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Autonomic nervous system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079874/cerebral-modulation-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-in-term-infants
#1
N Schneebaum Sender, R B Govindan, M T Whitehead, A N Massaro, M Metzler, J Wang, Y I Cheng, A J du Plessis
OBJECTIVE: Central topography of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function has yet to be fully deciphered. In adults it has been shown to lateralize sympathetic and parasympathetic influence predominantly to the right and left cerebral hemispheres, respectively. We examined functional topography of central ANS in newborn subjects utilizing spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), an established measure of ANS function. STUDY DESIGN: We studied newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy participating in a prospective study undergoing a therapeutic hypothermia protocol...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073153/reminder-rmssd-and-sd1-are-identical-heart-rate-variability-metrics
#2
Anthony B Ciccone, Jacob A Siedlik, Jill M Wecht, Jake A Deckert, Nhuquynh D Nguyen, Joseph P Weir
Assessment of heart rate variability (HRV) is a common approach to examine cardiac autonomic nervous system modulation that has been employed in a variety of settings. Frequently, both the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) and SD1, which is a Poincaré plot component, have been used to quantify short term heart rate variability. It is not typically appreciated however, that RMSSD and SD1 are identical metrics of HRV. As a reminder to clinicians and researchers who use and study HRV, we show both empirically and mathematically that RMSSD and SD1 are identical metrics...
January 10, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071133/effect-of-transcutaneous-acupoint-electrical-stimulation-on-post-hemorrhoidectomy-associated-pain-anxiety-and-heart-rate-variability
#3
Mei-Ling Yeh, Yu-Chu Chung, Lun-Chia Hsu, Shuo-Hui Hung
Hemorrhoidectomy is the current best treatment for severe hemorrhoids, but it causes significant postoperative pain and anxiety, which is associated with heart rate variability (HRV). Transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation (TAES) was assumed to alleviate pain and anxiety, and modify the autonomic nervous system. This study aimed to examine the effects of TAES intervention on postoperative pain, anxiety, and HRV in patients who received a hemorrhoidectomy. A randomized-controlled trial with five repeated measures was conducted...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070755/social-adversity-and-antisocial-behavior-mediating-effects-of-autonomic-nervous-system-activity
#4
Shawn E Fagan, Wei Zhang, Yu Gao
The display of antisocial behaviors in children and adolescents has been of interest to criminologists and developmental psychologists for years. Exposure to social adversity is a well-documented predictor of antisocial behavior. Additionally, measures of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, including heart rate variability (HRV), pre-ejection period (PEP), and heart rate, have been associated with antisocial behaviors including rule-breaking and aggression. Social neuroscience research has begun to investigate how neurobiological underpinnings affect the relationship between social adversity and antisocial/psychopathic behavior in children and adolescents...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065740/bacterial-signaling-to-the-nervous-system-via-toxins-and-metabolites
#5
REVIEW
Nicole J Yang, Isaac M Chiu
Mammalian hosts interface intimately with commensal and pathogenic bacteria. It is increasingly clear that molecular interactions between the nervous system and microbes contribute to health and disease. Both commensal and pathogenic bacteria are capable of producing molecules that act on neurons and affect essential aspects of host physiology. Here we highlight several classes of physiologically important molecular interactions that occur between bacteria and the nervous system. First, clostridial neurotoxins block neurotransmission to or from neurons by targeting the SNARE complex, causing the characteristic paralyses of botulism and tetanus during bacterial infection...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062917/the-enteric-nervous-system-and-the-musculature-of-the-colon-are-altered-in-patients-with-spina-bifida-and-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Marjanne den Braber-Ymker, Martin Lammens, Michel J A M van Putten, Iris D Nagtegaal
Neurogenic bowel dysfunction occurs in a large percentage of adult patients with spina bifida (SB) and spinal cord injury (SCI), significantly affecting their quality of life. Although bowel motility is autonomously regulated by the enteric nervous system (ENS), disruption of the modulation of the ENS by extrinsic innervation as present in many patients with SB and SCI might lead to motility disorders. In order to gain insight in the pathophysiology, we studied histological changes of the neuromuscular structures in the colon of SB and SCI patients...
