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Macrolide AND pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549490/whole-genome-analysis-reveals-new-insights-into-macrolide-resistance-in-mycoplasma-pneumoniae
#1
Shao Li Li, Hong Mei Sun, Bao Li Zhu, Fei Liu, Han Qing Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Mutations in 23S rRNA gene are known to be associated with macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae). However, these mutations alone do not fully explain the high resistance rates in Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate other possible mutations involved in macrolide resistance in M. pneumoniae. METHODS: The whole genomes of 10 clinical isolates of M. pneumoniae with macrolide resistance were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq2000 platform...
May 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539503/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-from-the-respiratory-tract-and-beyond
#2
REVIEW
Ken B Waites, Li Xiao, Yang Liu, Mitchell F Balish, T Prescott Atkinson
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory tract infections in children as well as adults that can range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Over the past several years there has been much new information published concerning infections caused by this organism. New molecular-based tests for M. pneumoniae detection are now commercially available in the United States, and advances in molecular typing systems have enhanced understanding of the epidemiology of infections. More strains have had their entire genome sequences published, providing additional insights into pathogenic mechanisms...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526836/characterisation-of-antibiotic-prescriptions-for-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-danish-general-practice-a-retrospective-registry-based-cohort-study
#3
Rune Aabenhus, Malene Plejdrup Hansen, Laura Trolle Saust, Lars Bjerrum
Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice...
May 19, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526799/acquired-resistance-to-macrolides-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-from-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#4
Muhammad-Hariri Mustafa, Shaunak Khandekar, Michael M Tunney, J Stuart Elborn, Barbara C Kahl, Olivier Denis, Patrick Plésiat, Hamidou Traore, Paul M Tulkens, Francis Vanderbist, Françoise Van Bambeke
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients receive chronic treatment with macrolides for their antivirulence and anti-inflammatory properties. We, however, previously showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, considered as naturally resistant to macrolides, becomes susceptible when tested in a eukaryotic medium rather than a conventional broth.We therefore looked for specific macrolide resistance determinants in 333 CF isolates from four European CF centres in comparison with 48 isolates from patients suffering from hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526018/infection-mediated-asthma-etiology-mechanisms-and-treatment-options-with-focus-on-chlamydia-pneumoniae-and-macrolides
#5
REVIEW
Wilmore C Webley, David L Hahn
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness to non-specific bronchoconstriction agonists as the primary underlying pathophysiology. The worldwide incidence of asthma has increased dramatically in the last 40 years. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, over 300 million children and adults worldwide currently suffer from this incurable disease and 255,000 die from the disease each year. It is now well accepted that asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome and many clinical subtypes have been described...
May 19, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511165/susceptibility-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-to-fluoroquinolones-and-macrolides-in-upper-respiratory-tract-infections
#6
Yaroslav O Mykhalko, Tetyana V Duhovych, Pavlo P Kish
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcal species are known as the most common cause of bacterial upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Once bacterial infection is diagnosed it demands empirical antibiotic prescription. On the other hand antimicrobial resistance is a global burden in today's medicine. For that reason, knowing of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in population is an important background for successful treatment of bacterial caused URTI. The aim of this study was to analyze S...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497921/macrolide-resistance-and-its-impacts-on-m-pneumoniae-pneumonia-in-children-comparison-of-two-recent-epidemics-in-korea
#7
Jong Hyun Kim, Jee Yong Kim, Chang Hoon Yoo, Won Hee Seo, Young Yoo, Dae Jin Song, Ji Tae Choung
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the change in macrolide resistance rate in pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and to evaluate the influence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae (MRMP) on the clinical course of disease, by comparing 2 recent, consecutive epidemics in Korea. METHODS: A total of 250 patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia admitted to a single tertiary hospital were enrolled in this study. Detection of MRMP was based on specific point mutations in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene...
