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Macrolide AND pneumonia

Diego Viasus, Oscar Ramos, Leidy Ramos, Antonella F Simonetti, Jordi Carratalà
Community-acquired pneumonia is a major public health problem worldwide. In recent years, there has been an increase in the frequency of resistance to the antimicrobials such as β-lactams or macrolides which have habitually been used against the causative pathogens. Solithromycin, a next-generation macrolide, is the first fluoroketolide with activity against most of the frequently isolated bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia, including typical and atypical bacteria as well as macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae...
October 18, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Susanne Paukner, Rosemarie Riedl
Pleuromutilins are antibiotics that selectively inhibit bacterial translation and are semisynthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring tricyclic diterpenoid pleuromutilin, which received its name from the pleuromutilin-producing fungus Pleurotus mutilus Tiamulin and valnemulin are two established derivatives in veterinary medicine for oral and intramuscular administration. As these early pleuromutilin drugs were developed at a time when companies focused on major antibacterial classes, such as the β-lactams, and resistance was not regarded as an issue, interest in antibiotic research including pleuromutilins was limited...
October 14, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Christopher Henry, Carl Boethel, Laurel A Copeland, Shekhar Ghamande, Alejandro C Arroliga, Heath D White
RATIONALE: Legionella pneumophila is an uncommon cause of community-acquired pneumonia in south central United States and regular testing may not be cost-effective in areas of low incidence. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of Legionella in central Texas and determine the costeffectiveness of Legionella urinary antigen testing. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with pneumonia between January 2001 and December 2013...
October 14, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Vaishali Gaikwad, Tejash Gohel, Shrijeet Panickar, Vijay Chincholkar, Santosh Mangalkar
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infection, especially pneumonia, surgical site infections, blood stream infections, and continues to be a major cause of community-acquired infections. The emergence of penicillin resistance followed by the development and spread of strains resistant to the semisynthetic penicillins such as methicillin, oxacillin and nafcillin, macrolides, tetracycline, and aminoglycosides has made the treatment of staphylococcal infection a global challenge...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Max R Schroeder, David S Stephens
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common commensal and an opportunistic pathogen. Suspected pneumococcal upper respiratory infections and pneumonia are often treated with macrolide antibiotics. Macrolides are bacteriostatic antibiotics and inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit. The widespread use of macrolides is associated with increased macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae, and the treatment of pneumococcal infections with macrolides may be associated with clinical failures. In S...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Hana Čipčić Paljetak, Linda Tomašković, Mario Matijašić, Mirjana Bukvić, Andrea Fajdetić, Donatella Verbanac, Mihaela Perića
5-LOX - 5-lipoxygenase; ACT - artemisinin-based combination therapies; ADME - absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion; BAL - broncho alveolar lavage; CABP - community acquired bacterial pneumonia; cAMP - cyclic adenosine monophosphate; CAP - community-acquired pneumonia; CF - cystic fibrosis, BOS bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome; cGMP - cyclic guanosine monophosphate; COPD - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COX - cyclooxygenase; DPB - diffuse panbronchiolitis; HDACs - histone deacetylases; IBD - inflammatory bowel disease; IL-1p - interleukin 1p; IL-6 - interleukin 6; MIC - minimal inhibitory concentrations; MLSB - macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin B; NSAIDs - non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; OVA - ovalbumin; PDE4 - phosphodiesterase 4; PMA - phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; RA - rheumatoid arthritis; RTI - respiratory tract infections; SAHA - suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid; SAR - structure-activity-relationship; Th1 - type 1 helper T-cell; TNBS - trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid; TNF-α - tumour necrosis factor α; UN - United Nations, WHO - World Health Organisation...