January 6, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061975/the-place-of-stress-and-emotions-in-the-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#7
S Pellissier, B Bonaz
Our emotional state can have many consequences on our somatic health and well-being. Negative emotions such as anxiety play a major role in gut functioning due to the bidirectional communications between gut and brain, namely, the brain-gut axis. The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), characterized by an unusual visceral hypersensitivity, is the most common disorder encountered by gastroenterologists. Among the main symptoms, the presence of current or recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with bloating and altered bowel habits characterizes this syndrome that could strongly alter the quality of life...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058510/homozygous-mutation-p-pro304his-in-idh3a-encoding-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-subunit-is-associated-with-severe-encephalopathy-in-infancy
#8
Aviva Fattal-Valevski, Hila Eliyahu, NItai D Fraenkel, Ganit Elmaliach, Moran Hausman-Kedem, Avraham Shaag, Dror Mandel, Ophry Pines, Orly Elpeleg
Mitochondrial encephalopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders which generally carries a grave prognosis. Using exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous mutation, Pro-304-His in the IDH3A gene, in a patient suffering from infantile encephalopathy with peripheral and autonomic nervous system involvement. Mammalian isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 3 is a heterotetramer of 2alfa, 1beta, and 1gamma subunits, and IDH3A encodes the alfa subunit of the mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent IDH. Here we show that in contrast to wild-type human IDH3A, the human IDH3A which harbor the p...
January 5, 2017: Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055999/-role-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-in-vasovagal-syncope-and-rationale-for-beta-blockers-and-norepinephrine-transporter-inhibitors
#9
Manlio F Márquez, Jorge Rafael Gómez-Flores, Jesús A González-Hermosillo, Teresita de Jesús Ruíz-Siller, Manuel Cárdenas
Vasovagal or neurocardiogenic syncope is a common clinical situation and, as with other entities associated with orthostatic intolerance, the underlying condition is a dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. This article reviews various aspects of vasovagal syncope, including its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and the role of the autonomic nervous system in it. A brief history of the problem is given, as well as a description of how the names and associated concepts have evolved. The response of the sympathetic system to orthostatic stress, the physiology of the baroreflex system and the neurohumoral changes that occur with standing are analyzed...
December 29, 2016: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051874/effects-of-a-passive-online-software-application-on-heart-rate-variability-and-autonomic-nervous-system-balance
#10
Beverly Rubik
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether short-term exposure to a passive online software application of purported subtle energy technology would affect heart rate variability (HRV) and associated autonomic nervous system measures. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled clinical trial (RCT). The study took place in a nonprofit laboratory in Emeryville, California. Twenty healthy, nonsmoking subjects (16 females), aged 40-75 years, participated...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051823/lumbar-sympathetic-chain-anatomical-variation-and-clinical-perspectives
#11
P Jain, K Raza, S Singh, C Kumari, S Kaler, N Rani
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems constitute the autonomic nervous system which controls the entropy of the body and maintain the equilibrium. The sympathetic chain forms a definitive anatomic entity which is quite variable with respect to its position and the number of ganglia. The sympathetic nervous system causes vasoconstriction and thus forms the basis of Lumbar sympathetic surgeries being performed in patients with peripheral vascular diseases. The anatomic variations in this region hence gains immense importance for the operating surgeons and consulting radiologists...
November 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050794/heterogeneity-in-synaptogenic-profile-of-astrocytes-from-different-brain-regions
#12
Andrea Schmidt Buosi, Isadora Matias, Ana Paula Bergamo Araujo, Carolina Batista, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara Gomes
Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS), comprise a heterogeneous population of cells. However, how this heterogeneity impacts their function within brain homeostasis and response to injury and disease is still largely unknown. Recently, astrocytes have been recognized as important regulators of synapse formation and maturation. Here, we analyzed the synaptogenic property of astrocytes from different regions of the CNS. The effect of conditioned medium derived from astrocytes (astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM)) from cerebral cortex, hippocampus, midbrain and cerebellum, in synapse formation, was evaluated...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045306/examining-the-association-between-perceived-discrimination-and-heart-rate-variability-in-african-americans
#13
LaBarron K Hill, Lori S Hoggard, Ashley S Richmond, DeLeon L Gray, Dewayne P Williams, Julian F Thayer
OBJECTIVE: Previous research attempting to delineate the role of discrimination in racial/ethnic disparities in hypertension has focused largely on blood pressure, which is chiefly governed by the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. Consequently, few studies have considered the role of the parasympathetic branch and particularly its regulation of the heart via the vagus nerve. METHOD: In the present cross-sectional study, we employed hierarchical linear regressions to examine associations between perceived ethnic discrimination and resting heart rate variability (HRV), an important biomarker of parasympathetic cardiac modulation and overall health, in a sample (N = 103) of young, healthy African American participants (58% female, Mage = 19...
