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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432048/solithromycin-a-novel-ketolide-antibiotic
#1
Michael J Buege, Jack E Brown, Samuel L Aitken
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, antimicrobial activity, clinical safety, and current regulatory status of solithromycin are reviewed. SUMMARY: Solithromycin is a novel ketolide antibiotic developed for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Its pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties provide activity against a broad range of intracellular organisms, including retained activity against pathogens displaying various mechanisms of macrolide resistance...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430673/antimicrobial-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-prevalence-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#2
Regine Cherazard, Marcia Epstein, Thien-Ly Doan, Tanzila Salim, Sheena Bharti, Miriam A Smith
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, bacteremia, and otitis media. S. pneumoniae has developed increased resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review of prevalence, mechanisms, and clinical implications in S. pneumoniae resistance. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: Since S. pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was first reported with subsequent development of resistance to other classes of drugs, selection of appropriate antibiotic treatment is challenging...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427991/impact-of-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-serotype-distribution-of-adult-non-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-in-tokai-region-japan-2008-2016
#3
Yuri Furuya, Yuka Yamagishi, Hayato Okade, Takumi Kadota, Tori Funatsu, Maki Eto, Nobuhiko Nomura, Junichi Mitsuyama, Hiroshige Mikamo
The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in February 2010 markedly reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease and changed serotype distribution in Japan. In November 2013, PCV7 was replaced by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). We investigated the serotype distribution and susceptibility trends of non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from adult patients. A total of 504 pneumococcal isolates were collected during 4 periods between 2008 and 2016 (Period 1; between June 2008 and April 2009, Period 2; between September 2010 and March 2011, Period 3; between October 2011 and March 2012, Period 4; between August 2015 and January 2016)...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413497/antibiotic-de-escalation-principle-in-elderly-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-complicated-with-severe-pneumonia
#4
Baohong Xiao, Mei Wang, Xiaoling Hu, Jinfeng Li, Fangfang Wang, Jiaxing Sun
The present study investigated the clinical effect of antibiotic de-escalation therapy in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complicated with severe pneumonia. According to the parity method of hospitalization number, 86 cases were selected and divided into the observation and control group with 43 cases each. Based on empirical antibiotic application, levofloxacin and cephalosporin antibiotics were used in the control group. After treatment for 3 days, the regimen was adjusted to antibiotics active against Gram-positive (G+) and Gram-negative (G-) bacteria such as the third or fourth generation cephalosporin antibiotics, combined with aminoglycoside, or macrolide antibiotics according to their effects...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413102/-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-healthy-carrier-individuals-in-primary-care-in-barcelona-area
#5
Carles Llor, Albert Boada, Mariona Pons-Vigués, Elisabet Grenzner, Rosa Juvé, Jesús Almeda
INTRODUCTION: The information available on antibiotic resistance patterns are generally based on specimens from hospitalised individuals. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibiotic resistance rate of nasal carriage strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy individuals, in accordance with age and gender, attended in Primary Care Centres (PCC). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Seven PCC in the Barcelona area...
April 13, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403766/controversies-in-diagnosis-and-management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#6
REVIEW
Sarah Sparham, Patrick Gp Charles
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common condition; however, it appears to be overdiagnosed. Diagnosing CAP too frequently may be adding to the problems of overuse of antibiotics, such as bacterial resistance in the community and greater costs and complications in individuals. Data support that most patients with non-severe CAP can be treated for 3-5 days; however, most patients with CAP are receiving much longer courses of therapy. Macrolides such as azithromycin have the potential to prolong the QT interval, although large population studies show that this does not appear to result in excess cardiac mortality...
April 17, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336384/predictors-for-individual-patient-antibiotic-treatment-effect-in-hospitalised-community-acquired-pneumonia-patients
#7
Antonella F Simonetti, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Valentijn A Schweitzer, Diego Viasus, Jordi Carratalà, Douwe F Postma, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert, Marc J M Bonten
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to identify clinical predictors of antibiotic treatment effects in non-ICU hospitalised CAP patients. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of three prospective cohorts (from the Netherlands and Spain) of CAP adult patients admitted to a non-ICU having received either beta-lactam monotherapy (BL), beta-lactam + macrolide (BLM), or fluoroquinolone-based therapy (FQL) as empiric antibiotic treatment. We evaluated candidate clinical predictors of treatment effects in multiple mixed-effects models by including interactions of the predictors with empiric antibiotic choice and using 30-day mortality, ICU admission, and length of hospital stay (LOS) as outcomes...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318472/antimicrobial-resistance-penicillin-binding-protein-sequences-and-pilus-islet-carriage-in-relation-to-clonal-evolution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-in-russia-2002-2013
#8
N Mayanskiy, T Savinova, N Alyabieva, O Ponomarenko, E Brzhozovskaya, A Lazareva, L Katosova, R Kozlov
Clonal changes of serotype 19A pneumococci have been appreciated in conjunction with growing prevalence of this serotype after implementation of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). In the present study, we characterized serotype 19A pneumococci collected in Russia within a decade preceding the implementation of PCV vaccination and described their clonal evolution. We retrospectively analyzed non-invasive serotype 19A isolates collected in 2002-2013. All isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, determination of macrolide resistance genotype, molecular detection of pilus islet (PI) carriage, sequencing of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes...
