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Autonomic nervous system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320181/ataxic-form-of-autosomal-recessive-pex10-related-peroxisome-biogenesis-disorders-with-a-novel-compound-heterozygous-gene-mutation-and-characteristic-clinical-phenotype
#1
Toru Yamashita, Jun Mitsui, Nobuyuki Shimozawa, Shigeo Takashima, Hiroshi Umemura, Kota Sato, Mami Takemoto, Nozomi Hishikawa, Yasuyuki Ohta, Takashi Matsukawa, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Jun Yoshimura, Koichiro Doi, Shinichi Morishita, Shoji Tsuji, Koji Abe
Peroxisome biogenesis factor 10 (PEX10) is involved in the import of peroxisomal matrix proteins, and the mutation of this gene causes 3 subtypes of peroxisome biogenesis disorders, namely Zellweger syndrome (severe), neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (moderate) and an ataxic form (mild). Here, we report 3 siblings of the ataxic form with cerebellar ataxia, mild mental retardation, and 3 additional characteristic features: mydriasis, hyperreflexia and involuntary head movement. All 3 siblings are compound heterozygous for a previously reported mutation, c...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319849/the-association-between-three-major-physiological-stress-systems-and-oxidative-dna-and-lipid-damage
#2
Catherine N Black, Mariska Bot, Dóra Révész, Peter G Scheffer, Brenda Penninx
BACKGROUND: Increased activity of the three major physiological stress systems (immune-inflammatory system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis [HPA-axis], and autonomic nervous system [ANS]) is part of the pathophysiology of various somatic and psychiatric diseases. Oxidative damage is a key mechanism in both ageing and disease. Elucidating the relationship between these stress systems and oxidative damage would contribute to the understanding of the role of physiological stress in disease...
March 6, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303426/the-mechanisms-of-air-pollution-and-particulate-matter-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Antonella Fiordelisi, Prisco Piscitelli, Bruno Trimarco, Enrico Coscioni, Guido Iaccarino, Daniela Sorriento
Clinical and epidemiological studies demonstrate that short- and long-term exposure to air pollution increases mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Given the increased industrialization and the increased sources of pollutants (i.e., cars exhaust emissions, cigarette smoke, industry emissions, burning of fossil fuels, incineration of garbage), air pollution has become a key public health issue to solve. Among pollutants, the particulate matter (PM) is a mixture of solid and liquid particles which differently affects human health depending on their size (i...
March 16, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303275/modeling-pathological-hemodynamic-responses-to-the-valsalva-maneuver
#4
Leszek Pstras, Karl Thomaseth, Jacek Waniewski, Italo Balzani, Federico Bellavere
The Valsalva maneuver consisting in a forced expiration against closed airways is one of the most popular clinical tests of the autonomic nervous system function. When properly performed by a healthy subject, it features four characteristic phases of arterial blood pressure and heart rate variations, based on the magnitude of which the autonomic function may be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. In patients with some disorders or in healthy patients subject to specific conditions, the pattern of blood pressure and heart rate changes during the execution of the Valsalva maneuver may, however, differ from the typical sinusoidal-like pattern...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301586/influence-of-early-neurological-complications-on-clinical-outcome-following-lung-transplant
#5
Josep Gamez, Maria Salvado, Alejandro Martinez-de La Ossa, Maria Deu, Laura Romero, Antonio Roman, Judith Sacanell, Cesar Laborda, Isabel Rochera, Miriam Nadal, Francesc Carmona, Estevo Santamarina, Nuria Raguer, Merce Canela, Joan Solé
BACKGROUND: Neurological complications after lung transplantation are common. The full spectrum of neurological complications and their impact on clinical outcomes has not been extensively studied. METHODS: We investigated the neurological incidence of complications, categorized according to whether they affected the central, peripheral or autonomic nervous systems, in a series of 109 patients undergoing lung transplantation at our center between January 1 2013 and December 31 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296784/simultaneous-degeneration-of-myenteric-plexuses-and-pelvic-parasympathetic-colonic-nerve-in-slow-transit-constipation-a-case-report
#6
Zhiqiang Cheng, Kun Zhao, Dongsong Bi
RATIONALE: Slow transit constipation (STC) is a common disease of which the etiology is still not clear. Multiple hypotheses have been proposed to explain STC, including autonomic neuropathy, disorders of the enteric nervous system and so forth. Morphological abnormalities of the enteric nerves of the colon in patients with STC have been extensively reported, while there have been no morphological reports focusing on extrinsic extramural fibers from the pelvic plexus to the distal colon (i...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296268/feasibility-and-efficacy-of-intra-arterial-administration-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-an-animal-model-of-double-toxin-induced-multiple-system-atrophy
#7
Ha Na Kim, Dong Yeol Kim, Se Hee Oh, Hyung Sook Kim, Kyung Suk Kim, Phil Hyu Lee
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disease of the central and autonomic nervous system. Because no drug treatment consistently benefits MSA patients, neuroprotective strategy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has a lot of concern for the management of MSA. In this study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of intra-arterial administration of MSCs via internal carotid artery (ICA) in an animal model of MSA. The study was composed of feasibility test using a ×10 and ×50 of a standard dose of MSCs (4 × 10(7) MSCs) and efficacy test using a ×0...
