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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913423/bronchodilatory-effect-of-deep-inspiration-in-freshly-isolated-sheep-lungs
#1
William D Wong, Lu Wang, Peter D Paré, Chun Y Seow
Taking a big breath is known to reverse bronchoconstriction induced by bronchochallenge in healthy subjects; this bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration (DI) is diminished in asthmatics. The mechanism underlying the DI effect is not clear. Observations from experiments using isolated airway smooth muscle (ASM) preparations and airway segments suggest that straining of ASM due to DI could lead to bronchodilation, possibly due to strain-induced reduction in ASM contractility. However, factors external to the lung cannot be excluded as potential causes for the DI effect...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900499/cardiac-parasympathetic-dysfunction-in-the-early-phase-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Masashi Suzuki, Tomohiko Nakamura, Masaaki Hirayama, Miki Ueda, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
Cardiac parasympathetic function is strongly affected by aging. Although sympathetic dysfunction has been well documented in Parkinson's disease (PD), cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to clarify the development of cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction in the early phase of PD and to explore the age-corrected correlation between cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction and cardiac sympathetic dysfunction. We reviewed 25 healthy controls and 56 patients with idiopathic PD of Hoehn and Yahr stages I-III...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899530/deep-breathing-improves-end-tidal-carbon-dioxide-monitoring-of-an-oxygen-nasal-cannula-based-capnometry-device-in-subjects-extubated-after-abdominal-surgery
#3
Shunsuke Takaki, Kenji Mizutani, Moeka Fukuchi, Tasuku Yoshida, Masahumi Idei, Yuko Matsuda, Yoshikazu Yamaguchi, Tetsuya Miyashita, Takeshi Nomura, Osamu Yamaguchi, Takahisa Goto
BACKGROUND: Capnometry detects hypoventilation earlier than pulse oximetry while supplemental oxygen is being administered. We compared the end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2 ) measured using a newly developed oxygen nasal cannula with a CO2-sampling port and the PaCO2 in extubated subjects after abdominal surgery. We also investigated whether the difference between PaCO2 and PETCO2 is affected by resting, by spontaneous breathing with the mouth consciously closed, and by deep breathing with the mouth closed...
November 29, 2016: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886431/music-interventions-for-dental-anxiety
#4
Joke Bradt, Aaron Teague
Anxiety is a significant issue in the dental care of adults and children. Dental anxiety often leads to avoidance of dental care which may result in significant deterioration of oral and dental health. Nonpharmacological anxiety management interventions such as music listening are increasingly used in dental care. Although efficacy for music's anxiolytic effects has been established for pre-operative anxiety, findings regarding the use of music listening for dental anxiety are inconclusive, especially for children...
November 25, 2016: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873398/from-the-coliseum-to-the-convention-centre-a-reflection-on-the-current-state-of-medical-education-conferences-and-conference-goers
#5
Rebecca D Blanchard, Deborah L Engle, Lisa D Howley, Shari A Whicker, Alisa Nagler
The advancement of knowledge and development of policy in the field of medical education require critical academic discourse among the most intelligent medical educators; and critical academic discourse requires coffee. In this essay, we reflect on the state of professional development conferences in the field of medical education and the rituals that surround their success. Having begun in ancient Greece, symposia were ripe with debauchery. Today, sedated by the light brown walls of hotel conference centres, symposia are more serious endeavours, engaging men and women in the sometimes turbulent waters of epistemological debate...
December 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864041/apnea-hypopnea-index-prediction-through-an-assessment-of-autonomic-influence-on-heart-rate-in-wakefulness
#6
Da Woon Jung, Yu Jin Lee, Do-Un Jeong, Kwang Suk Park
With the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea, the issue of developing a practical tool for obstructive sleep apnea screening has been raised. Conventional obstructive sleep apnea screening tools are limited in their ability to help clinicians make rational decisions due to their inability to predict the apnea-hypopnea index. Our study aimed to develop a new prediction model that can provide a reliable apnea-hypopnea index value during wakefulness. We hypothesized that patients with more severe obstructive sleep apnea would exhibit more attenuated waking vagal tone, which may result in lower effectiveness in decreasing heart rate as a response to deep inspiration breath-holding...
November 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859614/a-comparison-of-navigators-snap-shot-field-monitoring-and-probe-based-field-model-training-for-correcting-b0-induced-artifacts-in-t2-weighted-images-at-7%C3%A2-t
#7
Joep Wezel, Vincent O Boer, Tijl A van der Velden, Andrew G Webb, Dennis W J Klomp, Maarten J Versluis, Matthias J P van Osch, Anders Garpebring
PURPOSE: To compare methods for estimating B0 maps used in retrospective correction of high-resolution anatomical images at ultra-high field strength. The B0 maps were obtained using three methods: (1) 1D navigators and coil sensitivities, (2) field probe (FP) data and a low-order spherical harmonics model, and (3) FP data and a training-based model. METHODS: Data from nine subjects were acquired while they performed activities inducing B0 field fluctuations. Estimated B0 fields were compared with reference data, and the reductions of artifacts were compared in corrected T2* images...
