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Cvc colonization biofilm infection

María Jesús Pérez-Granda, María Guembe, Raquel Cruces, Emilio Bouza
BACKGROUND: Superficial culture has a high negative predictive value in the assessment of catheter tip colonization (CC) and catheter-related bloodstream infection (C-RBSI). However, the process of hub culture requires the hubs to be swabbed, and this carries a risk of dislodging the biofilm. At present, most catheter hubs are closed by needleless connectors (NCs) that are periodically replaced. Our objective was to compare the yield of SC (skin + hub culture) with that of skin + NC culture in the assessment of CC and C-RBSI...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Mohamed Amine Mekni, Wafa Achour, Assia Ben Hassen
BACKGROUND: Layouts of biomedical devices were tightly related with the emergence of Staphylococcus epidermidis as a major cause of nosocomial infections because of its ability to form biofilm on the biomaterial surfaces. This fact led researchers to develop in-vitro models to simulate what is really happening during biofilm formation process in order to have a better understanding of this phenomena and then to control it and to resolve the associated problems. The aim of this paper was to develop a homemade dynamic device based on instruments used in clinical practice, easy to mount, with low coast and with no sophisticated features...
March 2015: La Tunisie Médicale
Anne-Marie Chaftari, Aline El Zakhem, Mohamed A Jamal, Ying Jiang, Ray Hachem, Issam Raad
BACKGROUND: Central venous catheters (CVC) removal and reinsertion of a new CVC in the setting of central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) is not always possible in septic patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients with Staphylococcus aureus-CLABSI (SA-CLABSI) who had their CVCs exchanged over guidewire for minocycline/rifampin-coated (M/R)-CVC within seven days of bacteremia. METHODS: Each case was matched with two control patients who had SA-CLABSI and had their CVC removed within seven days and two control patients who had their CVC retained beyond seven days...
2014: BMC Infectious Diseases
Matthew P Lungren, Rodney M Donlan, Ravi Kankotia, Ben E Paxton, Irene Falk, Diana Christensen, Charles Y Kim
PURPOSE: To determine whether a bacteriophage antimicrobial-lock technique can reduce bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on indwelling central venous catheters in a rabbit model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cuffed central venous catheters were inserted into the jugular vein of female New Zealand White rabbits under image guidance. Catheters were inoculated for 24 hours with broth culture of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. The inoculum was aspirated, and rabbits were randomly assigned to two equal groups for 24 hours: (i) untreated controls (heparinized saline lock), (ii) bacteriophage antimicrobial-lock (staphylococcal bacteriophage K, propagated titer > 10(8)/mL)...
October 2014: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
Mohamed A Jamal, Joel Rosenblatt, Ying Jiang, Ray Hachem, Ann-Marie Chaftari, Issam I Raad
Exchanging a central venous catheter (CVC) over a guide wire for a fresh uncoated CVC in the presence of bacteremia can result in cross-infection of the newly exchanged CVC. A recent retrospective clinical study showed that exchanging a catheter over a guide wire in the presence of bacteremia using an antimicrobial minocycline-rifampin (M/R) catheter may improve outcomes. To expand on this, we developed an in vitro cross-contamination model of exchange to evaluate the efficacy of different antimicrobial CVCs in preventing cross-contamination of multidrug-resistant organisms during exchange...
September 2014: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ashwini Chauhan, Aude Bernardin, Windy Mussard, Irène Kriegel, Marc Estève, Jean-Marc Ghigo, Christophe Beloin, Vincent Semetey
The use of catheters and other implanted devices is constantly increasing in modern medicine. Although catheters improve patients' healthcare, the hydrophobic nature of their surface material promotes protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Catheters are therefore prone to complications, such as colonization by bacterial and fungal biofilms, associated infections, and thrombosis. Here we describe the in vivo efficacy of biologically inspired glycocalyxlike antiadhesive coatings to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization on commercial totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) in a clinically relevant rat model of biofilm infection...
November 1, 2014: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jyotsna Chandra, Eric Pearlman, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
Microbial biofilms play an essential role in several infectious diseases and are defined as extensive communities of sessile organisms irreversibly associated with a surface, encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix (ECM), and exhibiting enhanced resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Forming a biofilm provides the microbes protection from environmental stresses due to contaminants, nutritional depletion, or imbalances, but is dangerous to human health due to their inherent robustness and elevated resistance...