July 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490485/molecular-characterization-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infections-in-two-rural-populations-of-thailand-from-2009-2012
#8
Toni Whistler, Pongpun Sawatwong, Maureen H Diaz, Alvaro J Benitez, Bernard J Wolff, Patranuch Sapchookul, Somsak Thamthitiwat, Jonas M Winchell
Studies on Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Thailand have focused on urban centers and have not included the molecular characterization. In an attempt to provide a more comprehensive understanding of this organism, we conducted a systematic random sampling to identify 3000 nasopharyngeal swab specimens, collected from January 2009 through July 2012 during population-based surveillance for influenza-like illness in two rural provinces. M. pneumoniae was detected by real-time PCR in 175 (5.8%) specimens. Genotyping was performed using the major adhesion protein (P1) and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA)...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490220/solithromycin-cem-101-a-new-fluoroketolide-antibiotic-and-its-role-in-the-treatment-of-gonorrhea
#9
Alexandra M Mancuso, Mona A Gandhi, Judianne Slish
Solithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that has undergone review for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Solithromycin is also being investigated and has shown promise for the treatment of gonorrhea. With increasing antibiotic resistance, the development of novel antibiotics to combat infections is essential. The unique ribosome-binding stability of solithromycin and mild side effect profile make this a promising new antibiotic. This article will provide an overview on the mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, and safety of this drug for the treatment of gonorrhea...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483717/surveillance-of-the-activity-of-solithromycin-cem-101-against-bacteria-from-respiratory-tract-infections
#10
Stephen Hawser, Ian Morrissey, Barbara Lemos, Kara Keedy, Prabhavathi Fernandes
The activity of solithromycin, a fourth-generation macrolide and novel fluoroketolide, was evaluated by determining its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (via Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution) against 2797 contemporary clinical respiratory tract isolates collected from North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and other regions of the world in 2012-13. Solithromycin was very active against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes, with MIC90 of 0.25 and 0.12 µg/mL, respectively...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464807/prognostic-factors-in-hospitalized-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-retrospective-study-of-a-prospective-observational-cohort
#11
Akihiro Ito, Tadashi Ishida, Hironobu Tokumasu, Yasuyoshi Washio, Akio Yamazaki, Yuhei Ito, Hiromasa Tachibana
BACKGROUND: To date, only few studies have examined the prognostic factors of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) defined according to the latest criteria, which excludes healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the factors that affect prognosis, and evaluate the usefulness of existing pneumonia severity scores for predicting the prognosis of CAP. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with CAP, excluding HCAP, who were enrolled prospectively between April 2007 and February 2016...
May 2, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445444/pharmaceutical-equivalence-of-clarithromycin-oral-dosage-forms-marketed-in-nairobi-county-kenya
#12
Rebecca O Manani, Kennedy O Abuga, Hezekiah K Chepkwony
Clarithromycin is a broad-spectrum semi-synthetic macrolide indicated for treatment of pneumonias, Helicobacter pylori, and chlamydial and skin infections. The object of this study was to evaluate the pharmaceutical equivalence of 14 generic clarithromycin products marketed in Nairobi County, Kenya, to the innovator products, using in vitro dissolution profiles and similarity factors (f₂). Further, dissolution profiles of four innovator formulations manufactured in different sites were compared. Fourteen clarithromycin tablets/capsules and four suspensions were subjected to assay and comparative dissolution runs at pH 1...
April 26, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432048/solithromycin-a-novel-ketolide-antibiotic
#13
Michael J Buege, Jack E Brown, Samuel L Aitken
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, antimicrobial activity, clinical safety, and current regulatory status of solithromycin are reviewed. SUMMARY: Solithromycin is a novel ketolide antibiotic developed for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Its pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties provide activity against a broad range of intracellular organisms, including retained activity against pathogens displaying various mechanisms of macrolide resistance...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430673/antimicrobial-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-prevalence-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#14
Regine Cherazard, Marcia Epstein, Thien-Ly Doan, Tanzila Salim, Sheena Bharti, Miriam A Smith
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, bacteremia, and otitis media. S. pneumoniae has developed increased resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review of prevalence, mechanisms, and clinical implications in S. pneumoniae resistance. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: Since S. pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was first reported with subsequent development of resistance to other classes of drugs, selection of appropriate antibiotic treatment is challenging...