March 13, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295574/cd38-positively-regulates-postnatal-development-of-astrocytes-cell-autonomously-and-oligodendrocytes-non-cell-autonomously
#8
Tsuyoshi Hattori, Minoru Kaji, Hiroshi Ishii, Roboon Jureepon, Mika Takarada-Iemata, Hieu Minh Ta, Thuong Manh Le, Ayumu Konno, Hirokazu Hirai, Yoshitake Shiraishi, Noriyuki Ozaki, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Hiroshi Okamoto, Shigeru Yokoyama, Haruhiro Higashida, Yasuko Kitao, Osamu Hori
Glial development is critical for the function of the central nervous system. CD38 is a multifunctional molecule with ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity. While critical roles of CD38 in the adult brain such as oxytocin release and social behavior have been reported, those in the developing brain remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that deletion of Cd38 leads to impaired development of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in mice. CD38 is highly expressed in the developing brains between postnatal day 14 (P14) and day 28 (P28)...
March 13, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292919/molecular-determinants-of-the-regulation-of-development-and-metabolism-by-neuronal-eif2%C3%AE-phosphorylation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
Warakorn Kulalert, Harini Sadeeshkumar, Ying K Zhang, Frank C Schroeder, Dennis H Kim
Cell-non-autonomous effects of signaling in the nervous system of animals can influence diverse aspects of organismal physiology. We previously showed that phosphorylation of Ser49 of eIF2α in two chemosensory neurons by PEK-1/PERK promotes entry of Caenorhabditis elegans into dauer diapause. Here, we identified and characterized the molecular determinants that confer sensitivity to effects of neuronal eIF2α phosphorylation on development and physiology of C. elegans Isolation and characterization of mutations in eif-2B...
March 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287428/an-experimental-study-of-the-effects-of-external-physiological-parameters-on-the-photoplethysmography-signals-in-the-context-of-local-blood-pressure-hydrostatic-pressure-changes
#10
Hongwei Yuan, Sven Poeggel, Thomas Newe, Elfed Lewis, Charusluk Viphavakit, Gabriel Leen
A comprehensive study of the effect of a wide range of controlled human subject motion on Photoplethysmographic signals is reported. The investigation includes testing of two separate groups of 5 and 18 subjects who were asked to undertake set exercises whilst simultaneously monitoring a wide range of physiological parameters including Breathing Rate, Heart Rate and Localised Blood Pressure using commercial clinical sensing systems. The unique finger mounted PPG probe equipped with miniature three axis accelerometers for undertaking this investigation was a purpose built in-house version which is designed to facilitate reproducible application to a wide range of human subjects and the study of motion...
March 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285993/death-receptor-6-promotes-wallerian-degeneration-in-peripheral-axons
#11
Kanchana K Gamage, Irene Cheng, Rachel E Park, Mardeen S Karim, Kazusa Edamura, Christopher Hughes, Anthony J Spano, Alev Erisir, Christopher D Deppmann
Axon degeneration during development is required to sculpt a functional nervous system and is also a hallmark of pathological insult, such as injury [1, 2]. Despite similar morphological characteristics, very little overlap in molecular mechanisms has been reported between pathological and developmental degeneration [3-5]. In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), developmental axon pruning relies on receptor-mediated extrinsic degeneration mechanisms to determine which axons are maintained or degenerated [5-7]...
March 2, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282844/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in%C3%A2-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury-assessment-of-autonomic-nervous-system-activity
#12
Fabiana Tenório Gomes da Silva, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira Browne, Camila Bonin Pinto, Faddi Ghassan Saleh Velez, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa do Egito, Jeferson Tafarel Pereira do Rêgo, Marília Rodrigues da Silva, Paulo Moreira Silva Dantas, Felipe Fregni
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized in this study that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of primary motor cortex could exert top-down modulation over subcortical systems associated with autonomic control and thus be useful to revert some of the dysfunctional changes found in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) of subjects with spinal cord injuries (SCI). OBJECTIVE: To explore the acute effect of tDCS on ANS indexed by Heart Rate Variability (HRV) in individuals with SCI and analyze whether this effect depends on the gender, degree, level and time of injury...
