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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230324/effects-of-short-term-energy-restriction-on-liver-lipid-content-and-inflammatory-status-in-severely-obese-adults-results-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-rct-using-two-dietary-approaches
#1
Emma L Baldry, Guruprasad P Aithal, Philip Kaye, Iskandar R Idris, Andrew Bennett, Paul C Leeder, Ian A Macdonald
Short-term very low energy diets (VLED) are used in clinical practice prior to bariatric surgery, however, regimens vary and outcomes for a short intervention are unclear. We examined the effect of two VLEDs; a food-based diet (FD) and meal replacement plan (MRP) (LighterLife) over two weeks in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). We collected clinical and anthropometric data, fasting blood samples, and dietary evaluation questionnaires. Surgeons took liver biopsies and made a visual assessment of the liver...
February 23, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229819/dabigatran-aggravates-topoisomerase-i-peptide-loaded-dendritic-cells-induced-lung-and-skin-fibrosis
#2
Heena Mehta, Philippe-Olivier Goulet, Jade Desjardins, Gemma Pérez, Martial Koenig, Jean-Luc Senécal, Marika Sarfati
OBJECTIVES: Dysregulated coagulation cascade has been implicated in development of fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Thrombin, a key mediator of the coagulation pathway, has both proinflammatory and procoagulant properties. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of oral dabigatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, on topoisomerase I dendritic cells (TOPOIA DCs)-induced lung and skin fibrosis, an experimental model of SSc. METHODS: Mice were repeatedly immunized with TOPOIA DCs...
February 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228641/evaluation-of-trained-immunity-by-%C3%AE-1-3-d-glucan-on-murine-monocytes-in-vitro-and-duration-of-response-in-vivo
#3
Pablo Garcia-Valtanen, Ruth Marian Guzman-Genuino, David L Williams, John D Hayball, Kerrilyn R Diener
The β-1, 3 (D)-glucan (β-glucan) present in the cell wall of Candida albicans induces epigenetic changes in human monocytes resulting in primed macrophages exhibiting increased cytokine responsiveness to reinfection. This phenomenon is referred to as trained immunity or innate immune memory. However, whether β-glucan can reprogram murine monocytes in vitro or induce lasting effects in vivo has yet to be elucidated. Thus purified murine spleen-derived monocytes were primed with β-glucan in vitro and assessed for markers of differentiation and survival...
February 23, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223796/stromelysin-2-mmp-10-facilitates-clearance-and-moderates-inflammation-and-cell-death-following-lung-exposure-to-long-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes
#4
Tyler C Vandivort, Timothy P Birkland, Talita P Domiciano, Somenath Mitra, Terrance J Kavanagh, William C Parks
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are nanomaterials composed of multiple layers of graphene cylinders with unique properties that make them valuable for a number of industries. However, rising global production has led to concerns regarding potential occupational exposures to them as raw materials during handling. This is especially true for long MWCNT fibers, whose aspect ratio has been posited to initiate pathology similar to that of asbestos. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of extracellular endopeptidases that control various processes related to tissue repair, inflammation, and more...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222766/increased-cortical-lesion-load-and-intrathecal-inflammation-is-associated-with-oligoclonal-bands-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-combined-csf-and-mri-study
#5
Gabriele Farina, Roberta Magliozzi, Marco Pitteri, Richard Reynolds, Stefania Rossi, Alberto Gajofatto, Maria Donata Benedetti, Francesco Facchiano, Salvatore Monaco, Massimiliano Calabrese
