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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448981/treatment-and-prevention-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease
#1
A R Domínguez-Alegría, V Pintado, I Barbolla
Invasive pneumococcal disease is a severe infection that mainly affects patients with associated comorbidity. The paediatric conjugate vaccination has resulted in a change in the adult vaccination strategy. The antibiotic resistance of pneumococcus is not currently a severe problem. Nevertheless, the World Health Organisation has included pneumococcus among the bacteria whose treatment requires the introduction of new drugs, such as ceftaroline and ceftobiprole. Although the scientific evidence is still limited, the combination of beta-lactams and macrolides is recommended as empiric therapy for bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia...
February 12, 2018: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440952/antibiotic-treatment-in-childhood-community-acquired-pneumonia-clinical-practice-versus-guidelines-results-from-two-university-hospitals
#2
Sorin Claudiu Man, Valentina Sas, Cristina Schnell, Camelia Florea, Adelina Ţuţu, Ariana Szilágyi, Sergiu Belenes, Amalia Hebriştean, Anca Bonaţ, Claudia Cladovan, Cornel Aldea
Background and aims: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a both common and serious childhood infection. Antibiotic treatment guidelines help to reduce inadequate antibiotics prescriptions. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study at the Clinical Emergency Hospital for Children, 3rd Pediatric Clinic, Cluj-Napoca and Dr. Gavril Curteanu Clinical City Hospital, in Oradea. All patients discharged with a diagnosis of CAP between December 1, 2014 and February 28, 2015, were included in the study...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397298/detection-of-respiratory-bacterial-pathogens-causing-atypical-pneumonia-by-multiplex-lightmix%C3%A2-rt-pcr
#3
Karoline Wagner, Burkard Springer, Frank Imkamp, Onya Opota, Gilbert Greub, Peter M Keller
Pneumonia is a severe infectious disease. In addition to common viruses and bacterial pathogens (e.g. Streptococcus pneumoniae), fastidious respiratory pathogens like Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Legionella spp. can cause severe atypical pneumonia. They do not respond to penicillin derivatives, which may cause failure of antibiotic empirical therapy. The same applies for infections with B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, the cause of pertussis disease, that may present atypically and need to be treated with macrolides...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377957/the-timing-of-azithromycin-treatment-is-not-associated-with-the-clinical-prognosis-of-childhood-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-in-high-macrolide-resistant-prevalence-settings
#4
Dehua Yang, Linghong Chen, Zhimin Chen
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the clinical impact of the timing of azithromycin treatment in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in high macrolide-resistant prevalence settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 623 patients were enrolled in this study and were divided into 2 groups according to the timing of azithromycin therapy. Children who received azithromycin within 3 days (72 hours) after the onset of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia were classified into the early azithromycin treatment group (n = 174), whereas the late azithromycin treatment group (n = 449) comprised children treated with azithromycin more than 72 hours after symptom onset...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361416/laboratory-surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-multidrug-resistance-among-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-in-the-kinki-region-of-japan-2001-2015
#5
Hirofumi Toda, Kaori Satoh, Masaru Komatsu, Saori Fukuda, Tatsuya Nakamura, Takumi Jikimoto, Hisaaki Nishio, Katsutoshi Yamasaki, Takuya Maede, Tamaki Orita, Noriyuki Sueyoshi, Machiko Kita, Masahiro Toyokawa, Isao Nishi, Masahiro Akagi, Takefumi Higuchi, Tomomi Kofuku, Isako Nakai, Tamotsu Ono, Koichi Shimakawa, Yoshie Hikita, Kunihiko Moro, Kaneyuki Kida, Masanobu Oohama, Yasunao Wada, Toru Tobe, Toshinori Kamisako, Yuji Tanaka
The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced among children in Japan in 2010. There are no long-term multicenter surveillance studies of antimicrobial resistance in S. pneumoniae before and after the introduction of PCV7. Therefore, we examined chronological trends in antimicrobial resistance among 4534 strains of S. pneumoniae isolated from both children and adults in the Kinki region of Japan during 2001-2015. High-level penicillin and third-generation cephalosporin resistance in S...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360520/effectiveness-of-combination-therapy-versus-monotherapy-with-a-third-generation-cephalosporin-in-bacteraemic-pneumococcal-pneumonia-a-propensity-score-analysis
#6
C De la Calle, H G Ternavasio-de la Vega, L Morata, F Marco, C Cardozo, C García-Vidal, A Del Rio, C Cilloniz, A Torres, J A Martínez, J Mensa, A Soriano
OBJECTIVE: Combining a macrolide or a fluoroquinolone to beta-lactam regimens in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe community-acquired pneumonia is recommended by the international guidelines. However, the information in patients with bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia is limited. METHODS: A propensity score technique was used to analyze prospectively collected data from all patients with bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia admitted from 2000 to 2015 in our institution, who had received empirical treatment with third-generation cephalosporin in monotherapy or plus macrolide or fluoroquinolone...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337082/serum-lactate-dehydrogenase-isoenzymes-4-plus-5-is-a-better-biomarker-than-total-lactate-dehydrogenase-for-refractory-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-in-children
#7
Ta-Yu Liu, Wei-Ju Lee, Chih-Min Tsai, Kuang-Che Kuo, Chen-Hsiang Lee, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Chin-Hao Chang, Yu-Tsun Su, Chen-Kuang Niu, Hong-Ren Yu
Although usually self-limiting, Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) may lead to clinical or radiological deterioration despite macrolide antibiotic therapy, resulting in the development of refractory MPP (RMPP). Corticosteroids have been used to treat RMPP with beneficial effects. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a suggested biomarker for the use of steroid therapy. Since serum LDH is a non-specific marker and elevated in many inflammatory processes, this study investigates the predicting level of LDH isoenzymes for RMPP...