September 27, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Ken B Waites, Donna M Crabb, Yang Liu, Lynn B Duffy
In vitro activities of omadacycline, a new aminomethylcycline, were determined for Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp. in comparison to azithromycin, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, tetracycline, and doxycycline. All omadacycline MICs were < 2 μg/ml. MIC90s were 0.063 μg/ml for Mycoplasma hominis, 0.25 μg/ml for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and 2 μg/ml for Ureaplasma spp. Omadacycline had the lowest MIC90 among all drugs tested against M. hominis Omadacycline activity was not affected by macrolide, tetracycline, or fluoroquinolone resistance...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Shaoli Li, Hongmei Sun, Fei Liu, Yanling Feng, Hanqing Zhao, Guanhua Xue, Chao Yan
BACKGROUND: Cases of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae have increased rapidly since 2000, especially in Asia. Patients infected with macrolide-resistant M pneumoniae usually present with severe M pneumoniae pneumonia. The aim of this study was to identify indicators for whether children at an early stage of M pneumoniae infection develop mild or severe pneumonia. CASE SUMMARY: Herein, we retrospectively reviewed 2 pediatric cases caused by macrolide-resistant M pneumoniae, but with markedly different severity of pneumonia...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Xing-Bei Weng, Zu-Huang Mi, Chun-Xin Wang, Jian-Ming Zhu
We present the draft genome sequence of a Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing sequence type 2357 (ST2357) strain, NB60, which contains drug-resistant genes encoding resistance to beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, colistin, macrolides, and tetracycline. Strain NB60 was isolated from human blood, making it an important tool for studying K. pneumoniae pathogenesis.
2016: Genome Announcements
Eleonora Morici, Serena Simoni, Andrea Brenciani, Eleonora Giovanetti, Pietro E Varaldo, Marina Mingoia
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the genetic basis of catQ-mediated chloramphenicol resistance in Streptococcus agalactiae. METHODS: Two clinical strains of catQ-positive chloramphenicol-resistant S. agalactiae (Sag236 and Sag403) were recently isolated, typed (MLST, PFGE pulsotypes, capsular types) and their antibiotic resistances investigated by phenotypic and genotypic approaches. Several molecular methods (PCR mapping, restriction assays, Southern blotting, sequencing and sequence analysis, conjugal transfer assays) were used to determine the genetic context of catQ and characterize a genetic element detected in the isolates...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Dwight J Hardy, David Vicino, Prabhavathi Fernandes
There has been an increase in the number of pertussis cases reported since the introduction of the acellular pertussis vaccine. While children that present with pertussis have a characteristic whooping cough, adults can simply have a persistent, non-specific cough and remain undiagnosed. Macrolide antibiotics, such as azithromycin, are the currently recommended treatment for pertussis. Solithromycin is a new macrolide and the first fluoroketolide, with broad activity against a wide spectrum of bacterial pathogens and has completed clinical development for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP)...
September 12, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Prabhavathi Fernandes, Evan Martens, Daniel Bertrand, David Pereira
The macrolide class of antibiotics, including the early generation macrolides erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin, have been used broadly for treatment of respiratory tract infections. An increase of treatment failures of early generation macrolides is due to the upturn in bacterial macrolide resistance to 48% in the US and over 80% in Asian countries and has led to the use of alternate therapies, such as fluoroquinolones. The safety of the fluoroquinolones is now in question and alternate antibiotics for the outpatient treatment of community acquired bacterial pneumonia are needed...
August 22, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Jason Phua, Nathan C Dean, Qi Guo, Win Sen Kuan, Hui Fang Lim, Tow Keang Lim
Mortality rates for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) range from 17 to 48 % in published studies.In this review, we searched PubMed for relevant papers published between 1981 and June 2016 and relevant files. We explored how early and aggressive management measures, implemented within 24 hours of recognition of severe CAP and carried out both in the emergency department and in the ICU, decrease mortality in severe CAP.These measures begin with the use of severity assessment tools and the application of care bundles via clinical decision support tools...
