and-treating-helicobacter-pylori-infection-for-gastric-cancer-prevention-on-the-population-level
#9
REVIEW
Yi-Chia Lee, Jaw-Town Lin
Helicobacter pylori infection is the major cause of gastric cancer, and removal of H. pylori infection from a population could theoretically decrease the number of cases by about 89%. However, in real-life settings, few studies have reported the effect of screening and treating this pathogen in population-based programs. This is mainly because of the lack of an adequate infrastructure for delivery of systematic screening services to asymptomatic individuals, the lack of standardization to ensure that each subject receives the correct diagnostic testing and antibiotic treatment, and limited resources...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087957/cardiovascular-risk-assessment-between-urban-and-rural-population-in-malaysia
#10
I Noor Hassim, M R Norazman, M Diana, Y Khairul Hazdi, I Rosnah
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused significant burden to Malaysia as it accounted for 36% of total deaths. This study aims to evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adult and assess the difference between urban and rural population in the selected communities. METHODS: This study is part of the ongoing Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) database, whereby the baseline data were collected since June 2008. CVD risk was measured using INTERHEART risk score which comprised of eleven risk factors i...
December 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087720/a-liminal-stage-after-predictive-testing-for-huntington-disease
#11
Marcela Gargiulo, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel, Marie France Jutras, Ariane Herson, Cecile Cazeneuve, Alexandra Durr
BACKGROUND: Following predictive testing for Huntington disease (HD), knowledge of one's carrier status may have consequences on disease onset. Our study aimed to address two questions. First, does knowledge of being a carrier of the pathological HD mutation trigger onset of the disease? Second, does this knowledge influence self-awareness and allow carriers to identify signs and symptoms of disease onset? METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, 75 HD mutation carriers were examined using the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) motor score...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087528/engineering-mycobacteria-for-the-production-of-self-assembling-biopolyesters-displaying-mycobacterial-antigens-for-use-as-tuberculosis-vaccine
#12
Jason W Lee, Natalie A Parlane, Bernd H A Rehm, Bryce M Buddle, Axel Heiser
: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis and still remains one of the world's biggest global health burdens. Recently, engineered polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biobeads produced in both E. coli and Lactococcus lactis displaying mycobacterial antigens were found to induce significant cell mediated immune responses in mice. We observed that such PHA beads contained host cell proteins as impurities which we hypothesized to have the potential to induce immunity...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087471/il-6-promotes-m2-macrophage-polarization-by-modulating-purinergic-signaling-and-regulates-the-lethal-release-of-nitric-oxide-during-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection
#13
Liliana M Sanmarco, Nicolás E Ponce, Laura M Visconti, Natalia Eberhardt, Martin G Theumer, Ángel R Minguez, Maria P Aoki
The production of nitric oxide (NO) is a key defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens but it must be tightly controlled in order to avoid excessive detrimental oxidative stress. In this study we described a novel mechanism through which interleukin (IL)-6 mediates the regulation of NO release induced in response to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Using a murine model of Chagas disease, we found that, in contrast to C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice, IL-6-deficient (IL6KO) mice exhibited a dramatic increase in plasma NO levels concomitant with a significantly higher amount of circulating IL-1β and inflammatory monocytes...
January 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087456/phase-i-trial-of-total-marrow-and-lymphoid-irradiation-transplant-conditioning-in-patients-with-relapsed-refractory-acute-leukemia
#14
Anthony Stein, Joycelynne Palmer, Ni-Chun Tsai, Monzr M Al Malki, Ibrahim Aldoss, Haris Ali, Ahmed Aribi, Len Farol, Chatchada Karanes, Samer Khaled, An Liu, Margaret O'Donnell, Pablo Parker, Anna Pawlowska, Vinod Pullarkat, Eric Radany, Joseph Rosenthal, Firoozeh Sahebi, Amandeep Salhotra, James F Sanchez, Tim Schultheiss, Ricardo Spielberger, Sandra H Thomas, David Snyder, Ryotaro Nakamura, Guido Marcucci, Stephen J Forman, Jeffrey Wong
Current conditioning regimens provide insufficient disease control in relapsed/refractory acute leukemia (AL) patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with active disease. Intensification of chemotherapy and/or total body irradiation (TBI) is not feasible because of excessive toxicity. Total marrow and lymphoid irradiation (TMLI) allows for precise delivery and increased intensity treatment via sculpting radiation to sites with high disease burden or high risk for disease involvement, while sparing normal tissue...