March 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302508/synthesis-of-clarithromycin-ketolides-chemically-modified-at-the-unreactive-c10-methyl-group
#9
Hany Fakhry Anwar, Mioara Andrei, Kjell Undheim
Chemoselective substitutions in the C10-methyl group of erythromycin A ketolides is reported. The C10-methyl group in the clarithromycin derived substrate 10,11-anhydro-O(6)-methyl-descladinosylerythromycin was activated by conversion into an allyl acetate and thereafter to the corresponding allylic cyanide. Both the allylic acetate and the cyanide reacted with carbonyldiimidazole and ammonia to afford a C11,C12-cyclic carbamate with concurrent elimination of the allylic function to yield a methylene α,β-unsaturated ketone...
February 23, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288170/therapeutic-efficacy-of-azithromycin-clarithromycin-minocycline-and-tosufloxacin-against-macrolide-resistant-and-macrolide-sensitive-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-in-pediatric-patients
#10
Nobuhisa Ishiguro, Naoko Koseki, Miki Kaiho, Tadashi Ariga, Hideaki Kikuta, Takehiro Togashi, Koji Oba, Keisuke Morita, Naoko Nagano, Masanori Nakanishi, Kazuya Hara, Kyosuke Hazama, Toru Watanabe, Tatsuru Yamanaka, Satoshi Sasaki, Hideto Furuyama, Mutsuo Shibata, Satoru Shida, Akihito Ishizaka, Yuichi Tabata, Hayato Aoyagi, Hiroyuki Naito, Mikio Yoshioka, Atsuko Horino, Tsuyoshi Kenri
OBJECTIVE: To clarify therapeutic effects of azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline and tosufloxacin against macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MRMP) pneumonia and against macrolide-sensitive Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MSMP) pneumonia in pediatric patients. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter observational study was conducted from July 2013 to August 2015. The therapeutic effects of azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline and tosufloxacin were evaluated in 59 patients with pneumonia caused by MRMP and in 50 patients with pneumonia caused by MSMP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270546/variability-in-antibiotic-prescribing-for-community-acquired-pneumonia
#11
Lori K Handy, Matthew Bryan, Jeffrey S Gerber, Theoklis Zaoutis, Kristen A Feemster
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Published guidelines recommend amoxicillin for most children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), yet macrolides and broad-spectrum antibiotics are more commonly prescribed. We aimed to determine the patient and clinician characteristics associated with the prescription of amoxicillin versus macrolide or broad-spectrum antibiotics for CAP. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in an outpatient pediatric primary care network from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013...
March 7, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267637/levofloxacin-versus-azithromycin-for-treating-legionella-pneumonia-a-propensity-score-analysis
#12
Carolina Garcia-Vidal, Irene Sanchez-Rodriguez, Antonella Francesca Simonetti, Joaquín Burgos, Diego Viasus, Maria Teresa Martin, Vicenç Falco, Jordi Carratalà
OBJECTIVES: Concerns have arisen regarding the equivalence of levofloxacin and some macrolides for treating community-acquired legionella pneumonia (LP). We aimed to compare the outcomes of current patients with LP treated with levofloxacin, azithromycin and clarithromycin. METHODS: Observational retrospective multicenter study of consecutive patients with LP requiring hospitalization (2000-2014) conducted in two hospitals. The primary outcome assessed was 30-day mortality...