December 26, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290229/antibiotic-treatment-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#8
R Cohen, F Angoulvant, S Biscardi, F Madhi, F Dubos, Y Gillet
Lower respiratory tract infections, i.e., bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, are the second leading cause of antibiotic prescriptions. The vast majority of these infections are due to viruses and are self-limited diseases: most patients recover spontaneously. These two facts explain that antibiotic prescriptions must be limited to some clinical situations for which the diagnosis has to be done early. The first message of this manuscript is to strengthen non-antibiotic prescriptions in many situations such as bronchitis and bronchiolitis...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284419/serotype-distribution-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-from-17-chinese-cities-from-2011-to-2016
#9
Chunjiang Zhao, Zongbo Li, Feifei Zhang, Xiaobing Zhang, Ping Ji, Ji Zeng, Bijie Hu, Zhidong Hu, Kang Liao, Hongli Sun, Rong Zhang, Bin Cao, Chao Zhuo, Wei Jia, Yaning Mei, Yunzhuo Chu, Xuesong Xu, Qing Yang, Yan Jin, Quan Fu, Xiuli Xu, Hongling Li, Lijun Wang, Yuxing Ni, Hongjie Liang, Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading pathogen of bacterial infections in infants and the elderly, is responsible for pneumococcal diseases with severe morbidity and mortality. Emergence of drug-resistant strains presented new challenges for treatment and prevention. Vaccination has proven to be an effective means of preventing pneumococcal infection worldwide. Detailed epidemiological information of antibiotic susceptibilities and serotype distribution will be of great help to the management of pneumococcal infections...
December 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278281/empiric-antibiotics-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-macrolide-and-a-beta-lactam-please
#10
EDITORIAL
Grant Waterer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273072/monitoring-adherence-to-guidelines-of-antibiotic-use-in-pediatric-pneumonia-the-marea-study
#11
Pasquale Di Pietro, Ornella Della Casa Alberighi, Michela Silvestri, Maria Angela Tosca, Anna Ruocco, Giorgio Conforti, Giovanni A Rossi, Elio Castagnola, Maria Caterina Merlano, Simona Zappettini, Salvatore Renna
BACKGROUND: Children are the most vulnerable population exposed to the use of antibiotics often incorrectly prescribed for the treatment of infections really due to viruses rather than to bacteria. We designed the MAREA study which consisted of two different studies: i) a surveillance study to monitor the safety/efficacy of the antibiotics for the treatment of pneumonia (CAP), pharyngotonsillitis and acute otitis media in children younger than 14 yrs old, living in Liguria, North-West Italy and ii) a pre-/post-interventional study to evaluate the appropriateness of antibiotic prescription for the treatment these infections...
December 22, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239493/mortality-in-patients-with-community-onset-pneumonia-at-low-risk-of-drug-resistant-pathogens-impact-of-%C3%AE-lactam-plus-macrolide-combination-therapy
#12
Junya Okumura, Yuichiro Shindo, Kunihiko Takahashi, Masahiro Sano, Yasuteru Sugino, Tetsuya Yagi, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Hideo Saka, Shigeyuki Matsui, Yoshinori Hasegawa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Drug-resistant pathogen (DRP) risk stratification is important for choosing a treatment strategy for community-onset pneumonia. Evidence for benefits of non-antipseudomonal β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy (BLM) on mortality is limited in patients at low DRP risk. Risk factors for mortality remain to be clarified. METHODS: Post hoc analysis using a prospective multicentre study cohort of community-onset pneumonia was performed to assess 30-day differences in mortality between non-antipseudomonal β-lactam monotherapy (BL) and BLM groups...
December 14, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232913/pharmacoeconomic-analysis-of-drugs-used-in-the-treatment-of-pneumonia-in-paediatric-population-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india-a-cost-of-illness-study
#13
Lekha Saha, Sharonjeet Kaur, Pratibha Khosla, Sweta Kumari, Alka Rani
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The cost of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of pneumonia in the inpatient paediatric population can have a major impact on the healthcare expenditure. We planned to assess the direct and indirect costs of diagnosis and medical treatment of paediatric patients with community acquired pneumonia who are hospitalized in a tertiary care hospital in India. METHODS: 125 children with a diagnosis of pneumonia who were admitted to the inpatient department of a paediatric hospital receiving antibiotic treatment were observed...
