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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639660/a-flexible-robust-and-antifouling-asymmetric-membrane-based-on-ultra-long-ceramic-polymeric-fibers-for-high-efficiency-separation-of-oil-water-emulsions
#1
Kui Wang, Wubulikasimu Yiming, Jayaprakash Saththasivam, Zhaoyang Liu
Polymeric and ceramic asymmetric membranes have dominated commercial membranes for water treatment. However, polymeric membranes are prone to becoming fouled, while ceramic membranes are mechanically fragile. Here, we report a novel concept to develop asymmetric membranes based on ultra-long ceramic/polymeric fibers, with the combined merits of good mechanical stability, excellent fouling resistance and high oil/water selectivity, in order to meet the stringent requirements for practical oil/water separation...
June 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619003/hydroxyapatite-as-a-nanomaterial-for-advanced-tissue-engineering-and-drug-therapy
#2
Juha Tuukkanen, Miho Nakamura
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a complicated ceramic material that varies between the way it appears in biological systems and how it is synthesized as various calcium phosphates. HAp varies in chemical composition of substituting atoms, crystallinity, grain size and electrical polarization. HAp can form solid to macro-, micro- and nanoporous structures. Also, particulate HAp can have highly porous structure. HAp can be used as coatings for metal implants in thicknesses from hundreds of microns down to hundreds of nanometers...
June 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603415/electroactive-batio3-nanoparticle-functionalized-fibrous-scaffolds-enhance-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Yiping Li, Xiaohan Dai, Yunyang Bai, Yun Liu, Yuehong Wang, Ousheng Liu, Fei Yan, Zhangui Tang, Xuehui Zhang, Xuliang Deng
It has been proven that the surface topographic cues of fiber arrangement can induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, this effect alone is weak and insufficient to meet the needs of regenerative medicine. In this work, electroactivity concept was introduced to enhance the osteoinductivity of fibrous scaffolds. The randomly oriented and aligned electroactive fibrous scaffolds of poly-(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) with incorporation of ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO3 (BTO) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated by electrospinning...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560471/impact-of-laser-fiber-tip-cleavage-on-power-output-for-ureteroscopy-and-stone-treatment
#4
M Haddad, E Emiliani, Y Rouchausse, F Coste, L Berthe, S Doizi, S Buttice, B Somani, O Traxer
PURPOSE: Holmium:YAG laser is the most used laser for urolithiasis. Generally, we use metallic scissors to cut the fiber tip to restore its effectiveness. Many cleaving methods have been described to avoid fiber damage and to restore its greatest power to the fiber. There is a lack of information regarding which cleaving method should be used and its effect on the fiber. In order to compare these effects, we studied different cleavage methods in terms of power output and its effects on the fiber...
May 30, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531647/multifunctional-plla-ceramic-fiber-membranes-for-bone-regeneration-applications
#5
Daniel Santos, Dina M Silva, Pedro S Gomes, Maria H Fernandes, José D Santos, Vitor Sencadas
A novel method to process electrospun poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) membranes incorporating glass reinforced hydroxyapatite granules (gHA) interspacially between the polymeric fibers is reported, thus increasing the surface area for cellular interactions. gHA granules (≤150μm) electrospun together with the polymer solution, lead to an average fiber diameter of 550±150nm for pristine PLLA and 440±170nm for the composite samples. An increase of the overall porosity was observed, from 79±3% for the PLLA up to 88±5% for the hybrid samples, keeping material's wettability and mechanical properties...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496207/selective-doping-of-ni-2-in-highly-transparent-glass-ceramics-containing-nano-spinels-znga2o4-and-zn1-x-ga2-2x-ge-x-o4-for-broadband-near-infrared-fiber-amplifiers
#6
Zhigang Gao, Yinyao Liu, Jing Ren, Zaijin Fang, Xiaosong Lu, Elfed Lewis, Gerald Farrell, Jun Yang, Pengfei Wang
