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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145353/cdc-grand-rounds-improving-medication-adherence-for-chronic-disease-management-innovations-and-opportunities
#1
Andrea B Neiman, Todd Ruppar, Michael Ho, Larry Garber, Paul J Weidle, Yuling Hong, Mary G George, Phoebe G Thorpe
Adherence to prescribed medications is associated with improved clinical outcomes for chronic disease management and reduced mortality from chronic conditions (1). Conversely, nonadherence is associated with higher rates of hospital admissions, suboptimal health outcomes, increased morbidity and mortality, and increased health care costs (2). In the United States, 3.8 billion prescriptions are written annually (3). Approximately one in five new prescriptions are never filled, and among those filled, approximately 50% are taken incorrectly, particularly with regard to timing, dosage, frequency, and duration (4)...
November 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144836/autophagy-and-inflammation
#2
Yu Matsuzawa-Ishimoto, Seungmin Hwang, Ken Cadwell
The cellular degradative pathway of autophagy has a fundamental role in immunity. Here, we review the function of autophagy and autophagy proteins in inflammation. We discuss how the autophagy machinery controls the burden of infectious agents while simultaneously limiting inflammatory pathologies, which often involves processes that are distinct from conventional autophagy. Among the newly emerging processes we describe are LC3-associated phagocytosis and targeting by autophagy proteins, both of which require many of the same proteins that mediate conventional autophagy...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144720/cost-effectiveness-of-gammacore-non-invasive-vagus-nerve-stimulation-for-acute-treatment-of-episodic-cluster-headache
#3
Mkaya Mwamburi, Eric J Liebler, Andrew T Tenaglia
Cluster headache is a debilitating disease characterized by excruciatingly painful attacks that affects 0.15% to 0.4% of the US population. Episodic cluster headache manifests as circadian and circannual seasonal bouts of attacks, each lasting 15 to 180 minutes, with periods of remission. In chronic cluster headache, the attacks occur throughout the year with no periods of remission. While existing treatments are effective for some patients, many patients continue to suffer. There are only 2 FDA-approved medications for episodic cluster headache in the United States, while others, such as high-flow oxygen, are used off-label...
November 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144598/estimating-burden-of-influenza-associated-influenza-like-illness-and-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-at-public-health-care-facilities-in-romania-during-the-2011-12-2015-16-influenza-seasons
#4
Giedre Gefenaite, Adriana Pistol, Rodica Popescu, Odette Popovici, Daniel Ciurea, Christiaan Dolk, Mark Jit, Diane Gross
BACKGROUND: Influenza is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality, but there is limited information on reliable disease burden estimates, especially from middle-income countries in the WHO European Region. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of medically attended influenza-associated influenza-like illness (ILI) and hospitalizations due to severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) presenting to public health care facilities in Romania. PATIENTS/METHODS: Sentinel influenza surveillance data for ILI and SARI from 2011/12-2015/16, including virological data, was used to estimate influenza-associated ILI and SARI incidence/100000 and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)...
November 16, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144534/building-and-strengthening-capacity-for-cardiovascular-research-in-africa-through-technical-training-workshops-a-report-of-the-joint-course-on-health-research-methods-by-the-clinical-research-education-networking-and-consultancy-and-the-ivorian-society-of-cardiology
#5
Bonaventure Suiru Dzekem, Jean Baptiste Kacou, Martin Abanda, Euloge Kramoh, Yves Yapobi, Samuel Kingue, Andre Pascal Kengne, Anastase Dzudie
Africa bears a quarter of the global burden of disease but contributes less than 2% of the global research publications on health, partially due to a lack of expertise and skills to carry out scientific research. We report on a short course on research methods organised by the Clinical Research Education Networking and Consultancy (CRENC) during the third international congress of the Ivorian Cardiac Society (SICARD) in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. Results from the pre- and post-test evaluation during this course showed that African researchers could contribute more to scientific research and publications, provided adequate support and investment is geared towards the identification and training of motivated early-career scientists...
