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Autonomic nervous system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938251/critical-illness-related-corticosteroid-insufficiency-circi-a-narrative-review-from-a-multispecialty-task-force-of-the-society-of-critical-care-medicine-sccm-and-the-european-society-of-intensive-care-medicine-esicm
#1
Djillali Annane, Stephen M Pastores, Wiebke Arlt, Robert A Balk, Albertus Beishuizen, Josef Briegel, Joseph Carcillo, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Mark S Cooper, Paul E Marik, Gianfranco Umberto Meduri, Keith M Olsen, Bram Rochwerg, Sophia C Rodgers, James A Russell, Greet Van den Berghe
OBJECTIVE: To provide a narrative review of the latest concepts and understanding of the pathophysiology of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI). PARTICIPANTS: A multi-specialty task force of international experts in critical care medicine and endocrinology and members of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews...
September 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937242/pupillary-light-reflex-is-altered-in-adolescent-depression
#2
A Mestanikova, I Ondrejka, M Mestanik, D Cesnekova, Z Visnovcova, I Bujnakova, M Oppa, A Calkovska, I Tonhajzerova
Major depressive disorder is associated with abnormal autonomic regulation which could be noninvasively studied using pupillometry. However, the studies in adolescent patients are rare. Therefore, we aimed to study the pupillary light reflex (PLR), which could provide novel important information about dynamic balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system in adolescent patients suffering from major depression. We have examined 25 depressive adolescent girls (age 15.2+/-0.3 year) prior to pharmacotherapy and 25 age/gender-matched healthy subjects...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937230/vagal-immune-interactions-involved-in-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway
#3
I Zila, D Mokra, J Kopincova, M Kolomaznik, M Javorka, A Calkovska
Inflammation and other immune responses are involved in the variety of diseases and disorders. The acute response to endotoxemia includes activation of innate immune mechanisms as well as changes in autonomic nervous activity. The autonomic nervous system and the inflammatory response are intimately linked and sympathetic and vagal nerves are thought to have anti-inflammation functions. The basic functional circuit between vagus nerve and inflammatory response was identified and the neuroimmunomodulation loop was called cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936910/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-a-focus-on-treatments-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#4
Lucinda A Harris, Noemi Baffy
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain and disordered bowel habits, is one of the most common functional bowel disorders. IBS is a substantial burden on both patient health-related quality of life and health care costs. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms have been postulated for the occurrence of IBS, including altered gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, changes in gut permeability, immune activation, gut-brain dysregulation, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and changes in the gut microbiota...
September 22, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936909/predictors-of-chronic-pain-following-total-knee-replacement-in-females-and-males-an-exploratory-study
#5
Tanja Bossmann, Torsten Brauner, Scott Wearing, Thomas Horstmann
AIM: This study explored whether nociceptive (NS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation and psychological distress were predictive of pain 6 months after primary total knee replacement. PATIENTS & METHODS: ANS and NS regulation, psychological distress and self-reported pain, stiffness and function were evaluated preoperatively in 56 patients. Pain severity measured 6 months after surgery was used as the primary outcome in an analysis of covariance model...
September 22, 2017: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936179/seasonal-variations-in-heart-rate-variability-as-an-indicator-of-stress-in-free-ranging-pregnant-przewalski-s-horses-e-ferus-przewalskii-within-the-hortob%C3%A3-gy-national-park-in-hungary
#6
Friederike Pohlin, Kristin Brabender, Gerhard Fluch, Gabrielle Stalder, Thierry Petit, Chris Walzer
Background: Ecosystems with seasonal fluctuations in climate and food availability present physiological challenges to resident mammals and may cause "stress." The two predominant physiological responses to stressors are (1) the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and (2) the modulation of the autonomic nervous system. To date, the primary indicator for "stress" in wildlife- and zoo animal research are glucocorticoid levels. By measuring the autonomic regulation of cardiac activity, particularly the vagal tone, heart rate variability (HRV) is presently emerging as a suitable indicator of "stress" in farm- and domestic animal research...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932132/central-sensitization-based-classification-for-temporomandibular-disorders-a-pathogenetic-hypothesis
#7
REVIEW
Annalisa Monaco, Ruggero Cattaneo, Maria Chiara Marci, Davide Pietropaoli, Eleonora Ortu
Dysregulation of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and central pain pathways in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is a growing evidence. Authors include some forms of TMD among central sensitization syndromes (CSS), a group of pathologies characterized by central morphofunctional alterations. Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI) is useful for clinical diagnosis. Clinical examination and CSI cannot identify the central site(s) affected in these diseases. Ultralow frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ULFTENS) is extensively used in TMD and in dental clinical practice, because of its effects on descending pain modulation pathways...