Selective doping of Ni(2+) in octahedral sites provided by nanocrystals embedded in glass-ceramics (GCs) is crucial to the enhancement of broadband near-infrared (NIR) emission. In this work, a NIR emission with a full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of 288 nm is first reported from ZnGa2O4: Ni(2+) nano-spinels embedded GCs with excellent transparency. A comparison is made of the NIR luminescence properties of Ni(2+) doped GCs containing ZnGa2O4, germanium-substituted ZnGa2O4 nano-spinels (Zn1+x Ga2-2x Ge x O4), and Zn2GeO4/Li2Ge4O9 composite nanocrystals that are free of Ga(3+)...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485921/carbon-nanofiber-arrays-grown-on-three-dimensional-carbon-fiber-architecture-substrate-and-enhanced-interface-performance-of-carbon-fiber-and-zirconium-carbide-coating
#7
Liwen Yan, Xinghong Zhang, Ping Hu, Guangdong Zhao, Shun Dong, Dazhao Liu, Boqian Sun, Dongyang Zhang, Jiecai Han
Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were grown around the carbon fiber architecture through a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method to enhance the interface performance between CF architecture substrate and ZrC preceramic matrix. The synthesized 3D CF hierarchical architectures (CNFs-CF) are coated with zirconium carbide (ZrC) ceramic to enhance their antioxidant property and high temperature resistance. The composition and the crystalline phase structure of the composite were detected with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction...
May 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485078/tubular-open-porous-%C3%AE-tcp-plcl-scaffolds-as-guiding-structure-for-segmental-bone-defect-regeneration-in-a-novel-sheep-model
#8
Anne-Marie Pobloth, Hanna Schell, Ansgar Petersen, Katleen Beierlein, Christian Kleber, Katharina Schmidt-Bleek, Georg N Duda
Large segmental bone defect reconstruction with sufficient functional restoration is one of the most demanding challenges in orthopedic surgery. Available regenerative treatment options, as the vascularized bone graft transfer, the Masquelet technique or the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis, are associated with specific indications and distinct limitations. As an alternative, a hollow cylindrical ceramic-polymer composite scaffold (beta-tricalcium phosphate and poly-lactid co-ε- caprolactone), facilitating a strong surface guiding effect for tissue ingrowth (group 1; n = 6) was investigated here...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485068/wear-resistance-of-poly-2-methacryloyloxyethyl-phosphorylcholine-grafted-carbon-fiber-reinforced-poly-ether-ether-ketone-liners-against-metal-and-ceramic-femoral-heads
#9
Shihori Yamane, Masayuki Kyomoto, Toru Moro, Masami Hashimoto, Yoshio Takatori, Sakae Tanaka, Kazuhiko Ishihara
Younger, active patients who undergo total hip arthroplasty (THA) have increasing needs for wider range of motion and improved stability of the joint. Therefore, bearing materials having not only higher wear resistance but also mechanical strength are required. Carbon fiber-reinforced poly(ether ether ketone) (CFR-PEEK) is known as a super engineering plastic that has great mechanical strength. In this study, we focused on poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC)-grafted CFR-PEEK and investigated the effects of PMPC grafting and the femoral heads materials on the wear properties of CFR-PEEK liners...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482152/hybrid-li-ion-conducting-membrane-as-protection-for-the-li-anode-in-an-aqueous-li-air-battery-coupling-sol-gel-chemistry-and-electrospinning
#10
Gilles Lancel, Philippe Stevens, Gwenaëlle Toussaint, Manuel Maréchal, Natacha Krins, Damien Bregiroux, Christel Laberty-Robert
Aqueous lithium-air batteries have very high theoretical energy densities, which potentially makes this technology very interesting for energy storage in electric mobility applications. However, the aqueous electrolyte requires the use of a watertight layer to protect the lithium metal, typically a thick NASICON glass-ceramic layer, which adds ohmic resistance and penalizes performance. This article deals with the replacement of this ceramic electrolyte by a hybrid organic-inorganic membrane. This new membrane combines an ionically conducting inorganic phase for Li ion transport (Li1...