2014: Methods in Molecular Biology
J Paredes, M Alonso-Arce, C Schmidt, D Valderas, B Sedano, J Legarda, F Arizti, E Gómez, A Aguinaga, J L Del Pozo, S Arana
Central venous catheters (CVC) are commonly used in clinical practice to improve a patient's quality of life. Unfortunately, there is an intrinsic risk of acquiring an infection related to microbial biofilm formation inside the catheter lumen. It has been estimated that 80 % of all human bacterial infections are biofilm-associated. Additionally, 50 % of all nosocomial infections are associated with indwelling devices. Bloodstream infections account for 30-40 % of all cases of severe sepsis and septic shock, and are major causes of morbidity and mortality...
June 2014: Biomedical Microdevices
Elizabeth Perez, Margaret Williams, Jesse T Jacob, Mary Dent Reyes, Sheri Chernetsky Tejedor, James P Steinberg, Lori Rowe, Satishkumar Ranganathan Ganakammal, Shankar Changayil, M Ryan Weil, Rodney M Donlan
Microorganisms may colonize needleless connectors (NCs) on intravascular catheters, forming biofilms and predisposing patients to catheter-associated infection (CAI). Standard and silver-coated NCs were collected from catheterized intensive care unit patients to characterize biofilm formation using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods and to investigate the associations between NC usage and biofilm characteristics. Viable microorganisms were detected by plate counts from 46% of standard NCs and 59% of silver-coated NCs (P=0...
March 2014: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Emilio Bouza, Pablo Martín-Rabadán, Antonio Echenagusia, Fernando Camúñez, Gracia Rodríguez-Rosales, Gonzalo Simó, Miguel Echenagusia, María Guembe
Data on microbiological management of withdrawn venous access ports (VAPs) are scarce. The aim of our study was to assess the validity of Gram stain and culture performed on VAPs to detect colonization and VAP-related bloodstream infection (VAP-RBSI). We prospectively performed cultures of the following: catheter tip (roll-plate and sonication), port content aspirate before and after sonication, port sonication fluid (PSF), and port internal surface biofilm (ISB). The gold standard of VAP colonization was positivity of at least 1 of the cultures mentioned above...
February 2014: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Matthew P Lungren, Diana Christensen, Ravi Kankotia, Irene Falk, Ben E Paxton, Charles Y Kim
The purpose of this project was to determine whether bacteriophage can reduce bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on central venous catheter material. Twenty silicone discs were inoculated for 24 h with broth culture of Methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (0.5 McFarland standard). The inoculate was aspirated and discs placed into two equal groups for 24 h: (1) untreated controls; (2) bacteriophage treatment (staphylococcal bacteriophage K, propagated titer > 10(8)). At the completion of the experiment discs were processed for quantitative culture...
October 1, 2013: Bacteriophage
Lígia S Muranaka, Thais E Giorgiano, Marco A Takita, Moacir R Forim, Luis F C Silva, Helvécio D Coletta-Filho, Marcos A Machado, Alessandra A de Souza
Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen bacterium that causes diseases in many different crops. In citrus, it causes Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC). The mechanism of pathogenicity of this bacterium is associated with its capacity to colonize and form a biofilm in the xylem vessels of host plants, and there is not yet any method to directly reduce populations of this pathogen in the field. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a cysteine analogue used mainly to treat human diseases, on X...
2013: PloS One
Vineet Gupta, Mohamed H Yassin
The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has almost doubled over past 2 decades. Despite decreasing overall hospital admission rates for ESRD population, the rate of infection-related hospitalizations has steadily increased. Infection remains the second most common cause of mortality in this patient population. Specifically, in the hemodialysis (HD) patients, the vascular access related infections are the most common identifiable source of infection. This concise review provides an update on the bacteremia related to vascular access primarily the catheters (Catheter Related Blood Stream Infection- CRBSI) in HD patients emphasizing on the determinants ranging from the epidemiology to pathogenesis, risk factors, cost implications and prevention...