August 28, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Miyuki Morozumi, Takeaki Wajima, Misako Takata, Satoshi Iwata, Kimiko Ubukata
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus) isolates (n=443) obtained from Japanese adults with invasive infections between April 2010 and March 2013 were analyzed for capsular serotype, multilocus sequence typing, antibiotic susceptibility, and resistance genes. Among these cases, bacteremia without primary focus was the most common variety of infection (49.9%), followed by cellulitis (12.9%) and pneumonia (9.0%). Concerning patient age (18 to 59 years, the 60s, 70s, and 80s, and the 90s or older), the incidence of pneumonia increased in the 70s and 80s (P<0...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Shigeki Nakamura, Koichi Izumikawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Hiroshi Mukae, Shigeru Kohno
The balance of "Host-Pathogen-Antimicrobials" is crucial for the establishment of infectious diseases. Recently the ineffective cases, even though the appropriate antibiotics use, have been increasing since the several ineludible problems are rising, such as varied patient's background and the epidemic of the drug resistant pathogens, etc. Despite of the medical progression and the development of novel antimicrobials, the mortality of pneumonia has increased gradually and been the third cause of death in Japan...
April 2016: Japanese Journal of Antibiotics
Marina M Dinić, Snezana Mladenović Antić, Branislava Kocić, Dobrila Stanković Dordević, Miodrag Vrbić, Milena Bogdanović
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of respiratory infections. The aim was to study the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of respiratory isolates ofStreptococcus pneumoniae obtained from hospitalized children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 190 respiratory pneumococcal isolates obtained from children aged from 0 to 14 years were isolated and identified by using standard microbiological methods. Susceptibility to oxacillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, cotrimoxazole, ofloxacin and rifampicin was tested by disc diffusion method...
March 2016: Medicinski Pregled
M Meylan, F Pipoz
Fifty-two dairy herds in the canton Fribourg were included during one winter in a study on calf management, prevalence and treatments of calf diseases. Colostrum management was optimal in 46.2% of the herds only, and 51.3% of the calves had been sick at least once during the observation period. The most commonly observed diseases included respiratory disease (57.5%), diarrhea (32.8%) and umbilical disease (5.7%). Cases of pneumonia were treated with antimicrobials first by the farmers in 65.4% of the herds...
June 2016: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Katarzyna Klich, Krystian Pyta, Marcelina M Kubicka, Piotr Ruszkowski, Lech Celewicz, Marzena Gajecka, Piotr Przybylski
Huisgen cycloaddition allowed obtaining of novel triazole-bridged antibiotics (6-16) with the reconstructed C(5) arm of spiramycin. (1)H-(1)H NOESY couplings indicated the structure of novel derivatives in solution and demonstrated that the rebuilt C(5) arm is slightly differently oriented relative to the aglycone part if compared to that of spiramycin (1). Combined analysis of biological data together with experimentally determined lipophilicity (clogP) and solubility show the importance of the chemical nature of the newly introduced triazole C(5) arm in the presence of attractive antibacterial and anticancer potency...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
James D Porter, Jennifer Watson, Lee R Roberts, Simren K Gill, Helen Groves, Jaideep Dhariwal, Mark H Almond, Ernie Wong, Ross P Walton, Lyn H Jones, John Tregoning, Iain Kilty, Sebastian L Johnston, Michael R Edwards
BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of asthma and COPD are triggered by rhinoviruses. Uncontrolled inflammatory pathways, pathogenic bacterial burden and impaired antiviral immunity are thought to be important factors in disease severity and duration. Macrolides including azithromycin are often used to treat the above diseases, but exhibit variable levels of efficacy. Inhaled corticosteroids are also readily used in treatment, but may lack specificity. Ideally, new treatment alternatives should suppress unwanted inflammation, but spare beneficial antiviral immunity...
October 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Tatsuhiko Harada, Yuji Ishimatsu, Atsuko Hara, Towako Morita, Shota Nakashima, Tomoyuki Kakugawa, Noriho Sakamoto, Kosuke Kosai, Koichi Izumikawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Hiroshi Mukae, Shigeru Kohno
Secondary bacterial pneumonia (SBP) during influenza increases the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its associated mortality. Macrolide antibiotics, including clarithromycin (CAM), are potential treatments for a variety of chronic respiratory diseases owing to their pharmacological activities, in addition to antimicrobial action. We examined the efficacy of CAM for the treatment of SBP after influenza infection in COPD. Specifically, we evaluated the effect of CAM in elastase-induced emphysema mice that were inoculated with influenza virus (strain A/PR8/34) and subsequently infected with macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae CAM was administered to the emphysema mice 4 days prior to influenza virus inoculation...
September 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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