January 10, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087182/multimorbidity-and-acute-heart-failure-in-internal-medicine
#15
F Martínez, L Martínez-Ibañez, G Pichler, A Ruiz, J Redon
AIMS: To analyse the characteristics of hospitalized patients for AHF, with special attention to the clustering of morbidities. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinical records of patients, admitted in Internal Medicine due to AHF, during three years, were reviewed. The characteristics of patients-episodes were registered and key indicators of performance. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to assess the distribution of morbidities. LR models were used to study clinical variables related with death or readmission...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086925/partnerships-in-mental-healthcare-service-delivery-in-low-resource-settings-developing-an-innovative-network-in-rural-nepal
#16
Bibhav Acharya, Duncan Maru, Ryan Schwarz, David Citrin, Jasmine Tenpa, Soniya Hirachan, Madhur Basnet, Poshan Thapa, Sikhar Swar, Scott Halliday, Brandon Kohrt, Nagendra P Luitel, Erick Hung, Bikash Gauchan, Rajeev Pokharel, Maria Ekstrand
BACKGROUND: Mental illnesses are the largest contributors to the global burden of non-communicable diseases. However, there is extremely limited access to high quality, culturally-sensitive, and contextually-appropriate mental healthcare services. This situation persists despite the availability of interventions with proven efficacy to improve patient outcomes. A partnerships network is necessary for successful program adaptation and implementation. PARTNERSHIPS NETWORK: We describe our partnerships network as a case example that addresses challenges in delivering mental healthcare and which can serve as a model for similar settings...
January 13, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086850/the-prevalence-trend-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components-and-risk-factors-in-korean-adults-results-from-the-korean-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2008-2013
#17
Binh Thang Tran, Bo Yoon Jeong, Jin-Kyoung Oh
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in the clinical markers of metabolic syndrome (MS) are associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and some cancers. MS prevalence in Korea increased between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s; however, no data on the recent trends of MS prevalence are available. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of MS, the five components of MS, and the related risk factors in Korean adults by using recent data. METHODS: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2008 and 2013 were used...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086846/stochastic-agent-based-modeling-of-tuberculosis-in-canadian-indigenous-communities
#18
Ashleigh R Tuite, Victor Gallant, Elaine Randell, Annie-Claude Bourgeois, Amy L Greer
BACKGROUND: In Canada, active tuberculosis (TB) disease rates remain disproportionately higher among the Indigenous population, especially among the Inuit in the north. We used mathematical modeling to evaluate how interventions might enhance existing TB control efforts in a region of Nunavut. METHODS: We developed a stochastic, agent-based model of TB transmission that captured the unique household and community structure. Evaluated interventions included: (i) rapid treatment of active cases; (ii) rapid contact tracing; (iii) expanded screening programs for latent TB infection (LTBI); and (iv) reduced household density...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086843/evaluation-of-the-good-start-program-a-healthy-eating-and-physical-activity-intervention-for-maori-and-pacific-islander-children-living-in-queensland-australia
#19
Seema Mihrshahi, Lisa Vaughan, Nicola Fa'avale, Shreenika De Silva Weliange, Inez Manu-Sione, Lisa Schubert
BACKGROUND: Reducing the prevalence of obesity and chronic disease are important priorities. Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Australia have higher rates of obesity and chronic disease than the wider Australian population. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the Good Start program, which aims to improve knowledge, attitudes and practices related to healthy eating and physical activity amongst Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Queensland. METHODS: The intervention was delivered to children aged 6-19 years (N = 375) in schools by multicultural health workers...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086817/cost-of-shingles-population-based-burden-of-disease-analysis-of-herpes-zoster-and-postherpetic-neuralgia
#20
Kevin J Friesen, Dan Chateau, Jamie Falk, Silvia Alessi-Severini, Shawn Bugden
BACKGROUND: Around 30% of the population will experience herpes zoster (HZ), 10% of whom develop postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Together, these illnesses produce a significant economic burden to the healthcare system. METHODS: Administrative healthcare data collected over the period of April 1(st) 1997 to March 31(st) 2014 were analyzed to determine the healthcare system burden of HZ using direct medical costs. Episodes of HZ were identified using international classification of disease (ICD) codes...
January 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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