BACKGROUND: Although IgG oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are a frequent phenomenon in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, their relationship with grey matter lesions, intrathecal/meningeal inflammation and clinical evolution has not been clarified yet. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between the OCBs, the inflammatory/neurodegenerative CSF profile at diagnosis, the cortical lesion load and the clinical evolution after 10 years. METHODS: This is a 10-year observational, cross-sectional study based on a combined MRI, cognitive and CSF profiling of the examined patients...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219886/dependence-of-glomerulonephritis-induction-on-novel-intraglomerular-alternatively-activated-bone-marrow-derived-macrophages-and-mac-1-and-pd-l1-in-lupus-prone-nzm2328-mice
#6
Sun-Sang J Sung, Yan Ge, Chao Dai, Hongyang Wang, Shu Man Fu, Rahul Sharma, Young S Hahn, Jing Yu, Thu H Le, Mark D Okusa, Warren K Bolton, Jessica R Lawler
Glomerular damage mediated by glomerulus-infiltrating myeloid-derived cells is a key pathogenic event in lupus nephritis (LN), but the process is poorly understood. Confocal microscopy of kidney sections and flow cytometry analysis of glomerular cells from magnetic bead-purified glomeruli have identified glomerulus-infiltrating leukocyte populations in NZM2328 (NZM) lupus-prone mice with spontaneous chronic glomerulonephritis (GN) and anti-glomerular basement membrane-induced nephritis. The occurrence of a major glomerulus-infiltrating CD11b(+)F4/80(-)I-A(-) macrophage population exhibiting the markers programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), Mac-2, and macrophage mannose receptor (CD206) and producing Klf4, Il10, Retnla, Tnf, and Il6 mRNA, which are known to be expressed by alternatively activated (M2b) macrophages, correlated with proteinuria status...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219832/the-role-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-contained-in-proinflammatory-cytokine-genes-in-the-development-of-congenital-infection-with-human-cytomegalovirus-in-fetuses-and-neonates
#7
Wioletta Wujcicka, Jan Wilczyński, Dorota Nowakowska
PURPOSE: The research project targeted the distribution of genotypes, alleles and haplotypes in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the interleukin (IL) 1A, IL1B, IL6, IL12B and TNFA genes, in fetuses and neonates, congenitally infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and among uninfected controls. METHODS: The study included 20 fetuses and neonates with congenital HCMV infection and 31 control individuals. The presence and amount of viral DNA was determined by real-time PCR assay for UL55 gene...
February 17, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218788/case-report-dysregulation-of-gene-expression-in-a-patient-with-depressive-disorder-after-transient-ischemic-attack-confirmed-by-a-neurophysiological-neuromarker
#8
M Trystuła, M Żychowska, M Wilk-Frańczuk, J D Kropotov, M Pąchalska
The aim of this study was to evaluate dysregulation of gene expression associated with the cellular stress response in a patient with a post-"warning stroke" depressive disorder confirmed by the presence of a neurophysiological neuromarker through the use of quantitative EEG and event-related potentials. The patient was tested for seven genes associated with the stress reaction: HSPA1A, HSPB1, IL6, IL10, CRP, and HSF-1 along with NF-κB, compared to gene expression in health controls. A 54-year-old patient with a past history of schizophrenia (at the age of 20), and of transient ischemic attack (at the age of 53) and depressive disorder confirmed by functional, cognitive, emotional, and affectional diagnostics underwent additional testing for expression of the genes associated with stress response...
February 16, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214558/small-heterodimer-partner-shp-contributes-to-insulin-resistance-in-cardiomyocytes
#9
Ricardo Rodríguez-Calvo, Dipanjan Chanda, Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Marie Miglianico, Will A Coumans, Emma Barroso, Marta Tajes, Joost Jfp Luiken, Jan Fc Glatz, Manuel Vázquez-Carrera, Dietbert Neumann
Small heterodimer partner (SHP) is an atypical nuclear receptor expressed in heart that has been shown to inhibit the hypertrophic response. Here, we assessed the role of SHP in cardiac metabolism and inflammation. Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) displayed glucose intolerance accompanied by increased cardiac mRNA levels of Shp. In HL-1 cardiomyocytes, SHP overexpression inhibited both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and impaired the insulin signalling pathway (evidenced by reduced AKT and AS160 phosphorylation), similar to insulin resistant cells generated by high palmitate/high insulin treatment (HP/HI; 500μM/100nM)...