November 17, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855687/diagnostic-accuracy-of-methacholine-challenge-tests-assessing-airway-hyperreactivity-in-asthmatic-patients-a-multifunctional-approach
#8
Richard Kraemer, Hans-Jürgen Smith, Thomas Sigrist, Gabi Giger, Roland Keller, Martin Frey
BACKGROUND: There are few studies comparing diagnostic accuracy of different lung function parameters evaluating dose-response characteristics of methacholine (MCH) challenge tests (MCT) as quantitative outcome of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in asthmatic patients. The aim of this retrospectively analysis of our database (Clinic Barmelweid, Switzerland) was, to assess diagnostic accuracy of several lung function parameters quantitating AHR by dose-response characteristics. METHODS: Changes in effective specific airway conductance (sGeff) as estimate of the degree of bronchial obstruction were compared with concomitantly measured forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced expiratory flows at 50% forced vital capacity (FEF50)...
November 17, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855141/announcement-national-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-awareness-month-november-2016
#9
(no author information available yet)
Approximately 15.7 million U.S. adults have received a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema (1). However, many more adults with symptoms of COPD, including frequent coughing, shortness of breath, excess phlegm or sputum production, wheezing, or difficulty taking a deep breath, might not be aware that they have COPD, or they may not be receiving treatment for COPD because they have never received a diagnosis. Geographic variations in the availability of primary care physicians and COPD specialists for the U...
November 18, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853945/endoscopic-closure-of-large-septal-perforations-with-bilateral-hadad-bassagasteguy-flaps
#10
Eduardo Morera Serna, Luis Ferrán de la Cierva, Meritxell Tomás Fernández, Santiago Quer Canut, Jacoba Alba Mesquida, Francisco José García Purriños
: Surgical closure of nasal septal perforations is one of the most challenging procedures in nasal surgery. Defects greater than 2 cm are especially difficult to repair with the traditional approaches due to the challenges of mobilizing enough mucosa to close big gaps, and avoiding airway stenosis in the process. We present a new technique to endoscopically close major septal perforations using bilateral Hadad-Bassagasteguy flaps. Four consecutive patients with septal perforations greater than 2 cm were operated at our institution...
November 16, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853412/significance-of-exhaled-breath-test-in-clinical-diagnosis-a-special-focus-on-the-detection-of-diabetes-mellitus
#11
REVIEW
Souvik Das, Saurabh Pal, Madhuchhanda Mitra
Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from human exhaled breath can provide deep insight into the status of various biochemical processes in the human body. VOCs can serve as potential biomarkers of physiological and pathophysiological conditions related to several diseases. Breath VOC analysis, a noninvasive and quick biomonitoring approach, also has potential for the early detection and progress monitoring of several diseases. This paper gives an overview of the major VOCs present in human exhaled breath, possible biochemical pathways of breath VOC generation, diagnostic importance of their analysis, and analytical techniques used in the breath test...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843762/dangers-of-flying-high-and-diving-low-an-unusual-case-of-dyspnea
#12
Poornima Ramadas, Rumon Chakravarty, Prathik Krishnan, Anupa Nadkarni
Giant bullae are bullae that occupy at least 30 percent of a hemi thorax. This condition can rarely be idiopathic and not usually suspected in young patients with no risk factors. We describe a case of a giant solitary pulmonary bulla in a healthy young female with no known risk factors. 23-year-old female presented to the Emergency department with dyspnea and pleuritic right sided chest pain. She started experiencing these symptoms when she was on a 7-h flight and later experienced similar symptoms when she went scuba diving...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836795/ultrasound%C3%A2-for%C3%A2-patients%C3%A2-in-a-high-hiv-tb-prevalence-setting-a%C3%A2-needs-assessment-and-review-of-focused-applications-for-sub-saharan-africa
#13
REVIEW
Tom Heller, Eric A Mtemang'ombe, Michaëla A M Huson, Charlotte C Heuvelings, Sabine Bélard, Saskia Janssen, Sam Phiri, Martin P Grobusch
Ultrasound is increasingly used in point-of-care applications and has great potential to support the diagnosis of infectious diseases, especially in resource-limited settings. We performed a cross-sectional study including 100 Malawian patients with a clinical indication for ultrasound and reviewed the literature on point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) in Sub-Saharan Africa to establish its applicability, most frequent indications, findings, and implications for treatment, and therefore relevance in POCUS curricula, with a main focus on infectious diseases...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831484/dynamic-respiratory-tortuosity-of-the-vertebral-artery-ostium
#14
Xiaobin Tang, Feng Tang, Chang Hu, Qian Wang, Whitney Long, Lei Li
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of dynamic respiratory tortuosity (DRT) of the vertebral artery ostium (VAO) as well as to evaluate its correlation with in-stent restenosis (ISR) and stent fracture. METHODS: From March 2012 to June 2015, 178 consecutive patients (mean age 65.2±5.8 years; 124 men) with symptoms of atherosclerotic vertebrobasilar ischemia underwent angiography prior to stent implantation in the vertebral, subclavian, and/or carotid arteries...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830949/motor-control-exercises-of-the-lumbar-pelvic-region-improve-respiratory-function-in-obese-men-a-pilot-study
#15
Emanuela Bezzoli, Dianne Andreotti, Lucia Pianta, Martina Mascheroni, Lorena Piccinno, Luca Puricelli, Veronica Cimolin, Alberto Salvadori, Franco Codecasa, Paolo Capodaglio
PURPOSE: Obese subjects have decreased pulmonary function. The hypothesis of our study was that poor coordination of the lumbar-pelvic musculature secondary to obesity may hinder the synergic activation of the respiratory muscles. The aim of the paper was to evaluate whether specific motor control exercises of the lumbar-pelvic musculature were able to improve respiratory function. METHOD: Twenty obese male patients underwent a rehabilitation program including adapted physical activity and respiratory physiotherapy...