June 2013: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Yuthika Hemamala Samaranayake, Becky P K Cheung, Joyce Y Y Yau, Shadow K W Yeung, Lakshman P Samaranayake
OBJECTIVES: Systemic candidal infections are a common problem in hospitalized patients due to central venous catheters fabricated using silicone biomaterial (SB). We therefore evaluated the effect of human serum on C. albicans biofilm morphology, growth, and the expression of virulence-related genes on SB in vitro. METHODS: We cultivated C. albicans SC5314 (wild-type strain, WT) and its derivative HLC54 (hyphal mutant, HM) for 48 h in various conditions, including the presence or absence of SB discs, and human serum...
2013: PloS One
Joel Rosenblatt, Ruth Reitzel, Tanya Dvorak, Ying Jiang, Ray Y Hachem, Issam I Raad
Antimicrobial catheter lock therapy is practiced to prevent lumenal-sourced infections of central venous catheters. Citrate has been used clinically as an anticoagulant in heparin-free catheter locks. Ethanol has also been widely studied as an antimicrobial lock solution component. This study reports on the synergy of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) with citrate and ethanol in rapidly eradicating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans biofilms in an in vitro model for catheter biofilm colonization...
August 2013: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Fabienne Antunes Ferreira, Raquel Rodrigues Souza, Bruno de Sousa Moraes, Ana Maria de Amorim Ferreira, Marco Antônio Américo, Sérgio Eduardo Longo Fracalanzza, José Nelson Dos Santos Silva Couceiro, Agnes Marie Sá Figueiredo
BACKGROUND: A novel variant of the ST1-SCCmecIV methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) lineage, mostly associated with nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI), has emerged in Rio de Janeiro. Bacterial biofilm has been considered a major virulence factor in central venous catheter-associated BSI. The mechanisms involved in biofilm formation/accumulation are multifactorial and complex. Studies have suggested that biofilm production was affected in vitro and vivo for agr-null mutants of S...
2013: BMC Microbiology
Ethel Suman, Sushma Janet D'souza, Pyari Jacob, M R Sushruth, M Shashidhar Kotian
BACKGROUND: Intravascular catheters and urinary catheters are an important source of hospital-acquired infections. Many microorganisms colonize indwelling catheters, including central venous catheters (CVCs) forming biofilms and cause infections that are difficult to treat. Although various methods have been employed to reduce biofilms, enzymes involved in bacterial cell wall synthesis could provide novel targets for the development of anti-biofilm agents. N-Acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GlmU) is an essential enzyme in aminosugars metabolism and catalyzes the formation of uridine-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), an important precursor in the peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria...
September 2011: Indian Journal of Medical Sciences
R Estes, J Theusch, A Beck, D Pitrak, Kathleen M Mullane
Central venous catheters commonly develop central line-associated bloodstream infections. In vitro antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) was simulated on 10 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates imbedded in biofilm-coated silicon disks. Five days of 4-h daily exposures to daptomycin (2.5 mg/ml) in 25% ethanol or minocycline (3 mg/ml) plus 25% ethanol and 30 mg/ml EDTA resulted in significantly greater elimination of MRSA colonization than treatment with minocycline alone.
April 2013: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Amy Barton Pai, Heena Patel, Alexander J Prokopienko, Hiba Alsaffar, Nancy Gertzberg, Paul Neumann, Anjoli Punjabi, Arnold Johnson
Tunneled central venous catheters (TCVCs) are used for dialysis access in 82% of new hemodialysis patients and are rapidly colonized with Gram-positive organism (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus) biofilm, a source of recurrent infections and chronic inflammation. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall ribitol polymer from Gram-positive organisms, mediates inflammation through the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). The effect of LTA on lung endothelial permeability is not known. We tested the hypothesis that LTA from Staphylococcus aureus induces alterations in the permeability of pulmonary microvessel endothelial monolayers (PMEM) that result from activation of TLR2 and are mediated by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS)...
2012: PloS One
Mohammad D Mansouri, Richard A Hull, Charles E Stager, Richard M Cadle, Rabih O Darouiche
Catheter-associated infections can cause severe complications and even death. Effective antimicrobial modification of catheters that can prevent device colonization has the potential of preventing clinical infection. We studied in vitro the antimicrobial activities of central venous catheters impregnated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antibiofilm agent, and a broad-spectrum antibiotic against a range of important clinical pathogens. NAC-levofloxacin-impregnated (NACLEV) catheters were also evaluated for their antiadherence activity...
January 2013: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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