May 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468323/high-precision-temperature-insensitive-strain-sensor-based-on-fiber-optic-delay
#11
Ning Yang, Jun Su, Zhiqiang Fan, Qi Qiu
A fiber-optic delay based strain sensor with high precision and temperature insensitivity was reported, which works on detecting the delay induced by strain instead of spectrum. In order to analyze the working principle of this sensor, the elastic property of fiber-optic delay was theoretically researched and the elastic coefficient was measured as 3.78 ps/km·με. In this sensor, an extra reference path was introduced to simplify the measurement of delay and resist the cross-effect of environmental temperature...
May 2, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434434/local-structural-damage-evaluation-of-a-c-c-sic-ceramic-matrix-composite
#12
Benedicta D Arhatari, Matthew Zonneveldt, John Thornton, Brian Abbey
Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are structural materials, which have useful properties that combine high strength at high temperatures with moderate toughness. Carbon fibers within a matrix of carbon and silicon carbide, called C/C-SiC, are a particular class of CMC noted for their high oxidation resistance. Here we use a combination of four-point bending and X-ray radiography, to study the mechanical failure of C/C-SiC CMCs. Correlating X-ray radiographic and load/displacement curve data reveals that the fiber bundles act to slow down crack propagation during four-point bending tests...
April 24, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405030/splitting-co2-with-a-ceria-based-redox-cycle-in-a-solar-driven-thermogravimetric-analyzer
#13
M Takacs, S Ackermann, A Bonk, M Neises-von Puttkamer, Ph Haueter, J R Scheffe, U F Vogt, A Steinfeld
Thermochemical splitting of CO2 via a ceria-based redox cycle was performed in a solar-driven thermogravimetric analyzer. Overall reaction rates, including heat and mass transport, were determined under concentrated irradiation mimicking realistic operation of solar reactors. Reticulated porous ceramic (RPC) structures and fibers made of undoped and Zr(4+)-doped CeO2, were endothermally reduced under radiative fluxes of 1280 suns in the temperature range 1200-1950 K and subsequently re-oxidized with CO2 at 950-1400 K...
April 2017: AIChE Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403361/effect-of-different-composite-core-materials-on-fracture-resistance-of-endodontically-treated-teeth-restored-with-frc-posts
#14
Prapaporn Panitiwat, Prarom Salimee
Objective: This study evaluated the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber reinforced composite posts, using three resin composite core build-up materials, (Clearfil Photo Core (CPC), MultiCore Flow (MCF), and LuxaCore Z-Dual (LCZ)), and a nanohybrid composite, (Tetric N-Ceram (TNC)). Material and Methods: Forty endodontically treated lower first premolars were restored with quartz fiber posts (D.T. Light-Post) cemented with resin cement (Panavia F2...
March 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402738/ferrule-effect-dominates-over-use-of-a-fiber-post-when-restoring-endodontically-treated-incisors-an-in-vitro-study
#15
P Magne, P C Lazari, M A Carvalho, T Johnson, A A Del Bel Cury
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the restoration of broken-down endodontically treated incisors with the ferrule effect using glass ceramic crowns bonded to composite resin core buildups with or without a fiber post. A no-ferrule group with post was also included for comparison. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty decoronated endodontically treated bovine incisors with a 2-mm ferrule were restored with a direct buildup using a nanohybrid direct composite resin (Miris 2 and Optibond FL) with or without a glass-fiber-reinforced post...
April 12, 2017: Operative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381016/lasing-of-surface-polished-polycrystalline-ho-yag-yttrium-aluminum-garnet-fiber
#16
Hyunjun Kim, Randall S Hay, Sean A McDaniel, Gary Cook, Nicholas G Usechak, Augustine M Urbas, Kathleen N Shugart, HeeDong Lee, Ali H Kadhim, Dean P Brown, Benjamin Griffin, Geoff E Fair, Randall G Corns, Santeri A Potticary, Frank K Hopkins, Kent L Averett, David E Zelmon, Triplicane A Parthasarathy, Kristin A Keller
A polycrystalline 1.5% Ho: YAG fiber with a diameter of 31 µm was prepared. Surface roughness from grain boundary grooving was reduced by polishing, which decreased the fiber scattering coefficient from 76 m<sup>-1</sup> to 35 m<sup>-1</sup>. Lasing tests were done on this fiber with a SF57 Schott glass cladding. Lasing was confirmed by spectrum narrowing with threshold pump power lower than 500 mW and a slope efficiency of 7%. To our knowledge, this is the first lasing demonstration from a small diameter polycrystalline ceramic fiber...