January 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043867/bont-ab-hybrid-maintains-similar-duration-of-paresis-as-bont-a-wild-type-in-murine-running-wheel-assay
#14
Anna Kutschenko, Marie-Christine Reinert, Nadja Krez, David Liebetanz, Andreas Rummel
The highly potent Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are successful drugs to treat neuromuscular disorders. Efforts are being made to further reduce the injected BoNT dose and to lengthen the interval between treatments. Detailed knowledge of the BoNT structure-activity relationship (SAR) allows combining the best features of the different BoNT serotypes. Of all seven BoNT serotypes A-G, BoNT/A displays the highest potency despite low neuronal binding affinity, while BoNT/B exhibits much higher affinity. Recently, a new BoNT/AB hybrid (AABB) was constructed comprising the catalytic and translocation domain of BoNT/A and the 50kDa cell binding domain of BoNT/B...
December 30, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043860/differential-heart-rate-variability-and-physiological-responses-associated-with-accumulated-short-and-long-term-stress-in-rodents
#15
Sunghee E Park, Dajeong Park, Kang-Il Song, Joon-Kyung Seong, Seok Chung, Inchan Youn
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic stress has cumulative effects over time on heart rate variability (HRV) and physiological responses in a rodent model of chronic mild stress. Rats were exposed to either short-term (2weeks) or long-term (4weeks) stress, followed by a 1-week recovery period. Controls were normally housed rats that did not undergo the stress procedure. For electrocardiogram recordings, transmitters were implanted in all rats 10days before the onset of the experiment to allow recovery from surgery...
December 30, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043649/injections-of-galanin-like-peptide-directly-into-the-nucleus-of-the-tractus-solitarius-nts-reduces-food-intake-and-body-weight-but-increases-metabolic-rate-and-plasma-leptin
#16
Lindy Sergeant, Carla Rodriguez-Dimitrescu, Christopher C Barney, Gregory S Fraley
Galanin-Like Peptide (GALP) is a hypothalamic neuromediator of metabolism and reproduction. GALP is known to stimulate reproduction and alter food intake and body weight in multiple species. The regulation of body weight involves control of both energy intake and energy expenditure. Since GALP is known to alter food intake - possibly via the autonomic nervous system - we first hypothesized that GALP would increase metabolic rate. First, male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannulae and abdominal radiotelemetry temperature transmitters...
December 29, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043059/determining-factors-of-electrocardiographic-abnormalities-in-patients-with-epilepsy-a-case-control-study
#17
Jorge Murilo Barbosa de Sousa, Guilherme Loureiro Fialho, Peter Wolf, Roger Walz, Katia Lin
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major cause of mortality in young patients with epilepsy (PWE). Although its mechanisms are still poorly understood, they may include cardiorespiratory dysfunction. Standard 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were obtained from 62 consecutive patients (aged 18-66y) with a definite diagnosis of epilepsy, without seizures at the day of ECG, and 57 healthy controls matched for sex, age and body mass index (BMI). All ECGs were evaluated by a blinded board-certified cardiologist...
December 20, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042190/respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-and-heart-period-in-infancy-as-correlates-of-later-oppositional-defiant-and-callous-unemotional-behaviors
#18
Nicholas J Wagner, W Roger Mills-Koonce, Michael T Willoughby, Cathi B Propper, Peter D Rehder, Noa Gueron-Sela
Extant literature suggests that oppositional defiant (ODD) and callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors in childhood and adolescence are associated with distinct patterns of psychophysiological functioning and that individual differences in these patterns have implications for developmental pathways to disorder. Very little is known about the associations between psychophysiological functioning in infancy and later ODD and CU behaviors. This study examined associations between basal autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning in infancy and ODD and CU behaviors in later childhood...
January 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041713/asymptomatic-versus-symptomatic-episodes-in-patients-with-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-via-long-term-monitoring-with-implantable-loop-recorders
#19
E N Simantirakis, P E Papakonstantinou, G I Chlouverakis, E M Kanoupakis, H E Mavrakis, E M Kallergis, E G Arkolaki, P E Vardas
BACKGROUND: The presentation of atrial fibrillation (AF) varies remarkably, from totally asymptomatic to symptomatic patients, while the same individual may present symptomatic and asymptomatic episodes. We aimed to identify electrocardiographic differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic episodes and to find parameters related to the appearance of symptoms. METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients (age 66.9±10years) with paroxysmal AF received an implantable loop recorder...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041676/autonomic-function-in-adults-with-allergic-rhinitis-and-its-association-with-disease-severity-and-duration
#20
Min Hee Kim, Eun Ji Choi, Bo-Hyoung Jang, Kyu Seok Kim, Seoung-Gyu Ko, Inhwa Choi
BACKGROUND: The association between allergic rhinitis (AR) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has recently received substantial attention. However, no studies have assessed how the heart rate variability (HRV) parameters are associated with duration and disease severity in AR. OBJECTIVE: To compare the difference in autonomic conditions among individuals with AR of various durations and severities and healthy controls. METHODS: We divided individuals with AR into subgroups based on duration and severity of disease...
December 29, 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
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