2017: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930822/five-years-experience-on-3-4-diaminopyridine-phosphate-in-lambert-eaton-syndrome-case-reports
#8
Simona Portaro, Teresa Brizzi, Stefano Sinicropi, Alberto Cacciola, Maria Cristina De Cola, Alessia Bramanti, Demetrio Milardi, Antonino Lupica, Placido Bramanti, Antonio Toscano, Carmelo Rodolico
RATIONALE: To report our experience on 7 patients (4 males and 3 females), affected by nonparaneoplastic Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, treated with 3,4-diaminopyridine phosphate (3,4-DAPP) either alone or in combination with other immunosuppressants or steroids. PATIENT CONCERNS: Patients have been evaluated at specific timepoints (ie, baseline and last 5 year follow-up), with neurological examination, autoantibodies against presynaptic voltage-gated Cav2.1 (P/Q type) calcium ion channel (VGCC) dosage, neurophysiological evaluation focusing on the increased amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (cMAP) after maximum voluntary effort, quantitative myasthenia gravis (QMG) and activities of daily living scales, and autonomic nervous system involvement evaluation...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926794/depression-recognition-according-to-heart-rate-variability-using-bayesian-networks
#9
Danni Kuang, Rongqian Yang, Xiuwen Chen, Guohui Lao, Fengchun Wu, Xiong Huang, Ruixue Lv, Lei Zhang, Chuanxu Song, Shanxing Ou
BACKGROUND: Doctors mainly use scale tests and subjective judgment in the clinical diagnosis of depression. Researches have demonstrated that depression is associated with the dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), where its modulation can be evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV). Depression patients have lower HRV than healthy subjects. Therefore, HRV may be used to distinguish depression patients from healthy people. METHODS: HRV signals were collected from 76 female subjects composed of 38 depression patients and 38 healthy people...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926419/peduncular-hallucinosis-and-autonomic-dysfunction-in-anti-aquaporin-4-antibody-syndrome
#10
Renee Berry, Peter K Panegyres
Neuromyelitis optica is a rare, severe inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, previously described as affecting only the optic nerve and spinal cord. Since the discovery of a highly specific autoantibody, anti-aquaporin-4, lesions are now recognized outside these regions. We report a man with severe, debilitating symptoms resulting from a symptomatic lesion within the diencephalon, manifesting with abnormal circadian rhythms, autonomic dysfunction, behavioral disturbance, and complex visual hallucinations...
September 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923065/the-heat-shock-response-in-neurons-and-astroglia-and-its-role-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Rebecca San Gil, Lezanne Ooi, Justin J Yerbury, Heath Ecroyd
Protein inclusions are a predominant molecular pathology found in numerous neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease. Protein inclusions form in discrete areas of the brain characteristic to the type of neurodegenerative disease, and coincide with the death of neurons in that region (e.g. spinal cord motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). This suggests that the process of protein misfolding leading to inclusion formation is neurotoxic, and that cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms that maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis) can, at times, be insufficient to prevent protein inclusion formation in the central nervous system...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922112/effects-of-flexible-dry-electrode-design-on-electrodermal-activity-stimulus-response-detection
#12
Peter A Haddad, Amir Servati, Saeid Soltanian, Frank Ko, Peyman Servati
OBJECTIVE: The focus of this research is to evaluate the effects of design parameters including surface area, distance between and geometry of dry flexible electrodes on electrodermal activity (EDA) stimulus response detection. METHODS: EDA is a result of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) being stimulated, which causes sweat and changes the electrical characteristics of the skin. Standard silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) EDA electrodes are rigid and lack conformability in contact with skin...
September 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918243/homeostatic-systems-biocybernetics-and-autonomic-neuroscience
#13
REVIEW
David S Goldstein, Irwin J Kopin
In this review we describe a series of major concepts introduced during the past 150years that have contributed to our current understanding about how physiological processes required for well-being and survival are regulated. One can theorize that hierarchical networks involving input-output relationships continuously orchestrate and learn adaptive patterns of observable behaviors, cognition, memory, mood, and autonomic systems. Taken together, these networks function as "good regulators" determining levels of internal variables and act as if there were homeostatic comparators ("homeostats")...