May 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427991/impact-of-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-serotype-distribution-of-adult-non-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-in-tokai-region-japan-2008-2016
#15
Yuri Furuya, Yuka Yamagishi, Hayato Okade, Takumi Kadota, Tori Funatsu, Maki Eto, Nobuhiko Nomura, Junichi Mitsuyama, Hiroshige Mikamo
The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in February 2010 markedly reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease and changed serotype distribution in Japan. In November 2013, PCV7 was replaced by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). We investigated the serotype distribution and susceptibility trends of non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from adult patients. A total of 504 pneumococcal isolates were collected during 4 periods between 2008 and 2016 (Period 1; between June 2008 and April 2009, Period 2; between September 2010 and March 2011, Period 3; between October 2011 and March 2012, Period 4; between August 2015 and January 2016)...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413497/antibiotic-de-escalation-principle-in-elderly-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-complicated-with-severe-pneumonia
#16
Baohong Xiao, Mei Wang, Xiaoling Hu, Jinfeng Li, Fangfang Wang, Jiaxing Sun
The present study investigated the clinical effect of antibiotic de-escalation therapy in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complicated with severe pneumonia. According to the parity method of hospitalization number, 86 cases were selected and divided into the observation and control group with 43 cases each. Based on empirical antibiotic application, levofloxacin and cephalosporin antibiotics were used in the control group. After treatment for 3 days, the regimen was adjusted to antibiotics active against Gram-positive (G+) and Gram-negative (G-) bacteria such as the third or fourth generation cephalosporin antibiotics, combined with aminoglycoside, or macrolide antibiotics according to their effects...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413102/-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-healthy-carrier-individuals-in-primary-care-in-barcelona-area
#17
Carles Llor, Albert Boada, Mariona Pons-Vigués, Elisabet Grenzner, Rosa Juvé, Jesús Almeda
INTRODUCTION: The information available on antibiotic resistance patterns are generally based on specimens from hospitalised individuals. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibiotic resistance rate of nasal carriage strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy individuals, in accordance with age and gender, attended in Primary Care Centres (PCC). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Seven PCC in the Barcelona area...
April 13, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403766/controversies-in-diagnosis-and-management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#18
REVIEW
Sarah Sparham, Patrick Gp Charles
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common condition; however, it appears to be overdiagnosed. Diagnosing CAP too frequently may be adding to the problems of overuse of antibiotics, such as bacterial resistance in the community and greater costs and complications in individuals. Data support that most patients with non-severe CAP can be treated for 3-5 days; however, most patients with CAP are receiving much longer courses of therapy. Macrolides such as azithromycin have the potential to prolong the QT interval, although large population studies show that this does not appear to result in excess cardiac mortality...
April 17, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336384/predictors-for-individual-patient-antibiotic-treatment-effect-in-hospitalised-community-acquired-pneumonia-patients
#19
Antonella F Simonetti, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Valentijn A Schweitzer, Diego Viasus, Jordi Carratalà, Douwe F Postma, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert, Marc J M Bonten
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to identify clinical predictors of antibiotic treatment effects in non-ICU hospitalised CAP patients. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of three prospective cohorts (from the Netherlands and Spain) of CAP adult patients admitted to a non-ICU having received either beta-lactam monotherapy (BL), beta-lactam + macrolide (BLM), or fluoroquinolone-based therapy (FQL) as empiric antibiotic treatment. We evaluated candidate clinical predictors of treatment effects in multiple mixed-effects models by including interactions of the predictors with empiric antibiotic choice and using 30-day mortality, ICU admission, and length of hospital stay (LOS) as outcomes...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318472/antimicrobial-resistance-penicillin-binding-protein-sequences-and-pilus-islet-carriage-in-relation-to-clonal-evolution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-in-russia-2002-2013
#20
N Mayanskiy, T Savinova, N Alyabieva, O Ponomarenko, E Brzhozovskaya, A Lazareva, L Katosova, R Kozlov
Clonal changes of serotype 19A pneumococci have been appreciated in conjunction with growing prevalence of this serotype after implementation of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). In the present study, we characterized serotype 19A pneumococci collected in Russia within a decade preceding the implementation of PCV vaccination and described their clonal evolution. We retrospectively analyzed non-invasive serotype 19A isolates collected in 2002-2013. All isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, determination of macrolide resistance genotype, molecular detection of pilus islet (PI) carriage, sequencing of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes...
March 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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