November 10, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821134/asphyxia-due-to-laryngeal-spasm-as-a-severe-complication-of-awake-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-s-disease-a-case-report
#16
Kajetan L von Eckardstein, Friederike Sixel-Döring, Stephan Kazmaier, Claudia Trenkwalder, Jason M Hoover, Veit Rohde
BACKGROUND: In accordance with German neurosurgical and neurological consensus recommendations, lead placements for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are usually performed with the patient awake and in "medication off" state. This allows for optimal lead position adjustment according to the clinical response to intraoperative test stimulation. However, exacerbation of Parkinsonian symptoms after withdrawal of dopaminergic medication may endanger the patient by inducing severe "off" state motor phenomena...
November 8, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790425/autonomic-reactivity-differs-in-young-adults-classified-using-revised-indian-and-who-guidelines-for-obesity
#17
Arohi Jain, Nikhilesh Singh, Richa Gupta
INTRODUCTION: Many studies have reported alteration in autonomic activity in obesity. However, there is paucity of literature comparing autonomic reactivity using different guidelines of obesity. As Indian guidelines were revised recently and WHO states that countries should use all categories of BMI for reporting purposes, it is prudent to compare physiological state in different categories of BMI. AIM: The aim of the present study was to compare the autonomic alteration in young adults using revised Indian and WHO guidelines for obesity...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788421/profile-of-autonomic-dysfunctions-in-patients-with-primary-brain-tumor-and-possible-autoimmunity
#18
Magdalena Koszewicz, Slawomir Michalak, Malgorzata Bilinska, Slawomir Budrewicz, Mikolaj Zaborowski, Krzysztof Slotwinski, Ryszard Podemski, Maria Ejma
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral lesion due to different neurological conditions could be complicated by autonomic dysfunction, reported in the literature as a sympathetic hyperactivity. The mechanisms of dysautonomia still remains partial. The aim of the study was to assess the profile of autonomic dysfunction in patient with primary brain tumors, with attempt to estimate the additional factors in pathogenesis of dysautonomia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Neurological examinations, the Low's autonomic disorder questionnaire, electrophysiological autonomic tests (Heart Rate Variability test at rest and during deep breathing, spectral analysis of R-R intervals, sympathetic skin response test), studies of peripheral nerves, blood sampling collection for antibodies were done in 33 patients with recognized primary brain tumors...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784326/treatment-planning-and-evaluation-of-gated-radiotherapy-in-left-sided-breast-cancer-patients-using-the-catalyst-tm-sentinel-tm-system-for-deep-inspiration-breath-hold-dibh
#19
S Schönecker, F Walter, P Freislederer, C Marisch, H Scheithauer, N Harbeck, S Corradini, C Belka
BACKGROUND: There is a potential for adverse cardiovascular effects in long-term breast cancer survivors following adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). For this purpose, the deep inspiration breath-hold technique (DIBH) has been introduced into clinical practice, to maximally reduce the radiation dose to the heart. However, there are a variety of DIBH delivery techniques, patient positioning and visual patient feedback mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the application of radiotherapy in DIBH using the Catalyst(TM)/Sentinel(TM) system, with a special emphasis on treatment planning and dosimetric plan comparison in free breathing (FB) and DIBH...
October 26, 2016: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772753/antioxidant-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-for-the-identification-of-prodromal-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Jonica Campolo, Renata De Maria, Lorena Cozzi, Marina Parolini, Stefano Bernardi, Paola Proserpio, Lino Nobili, Giorgio Gelosa, Immacolata Piccolo, Elio C Agostoni, Maria G Trivella, Paolo Marraccini
OBJECTIVES: We explored the role of oxidative stress and inflammatory molecules as potential Parkinson (PD) biomarkers and correlated biological with non-motor abnormalities (olfactory impairment and dysautonomia), in patients with idiopathic REM behavior disorder (iRBD) (prodromal PD) and established PD. METHODS: We recruited 11 iRBD and 15 patients with idiopathic PD (Hohen&Yahr 1-3, on L-DOPA and dopamine agonists combination therapy) and 12 age- and sex-matched controls (CTRL)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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