March 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282810/neuropathological-staging-of-brain-pathology-in-sporadic-parkinson-s-disease-separating-the-wheat-from-the-chaff
#13
Heiko Braak, Kelly Del Tredici
A relatively small number of especially susceptible nerve cell types within multiple neurotransmitter systems of the human central, peripheral, and enteric nervous systems (CNS, PNS, ENS) become involved in the degenerative process underlying sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD). The six-stage model we proposed for brain pathology related to sPD (Neurobiol Aging 2003) was a retrospective study of incidental and clinically diagnosed cases performed on unconventionally thick tissue sections (100 μm) from a large number of brain regions...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282664/the-impact-of-surgical-patent-ductus-arteriosus-closure-on-autonomic-function-in-premature-infants
#14
Nickie N Andescavage, Marina Metzler, Vedavalli Govindan, Tareq Al-Shargabi, Dilip S Nath, Anita Krishnan, An Massaro, Yunfei Wang, Adre J duPlessis, R B Govindan
Background Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common complication of prematurity and a risk factor for poor outcome. Infants undergoing surgical PDA ligation are at highest risk for neurodevelopmental injury. Autonomic dysfunction has been described in premature infants with PDA. Aim To interrogate the autonomic nervous system by analysis of advanced heart rate variability (HRV) metrics before and after surgical closure of the PDA. Study Design Prospective, observational study. Subjects Twenty-seven infants born before 28 weeks' gestation were included in this study...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280584/skin-temperature-changes-in-wild-chimpanzees-upon-hearing-vocalizations-of-conspecifics
#15
Guillaume Dezecache, Klaus Zuberbühler, Marina Davila-Ross, Christoph D Dahl
A growing trend of research using infrared thermography (IRT) has shown that changes in skin temperature, associated with activity of the autonomic nervous system, can be reliably detected in human and non-human animals. A contact-free method, IRT provides the opportunity to uncover emotional states in free-ranging animals during social interactions. Here, we measured nose and ear temperatures of wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda, when exposed to naturally occurring vocalizations of conspecifics. We found a significant temperature decrease over the nose after exposure to conspecifics' vocalizations, whereas we found a corresponding increase for ear temperature...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277379/anesthesia-and-concussion
#16
Robert C Tasker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As clinicians preparing patients for general anesthesia, should we consider the possibility of concussion in our elective operative patients? If so, why is this necessary? Is it possible that exposure to an anesthetic is detrimental to recovery from concussion? If so, what should we do about the imperative/urgency for surgery? No answers are promised in this review. Rather, the focus is on the questions and approaches taken in the recent literature, as well as highlighting a need for more research...
March 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276066/stress-vulnerability-in-adolescents-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-experimental-study-investigating-heart-rate-variability-and-skin-conductance-responses
#17
Katharine A Rimes, Kate Lievesley, Trudie Chalder
BACKGROUND: Stress vulnerability has been implicated in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but has rarely been investigated directly. This study compared psychological and physiological responses to a laboratory social performance task in adolescents with CFS with chronic illness (asthma) and healthy control groups. METHODS: Adolescents with CFS (n = 60), adolescents with asthma (n = 31) and healthy adolescents (n = 78) completed questionnaires before and after a social performance task...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275717/the-arcuate-nucleus-a-site-of-fast-negative-feedback-for-corticosterone-secretion-in-male-rats
#18
Luis Leon-Mercado, Daniela Herrera Moro Chao, María Del Carmen Basualdo, Mitsuhiro Kawata, Carolina Escobar, Ruud M Buijs
Variations in circulating corticosterone (Cort) are driven by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), mainly via the sympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) directly stimulating Cort release from the adrenal gland and via corticotropin-releasing hormone targeting the adenohypophysis to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Cort feeds back through glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Here we show in male Wistar rats that PVN neurons projecting to the adrenal gland do not express GRs, leaving the question of how the ANS in the PVN gets information about circulating Cort levels to control the adrenal...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275061/impaired-sweating-responses-to-a-passive-whole-body-heat-stress-in-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Dustin R Allen, Mu Huang, Iqra M Parupia, Ariana R Dubelko, Elliot M Frohman, Scott L Davis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS), disrupting autonomic function. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that individuals with MS have blunted control of thermoregulatory reflex increases in sweat rate (SR) and cutaneous vasodilation compared to controls during a passive whole-body heat stress (WBH). Eighteen individuals with relapsing-remitting MS and 18 healthy controls (CON) participated in the study. Core temperature (Tcore), skin temperature, heart rate, arterial blood pressure (10 min intervals), skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flux: LDF), and SR were continuously measured during normothermic baseline (34 °C water perfusing a tube-lined suit) and WBH (increased Tcore 0...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273839/parkinson-s-disease-from-pathogenesis-to-pharmacogenomics
#20
REVIEW
Ramón Cacabelos
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most important age-related neurodegenerative disorder in developed societies, after Alzheimer's disease, with a prevalence ranging from 41 per 100,000 in the fourth decade of life to over 1900 per 100,000 in people over 80 years of age. As a movement disorder, the PD phenotype is characterized by rigidity, resting tremor, and bradykinesia. Parkinson's disease -related neurodegeneration is likely to occur several decades before the onset of the motor symptoms. Potential risk factors include environmental toxins, drugs, pesticides, brain microtrauma, focal cerebrovascular damage, and genomic defects...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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