September 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144217/mechanisms-of-naturally-acquired-immunity-to-p-falciparum-and-approaches-to-identify-merozoite-antigen-targets
#6
Julie Healer, Chris Y Chiu, Diana S Hansen
Malaria is one the most serious infectious diseases with over 200 million clinical cases annually. Most cases of the severe disease are caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The blood stage of Plasmodium parasite is entirely responsible for malaria-associated pathology. The population most susceptible to severe malaria are children under the age of 5, with low levels of immunity. It is only after many years of repeated exposure that individuals living in endemic areas develop clinical immunity. This form of protection prevents clinical episodes by substantially reducing parasite burden...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143719/microbial-protein-targets-towards-understanding-and-intervention
#7
Paul W Denny
The rise of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with a lack of industrial focus on antimicrobial discovery over preceding decades, has brought the world to a crisis point. With both human and animal health set to decline due to increased disease burdens caused by near untreatable microbial pathogens, there is an urgent need to identify new antimicrobials. Central to this is the elucidation of new, robustly validated, drug targets. Informed by industrial practice and concerns, the use of both biological and chemical tools in validation is key...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143681/economic-evaluation-of-hcv-testing-approaches-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#8
REVIEW
Jake R Morgan, Maria Servidone, Philippa Easterbrook, Benjamin P Linas
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major public health burden with diverse epidemics worldwide, but at present, only a minority of infected persons have been tested and are aware of their diagnosis. The advent of highly effective direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, which is becoming available at increasingly lower costs in low and middle income countries (LMICs), represents a major opportunity to expand access to testing and treatment. However, there is uncertainty as to the optimal testing approaches and who to prioritize for testing...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143676/the-future-of-viral-hepatitis-testing-innovations-in-testing-technologies-and-approaches
#9
REVIEW
Rosanna W Peeling, Debrah I Boeras, Francesco Marinucci, Philippa Easterbrook
A large burden of undiagnosed hepatitis virus cases remains globally. Despite the 257 million people living with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and 71 million with chronic viraemic HCV infection, most people with hepatitis remain unaware of their infection. Advances in rapid detection technology have created new opportunities for enhancing access to testing and care, as well as monitoring of treatment. This article examines a range of other technological innovations that can be leveraged to provide more affordable and simplified approaches to testing for HBV and HCV infection and monitoring of treatment response...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143498/rationale-and-opportunities-in-estimating-the-economic-burden-of-seasonal-influenza-across-countries-using-a-standardized-who-tool-and-manual
#10
Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk, Surachai Kotirum, Anthony T Newall, Philipp Lambach, Raymond C W Hutubessy
Influenza disease burden is recognized as one of the major public health problems globally. Much less is known about the economic burden of influenza especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A recent systematic review on the economic burden of influenza in LMICs suggests that information is scarce and/or incomplete and that there is a lack of standardized approaches for cost evaluations in LMICs. WHO commissioned and publicized a Manual for estimating the economic burden of seasonal influenza to support the standardization of estimates of the economic burden of seasonal influenza across countries...
November 16, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143216/self-perception-and-determinants-of-color-vision-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Alexander U Brandt, Hanna G Zimmermann, Timm Oberwahrenbrock, Justine Isensee, Thomas Müller, Friedemann Paul
Visual dysfunction is common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of this study was to investigate the perceived impact of visual dysfunction and especially color vision loss on PD patients, and to identify retinal and disease factors associated with color vision. Thirty PD patients and thirty-four healthy controls were included. Participants performed the Farnsworth-Munsell Hue-100 test (FMT). Patients answered the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) assessment, and underwent optical coherence tomography with measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer + inner plexiform layer (GCIPL), and outer nuclear and photoreceptor layer...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142953/absence-of-hiv-associated-nephropathy-among-antiretroviral-naive-adults-with-persistent-albuminuria-in-western-kenya
#12
M K Koech, M O G Owiti, W D Owino-Ong'or, A K Koskei, M J Karoney, V D D'Agati, C M Wyatt
Introduction: HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) has been strongly linked to African ancestry. However, studies have demonstrated wide variability in the prevalence of HIVAN in different sub-Saharan African populations. Accurate assessment of the disease burden is important because antiretroviral therapy (ART) is increasingly available and may prevent progression to end-stage renal disease. Methods: We prospectively screened ART-naïve, afebrile, nonhypertensive, and nondiabetic adults attending a large HIV care program in Western Kenya for the presence of albuminuria (dipstick albumin ≥ trace or urine albumin to creatinine ratio [UACR] ≥ 30 mg/g)...
March 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142802/metastatic-her2-breast-cancer-a-potentially-curable-disease
#13
Lisa Prior, Marvin Lim, Cian Ward, Hannah Featherstone, Hazel Murray, Clare D'Arcy, John Crown, Giuseppe Gullo
The advent of trastuzumab and other human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-directed therapies has revolutionized the treatment of metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer, leading to prolonged survival and appreciable clinical benefit for a substantial subset of patients. Previously, in a retrospective study at our institution, we observed that nearly 10% of patients achieved a durable complete remission (DCR) following a combination of HER2-directed therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy. We are currently expanding this study to include patients who were treated since the initial introduction of trastuzumab...