March 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380729/semiconductor-saturable-absorber-q-switching-of-a-holmium-micro-laser
#17
Ruijun Lan, Xavier Mateos, Yicheng Wang, Josep Maria Serres, Pavel Loiko, Jiang Li, Yubai Pan, Uwe Griebner, Valentin Petrov
We report on a Holmium micro-laser passively Q-switched by a semiconductor saturable absorber (SSA), for the first time to the best of our knowledge. It is based on a 1 at.% Ho:YAG ceramic with good energy storage capability and several commercial transmission-type SSAs with 0.24% modulation depth. Under in-band pumping by a Tm fiber laser at 1910 nm, the Ho micro-laser generated 450 mW at 2089 nm with 37% slope efficiency. Stable 89 ns, 3.2 μJ pulses are achieved at a repetition rate of 141 kHz. Further shortening of the laser pulses is feasible with the increase of the modulation depth of the SSA while power scaling may lead to Q-switching at MHz-range repetition rates...
March 6, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371150/polyester-fibers-can-be-rendered-calcium-phosphate-binding-by-surface-functionalization-with-bisphosphonate-groups
#18
Alessandro Polini, Daniela Geta Petre, Michele Iafisco, Sonia de Lacerda Schickert, Anna Tampieri, Jeroen van den Beucken, Sander C G Leeuwenburgh
Fibers are often used as structural elements to improve the mechanical properties of materials such as brittle ceramic matrices by facilitating the dissipation of energy. However, this energy dissipation is mainly controlled by the interface between the two components, and a poorly designed fiber-matrix interface strongly reduces the efficacy of fiber reinforcement. Here, we present a versatile approach to control the affinity of biocompatible fibers to calcium-containing matrices to maximize the efficacy of reinforcement of calcium phosphates-based bioceramics by means of polymeric fibers...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368041/controllable-optical-modulation-of-blue-green-up-conversion-fluorescence-from-tm-3-er-3-single-doped-glass-ceramics-upon-two-step-excitation-of-two-wavelengths
#19
Zhi Chen, Shiliang Kang, Hang Zhang, Ting Wang, Shichao Lv, Qiuqun Chen, Guoping Dong, Jianrong Qiu
Optical modulation is a crucial operation in photonics for network data processing with the aim to overcome information bottleneck in terms of speed, energy consumption, dispersion and cross-talking from conventional electronic interconnection approach. However, due to the weak interactions between photons, a facile physical approach is required to efficiently manipulate photon-photon interactions. Herein, we demonstrate that transparent glass ceramics containing LaF3: Tm(3+) (Er(3+)) nanocrystals can enable fast-slow optical modulation of blue/green up-conversion fluorescence upon two-step excitation of two-wavelengths at telecom windows (0...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358045/glass-ceramic-optical-fiber-containing-ba2tisi2o8-nanocrystals-for-frequency-conversion-of-lasers
#20
Zaijin Fang, Xusheng Xiao, Xin Wang, Zhijun Ma, Elfed Lewis, Gerald Farrell, Pengfei Wang, Jing Ren, Haitao Guo, Jianrong Qiu
A glass-ceramic optical fiber containing Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals fabricated using a novel combination of the melt-in-tube method and successive heat treatment is reported for the first time. For the melt-in-tube method, fibers act as a precursor at the drawing temperature for which the cladding glass is softened while the core glass is melted. It is demonstrated experimentally that following heat treatment, Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals with diameters below 10 nm are evenly distributed throughout the fiber core...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
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