March 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258107/non-antibiotic-macrolides-restore-airway-macrophage-phagocytic-function-with-potential-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-chronic-lung-diseases
#13
Sandra J Hodge, Hai Tran, Rhys Hamon, Eugene Roscioli, Greg Hodge, Hubertus Jersmann, Miranda Ween, Paul N Reynolds, Arthur Yeung, Jennifer Treiberg, Sibylle Wilbert
We reported defective efferocytosis associated with cigarette smoking and/or airway inflammation in chronic lung diseases including COPD, severe asthma and childhood bronchiectasis. We also showed defects in phagocytosis of non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi), a common colonizer of the lower airway in these diseases. These defects could be substantially overcome with low-dose Azithromycin; however, chronic usage may induce bacterial resistance. We investigated two novel macrolides, GS-459755 (2'-desoxy-9-(S)-erythromycylamine) and GS-560660 (Azithromycin-based 2'-desoxy molecule) with significantly diminished antibiotic activity against S...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252438/-sensitivity-study-of-antimicrobial-pneumococci-in-central-kazakhstan
#14
I Belyaev, A Belyaev
To determine the epidemiological pattern of antibiotic resistance strains of S. Pneumoniae studied the sensitivity of nasopharyngeal isolates of pneumococci isolated from healthy children attending sports clubs Karaganda region. The frequency of allocation of pneumococci was 35.57%. In accordance with the values of the minimum inhibitory concentration resistant pneumococci was: penicillin - 5.41%, erythromycin - 8.1%, clindamycin - 4.05%, amoxicillin-6.76%, tetracycline 28.38%. Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in the studied children is not a significant problem...
January 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251179/fluorocycline-tp-271-is-potent-against-complicated-community-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia-pathogens
#15
Trudy H Grossman, Corey Fyfe, William O'Brien, Meredith Hackel, Mary Beth Minyard, Ken B Waites, Jacques Dubois, Timothy M Murphy, Andrew M Slee, William J Weiss, Joyce A Sutcliffe
TP-271 is a novel, fully synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic in clinical development for the treatment of respiratory infections caused by susceptible and multidrug-resistant pathogens. TP-271 was active in MIC assays against key community respiratory Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90 = 0.03 µg/ml), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA; MIC90 = 0.25 µg/ml), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; MIC90 = 0.12 µg/ml), Streptococcus pyogenes (MIC90 = 0...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238211/effects-of-clarithromycin-azithromycin-and-rifampicin-on-terbutaline-induced-sweating-in-foals
#16
A L Stieler Stewart, L C Sanchez, M F Mallicote, A L Muniz, M S Westerterp, J A Burrow, R J MacKAY
BACKGROUND: Erythromycin (ERY) induces anhidrosis in foals. Azithromycin (AZI) and clarithromycin (CLA), often combined with rifampicin (RIF), are commonly used to treat Rhodococcus equi infections, but effects on sweating have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of AZI, CLA and RIF on sweat responses in normal foals. STUDY DESIGN: Each experiment was a blinded, duplicated, six foal × three period counterbalanced within subjects design (12 foals/experiment)...
February 26, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215918/molecular-detection-of-genes-responsible-for-macrolide-resistance-among-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-in-north-lebanon
#17
Salam El Ashkar, Marwan Osman, Rayane Rafei, Hassan Mallat, Marcel Achkar, Fouad Dabboussi, Monzer Hamze
In recent years, the increased use of macrolides was linked with the emergence of resistance Streptococcus pneumoniae worldwide. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. pneumoniae resistant to macrolides and to identify the macrolide resistance genotypes among clinical isolates collected in North Lebanon. Disk diffusion susceptibility method was performed for 132 strains of S. pneumoniae isolated over a period of 5 years in North Lebanon. Polymerase Chain Reaction followed by pyrosequencing was carried out for confirmation of phenotypic diagnosis...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166162/increasing-role-of-macrolide-anti-inflammatory-therapy-in-secondary-organizing-pneumonia
#18
Arjan S Flora, Hermann Simo, Ragheb Assaly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 26, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164610/an-investigation-of-the-frequency-of-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-pathogens-and-their-antibiotic-patterns-in-tonsils-and-adenoids-of-adenotonsillectomy-patients
#19
Yasar Nakipoglu, Gulsen Gunel, Deniz Kanliada, Levent Aydemir, Nezahat Gurler, Bulent Gurler
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the potentially pathogenic bacteria of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and their susceptibilities to different antibiotics. METHODS: Two-hundred adenoid and tonsil specimens from 100 patients who had undergone adenotonsillectomy were obtained and analyzed bacteriologically. Identification of the pathogens was made by conventional or commercial identification systems and antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out by disk diffusion method...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161038/treatment-of-infections-caused-by-rhodococcus-equi
#20
REVIEW
Steeve Giguère
Pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi remains an important cause of disease and death in foals. The combination of a macrolide (erythromycin, azithromycin, or clarithromycin) with rifampin remains the recommended therapy for foals with clinical signs of infection caused by R equi. Most foals with small, subclinical ultrasonographic pulmonary lesions associated with R equi recover without therapy, and administration of antimicrobial agents to these subclinically affected foals does not hasten lesion resolution relative to administration of a placebo...
February 1, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
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