September 5, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142757/correlates-of-maternal-mortality-in-developing-countries-an-ecological-study-in-82-countries
#14
Tadele Girum, Abebaw Wasie
Background: Maternal mortality is a major public health issue in developing countries due to its shocking magnitude and lower declining pattern. With appropriate strategy and intensive implementation programs, some countries have made remarkable progress, however in developing countries where 99% of maternal death is occurring; little or no progress has been made. Identifying determinants and designing intervention will have important role to overcome the problem. Therefore this study aimed to identify correlates of maternal mortality in developing countries...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142748/intraoperative-prediction-of-the-two-axillary-lymph-node-macrometastases-threshold-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-using-a-one-step-nucleic-acid-cytokeratin-19-amplification-assay
#15
Victoria Fung, Stan Kohlhardt, Patricia Vergani, Gregory J Zardin, Norman R Williams
The aim of the present study was to assess the sensitivity, specificity and practicality of using a one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay during breast cancer staging surgery to predict and discriminate between at least 2 involved nodes and more than 2 involved nodes and facilitate the decision to provide axillary conservation in the presence of a low total axillary node tumour burden. A total of 700 consecutive patients, not treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, received intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) analysis using OSNA for cT1-T3 cN0 invasive breast cancer...
November 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142479/medication-beliefs-predict-medication-adherence-in-ambulatory-patients-with-decompensated-cirrhosis
#16
Kelly L Hayward, Patricia C Valery, Jennifer H Martin, Antara Karmakar, Preya J Patel, Leigh U Horsfall, Caroline J Tallis, Katherine A Stuart, Penny L Wright, David D Smith, Katharine M Irvine, Elizabeth E Powell, W Neil Cottrell
AIM: To investigate the impact of medication beliefs, illness perceptions and quality of life on medication adherence in people with decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS: One hundred adults with decompensated cirrhosis completed a structured questionnaire when they attended for routine outpatient hepatology review. Measures of self-reported medication adherence (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale), beliefs surrounding medications (Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire), perceptions of illness and medicines (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire), and quality of life (Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire) were examined...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142086/shortage-of-generic-neurologic-therapeutics-an-escalating-threat-to-patient-care
#17
Jacklyn O Omorodion, Rami M Algahtani, Mark S Zocchi, Erin R Fox, Jesse M Pines, Henry J Kaminski
OBJECTIVE: To assess longitudinal trends in shortages of generic drugs used for neurologic conditions over a 15-year period in the United States. METHODS: Drug shortage data from the University of Utah Drug Information Service (UUDIS) from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed. Medications were included that were likely to be prescribed by a neurologist to treat a primary neurologic condition or critical for care of a patient with a neurologic condition. Trends in shortage length were assessed using standard descriptive statistics...
November 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142034/cumulative-burden-of-glucocorticoid-related-adverse-events-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-findings-from-a-12-year-longitudinal-study
#18
Hung-Lin Chen, Li-Jiuan Shen, Ping-Ning Hsu, Chieh-Yu Shen, Susan A Hall, Fei-Yuan Hsiao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this population-based study is to examine the adverse events (AE) associated with longitudinal systemic glucocorticoid (GC) use among an ethnic Chinese systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cohort. METHODS: Our study subjects were patients with newly diagnosed SLE aged 18 and older who received at least 1 prescription of systemic GC between 2001 and 2012 from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The earliest prescription date of systemic GC for each subject was defined as the index date...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142003/disparities-in-environmental-exposures-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-diabetes-risk-in-vulnerable-populations
#19
Daniel Ruiz, Marisol Becerra, Jyotsna S Jagai, Kerry Ard, Robert M Sargis
Burgeoning epidemiological, animal, and cellular data link environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to metabolic dysfunction. Disproportionate exposure to diabetes-associated EDCs may be an underappreciated contributor to disparities in metabolic disease risk. The burden of diabetes is not uniformly borne by American society; rather, this disease disproportionately affects certain populations, including African Americans, Latinos, and low-income individuals. The purpose of this study was to review the evidence linking unequal exposures to EDCs with racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic diabetes disparities in the U...
November 15, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141971/role-of-microrna-regulation-in-obesity-associated-breast-cancer-nutritional-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Ravi Kasiappan, Dheeran Rajarajan
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed in women, and the incidence of breast cancer is increasing every year. Obesity has been identified as one of the major risk factors for breast cancer progression. The mechanisms by which obesity contributes to breast cancer development is not yet understood; however, there are a few mechanisms counted as potential producers of breast cancer in obesity, including insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and sex hormones...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
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