September 5, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917022/epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-management-of-takotsubo-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Shams Y-Hassan, Per Tornvall
Takotsubo syndrome is a recently recognized acute cardiac disease entity with a clinical presentation resembling that of an acute coronary syndrome. The typical takotsubo syndrome patient has a unique circumferential left (bi-) ventricular contraction abnormality profile that extends beyond a coronary artery supply territory and appears to follow the anatomical cardiac sympathetic innervation. The syndrome predominantly affects postmenopausal women and is often preceded by emotional or physical stress. Patients with predisposing factors such as malignancy and other chronic comorbidities are more prone to suffer from takotsubo syndrome...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916761/chronic-interfacing-with-the-autonomic-nervous-system-using-carbon-nanotube-cnt-yarn-electrodes
#15
Grant A McCallum, Xiaohong Sui, Chen Qiu, Joseph Marmerstein, Yang Zheng, Thomas E Eggers, Chuangang Hu, Liming Dai, Dominique M Durand
The ability to reliably and safely communicate chronically with small diameter (100-300 µm) autonomic nerves could have a significant impact in fundamental biomedical research and clinical applications. However, this ability has remained elusive with existing neural interface technologies. Here we show a new chronic nerve interface using highly flexible materials with axon-like dimensions. The interface was implemented with carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn electrodes to chronically record neural activity from two separate autonomic nerves: the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916152/effects-of-inspiratory-muscle-training-on-cardiovascular-autonomic-control-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Raphael Martins de Abreu, Patrícia Rehder-Santos, Vinicius Minatel, Gabriela Lopes Dos Santos, Aparecida Maria Catai
PURPOSE: To carry out a systematic review to determine if inspiratory muscle training (IMT) promotes changes in cardiovascular autonomic responses in humans. METHODS: The methodology followed the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic review analysis. MEDLINE, PEDro, SCOPUS and PubMed electronic databases were searched from the inception to March 2017. The quality assessment was performed using a PEDro scale. The articles were included if: (1) primary objective was related to the effects of IMT on the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system, and (2) randomized clinical trials and quasi-experimental studies...
September 7, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915957/modulation-of-heart-rate-and-heart-rate-variability-by-n-3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-speculation-on-mechanism-s
#17
Merritt L Drewery, Steven B Spedale, Carol J Lammi-Keefe
Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) are valuable markers of health. Although the underlying mechanism(s) are controversial, it is well documented that n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake improves HR and HRV in various populations. Autonomic modulation and/or alterations in cardiac electrophysiology are commonly cited as potential mechanisms responsible for these effects. This article reviews existing evidence for each and explores a separate mechanism which has not received much attention but has scientific merit...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915328/cns-targets-of-adipokines
#18
Craig Beall, Lydia Hanna, Kate L J Ellacott
Our understanding of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ has been transformed over the last 20 years. During this time, a number of adipocyte-derived factors or adipokines have been identified. This article will review evidence for how adipokines acting via the central nervous system (CNS) regulate normal physiology and disease pathology. The reported CNS-mediated effects of adipokines are varied and include the regulation of energy homeostasis, autonomic nervous system activity, the reproductive axis, neurodevelopment, cardiovascular function, and cognition...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913358/central-modulation-of-neuroinflammation-by-neuropeptides-and-energy-sensing-hormones-during-obesity
#19
REVIEW
Roger Maldonado-Ruiz, Lizeth Fuentes-Mera, Alberto Camacho
Central nervous system (CNS) senses energy homeostasis by integrating both peripheral and autonomic signals and responding to them by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides release. Although it is previously considered an immunologically privileged organ, we now know that this is not so. Cells belonging to the immune system, such as B and T lymphocytes, can be recruited into the CNS to face damage or infection, in addition to possessing resident immunological cells, called microglia. In this way, positive energy balance during obesity promotes an inflammatory state in the CNS...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912251/neuro-immune-interaction-and-the-regulation-of-intestinal-immune-homeostasis
#20
Simon Verheijden, Guy E Boeckxstaens
Many essential gastrointestinal functions, including motility, secretion and blood flow are regulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), both through intrinsic enteric neurons and extrinsic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) innervation. Recently identified neuro-immune mechanisms, in particular the interplay between enteric neurons and muscularis macrophages, are now considered to be essential for fine-tuning peristalsis. These findings shed new light on how intestinal immune cells can support enteric nervous function...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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