December 11, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221755/unilateral-brachial-plexopathy-a-rare-complication-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection
#14
Barbara Robnik, Darja Keše, Tereza Rojko, Alenka Horvat-Ledinek, Aleš Pražnikar, Bojana Beović
Few reports in the literature describe isolated peripheral neuropathies in relation to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection without concurrent damage to the central nervous system. To our knowledge only a single case of mononeuritis multiplex with brachial plexus neuropathy coincident with M. pneumoniae has been documented until now. Here we present the first clinical case of lobar M. pneumoniae pneumonia in a 19-year-old female patient, where coincident neurological complications manifested as unilateral brachial plexus neuropathy, affecting axillar and suprascapular nerves...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212838/long-term-macrolides-in-diffuse-interstitial-lung-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Paola Faverio, Francesco Bini, Adriano Vaghi, Alberto Pesci
In the present review we provide currently available evidence for the use of macrolides in the treatment of diffuse interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Up to now, research on macrolides has mainly focused on three areas. First, macrolides have shown some promising results in cellular models and case reports as antifibrotic agents, by promoting autophagy and clearance of intracellular protein aggregates and acting as regulators of surfactant homeostasis. Secondly, macrolides have an immunomodulatory effect, which has been applied in some organising pneumonia cases...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212389/antimicrobial-therapy-of-macrolide-resistant-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-in-children
#16
Hyunju Lee, Ki Wook Yun, Hoan Jong Lee, Eun Hwa Choi
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children and young adolescents. Macrolides are recommended as the first-line therapy however, macrolide resistance rates in M. pneumoniae among children have been increasing substantially. Areas covered: This review focused on clinical characteristics and treatment of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae pneumonia in children. Expert commentary: Antibiotic choice should be based on in vitro activity, clinical efficacy and in consideration of potential adverse events...
December 7, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201017/characterization-of-metagenomes-in-urban-aquatic-compartments-reveals-high-prevalence-of-clinically-relevant-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-wastewaters
#17
Charmaine Ng, Martin Tay, Boonfei Tan, Thai-Hoang Le, Laurence Haller, Hongjie Chen, Tse H Koh, Timothy M S Barkham, Karina Y-H Gin
The dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an escalating problem and a threat to public health. Comparative metagenomics was used to investigate the occurrence of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) in wastewater and urban surface water environments in Singapore. Hospital and municipal wastewater (n = 6) were found to have higher diversity and average abundance of ARGs (303 ARG subtypes, 197,816 x/Gb) compared to treated wastewater effluent (n = 2, 58 ARG subtypes, 2,692 x/Gb) and surface water (n = 5, 35 subtypes, 7,985 x/Gb)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200249/decision-and-cost-analysis-of-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-of-acute-sinusitis-in-the-era-of-increasing-antimicrobial-resistance-do-we-have-an-additional-tool-for-antibiotic-policy-decisions
#18
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: No previous analyses have attempted to determine optimal therapy for upper respiratory tract infections on the basis of cost-minimization models and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens in Slovakia. This investigation compares macrolides and cephalosporines for empirical therapy and look at this new tool from the aspect of potential antibiotic policy decision-making process. METHODS: We employed a decision tree model to determine the threshold level of macrolides and cephalosporines resistance among community respiratory pathogens that would make cephalosporines or macrolides cost-minimising...
November 4, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175796/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-organisms-isolated-from-sputum-culture-of-karachi-pakistan
#19
Salman Mansoor, Shayan Qadir, Sehrish Javed, Faisal Shah Jehan, Maryam Kundi
Our study aims to contribute to developing antibiotics prescription guidelines at a national and a regional level directed by the antibiotics susceptibility patterns and rapidly emerging resistant organisms. This study is designed to observe the antimicrobial susceptibility in sputum culture isolates and drug resistance patterns against various antimicrobials. This was a retrospective cohort study; data was collected from two laboratories from 1st Jan to 15 July 2007. All laboratory reports were analyzed using SPSS version 19...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163422/a-novel-inca-c1-group-conjugative-plasmid-encoding-vim-1-metallo-beta-lactamase-mediates-the-acquisition-of-carbapenem-resistance-in-st104-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-neonates-in-the-intensive-care-unit-of-v-monaldi-hospital-in-naples
#20
Eliana P Esposito, Stefano Gaiarsa, Mariateresa Del Franco, Valeria Crivaro, Mariano Bernardo, Susanna Cuccurullo, Francesca Pennino, Maria Triassi, Piero Marone, Davide Sassera, Raffaele Zarrilli
The emergence of carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae has raised major public health concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology and the mechanism of carbapenem resistance acquisition of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from 20 neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the V. Monaldi Hospital in Naples, Italy, from April 2015 to March 2016. Genotype analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) identified PFGE type A and subtypes A1 and A2 in 17, 2, and 1 isolates, respectively, and assigned all isolates to sequence type (ST) 104...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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