February 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202909/leukocyte-tlr5-deficiency-inhibits-atherosclerosis-by-reduced-macrophage-recruitment-and-defective-t-cell-responsiveness
#10
Guilielmus H J M Ellenbroek, Gijs H M van Puijvelde, Adam A Anas, Martine Bot, Miriam Asbach, Arjan Schoneveld, Peter J van Santbrink, Amanda C Foks, Leo Timmers, Pieter A Doevendans, Gerard Pasterkamp, Imo E Hoefer, Tom van der Poll, Johan Kuiper, Saskia C A de Jager
Toll-like receptors (TLR) provide a critical link between innate and adaptive immunity, both important players in atherosclerosis. Since evidence for the role of TLR5 is lacking, we aimed to establish this in the immune axis of atherosclerosis. We assessed the effect of the TLR5-specific ligand Flagellin on macrophage maturation and T-cell polarisation. Next, we generated TLR5(-/-)LDLr(-/-) chimeras to study the effect of hematopoietic TLR5 deficiency on atherosclerosis formation. Flagellin stimulation did not influence wildtype or TLR5(-/-) macrophage maturation...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202520/evolution-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-in-endocrine-resistant-metastatic-breast-cancers-is-mediated-by-stromal-microvesicles
#11
Pasquale Sansone, Marjan Berishaj, Vinagolu K Rajasekhar, Claudio Ceccarelli, Qing Chang, Antonio Strillacci, Claudia Savini, Lauren Shapiro, Robert Bowman, Chiara Mastroleo, Sabrina De Carolis, Laura Daly, Alberto Benito-Martin, Fabiana Perna, Nicola Fabbri, John H Healey, Enzo Spisni, Monica Cricca, David Lyden, Massimiliano Bonafé, Jacqueline Bromberg
The hypothesis that microvesicle (MV)-mediated microRNA transfer converts non-cancer stem cells into cancer stem cells (CSCs) leading to therapy resistance remains poorly investigated. Here we provide direct evidence supporting this hypothesis, by demonstrating how MV derived from cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) transfer miR-221 to promote hormonal therapy resistance (HTR) in models of luminal breast cancer. We determined that CAF-derived MV horizontally transferred miR221 to tumor cells and, in combination with hormone therapy activated an ERlo/Notchhi feed-forward loop responsible for the generation of CD133hi CSC...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201964/plasmodium-falciparum-heat-shock-protein-70-lacks-immune-modulatory-activity
#12
Ofentse Jacob Pooe, Gabriele Köllisch, Holger Heine, Addmore Shonhai
Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family are conserved molecules that constitute a major part of the cell's protein folding machinery. The role of Hsp70s of parasitic origin in host cell immune modulation has remained contentious. This is largely due to the fact that several studies implicating Hsp70 in immune modulation rely on the use of recombinant protein derived from bacteria which is often fraught contamination. Thus, in the current study, we expressed recombinant Plasmodium falciparum Hsp70 (PfHsp70) using in three bacterial expression hosts: E...
14, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199343/long-term-treatment-with-abatacept-or-tocilizumab-does-not-increase-epstein-barr-virus-load-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-three-years-retrospective-study
#13
Nathalie Balandraud, Gaetan Texier, Emmanuel Massy, Olivier Muis-Pistor, Marielle Martin, Isabelle Auger, Marie-Caroline Guzian, Sandrine Guis, Thao Pham, Jean Roudier
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a widely disseminated lymphotropic herpes virus implicated in benign and malignant disorders. In transplant patients, immunosuppressive drugs (cyclosporine) diminish control of EBV replication, potentially leading to lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD). Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have impaired control of EBV infection and have EBV load ten times higher than controls. As post transplant patients, patients with RA have increased risk of developing lymphomas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196851/inhibition-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-osteoclast-formation-and-bone-resorption-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-cysteine-proteinase-inhibitors
#14
Fredrik Strålberg, Ali Kassem, Franciszek Kasprzykowski, Magnus Abrahamson, Anders Grubb, Catharina Lindholm, Ulf H Lerner
Inflammation-induced bone destruction is a major treatment target in many inflammatory skeletal diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate if the cysteine proteinase inhibitors cystatin C, fungal cysteine proteinase inhibitor (E-64), and N-benzyloxycarbonyl-arginyl-leucyl-valyl-glycyl-diazomethane acetate (Z-RLVG-CHN2) can inhibit LPS-induced osteoclast formation. Mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) were isolated and primed with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) for 24 h, followed by stimulation with LPS, with and without inhibitors...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193514/microrna-301a-promotes-intestinal-inflammation-and-colitis-associated-cancer-development-by-inhibiting-btg1
#15
Chong He, Tianming Yu, Yan Shi, Caiyun Ma, Wenjing Yang, Leilei Fang, Mingming Sun, Wei Wu, Fei Xiao, Feifan Guo, Minhu Chen, Hong Yang, Jiaming Qian, Yingzi Cong, Zhanju Liu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal tissues from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer have increased expression of microRNA-301a (MIR301A), compared to tissues from patients without IBD. We studied the mechanisms of MIR301A in progression of IBD in human tissues and mice. METHODS: We isolated intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from colon biopsy samples of 153 patients with different stages of IBD activity, 6 patients with colitis-associated cancer (CAC), and 35 healthy individuals (controls), enrolled in the study in Shanghai, China...
February 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192769/disorganization-at-the-stage-of-schizophrenia-clinical-outcome-clinical-biological-study
#16
A Nestsiarovich, V Obyedkov, H Kandratsenka, M Siniauskaya, I Goloenko, N Waszkiewicz
BACKGROUND: According to the multidimensional model of schizophrenia, three basic psychopathological dimensions constitute its clinical structure: positive symptoms, negative symptoms and disorganization. The latter one is the newest and the least studied. Our aim was to discriminate disorganization in schizophrenia clinical picture and to identify its distinctive biological and socio-psychological particularities and associated genetic and environmental factors. METHODS: We used SAPS/SANS psychometrical scales, scales for the assessment of patient's compliance, insight, social functioning, life quality...
December 30, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189064/oral-application-of-carbon-nanofibers-in-rats-increases-blood-concentration-of-il6-and-il10-and-decreases-locomotor-activity
#17
Nina Vitalievna Sayapina, Tatyana Anantolievna Batalova, Alexander Alexandrovich Sergievich, Mikhail Anatolievich Shtarberg, Eugeny Alexandrovich Borodin, Pavel Pavlovich Khoroshikh, Vladimir Victorovich Chaika, Vladimir Valerievich Kodintsev, Alexey Anatolievich Vedyagin, Ilya Vladimirovich Mishakov, Antonis Vakis, Petra Henrich-Noack, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Ayse Basak Engin, Kirill Golokhvast
Carbon nanofibers (CNF) are versatile nanomaterials that are widely used in various fields of science and technology. As a consequence, animals as well as humans may be exposed to such compounds via different routes. We hypothesized that oral intake of CNF will lead to an inflammatory reaction and consequently induce behavioral impairments. To address this issue, rats were fed with 500mg/kgCNF for 14days and their locomotor activity, emotional status and cognition were quantified by testing the animals in an open field set-up, elevated plus maze and in the universal problem solving box which provides information about motivation and cognition...
January 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186708/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-as-mediators-of-anti-inflammatory-effects-endorsement-of-macrophage-polarization
#18
Claudia Lo Sicco, Daniele Reverberi, Carolina Balbi, Valentina Ulivi, Elisa Principi, Luisa Pascucci, Pamela Becherini, Maria Carla Bosco, Luigi Varesio, Chiara Franzin, Michela Pozzobon, Ranieri Cancedda, Roberta Tasso
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are effective therapeutic agents enhancing the repair of injured tissues mostly through their paracrine activity. Increasing evidences show that besides the secretion of soluble molecules, the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) represents an alternative mechanism adopted by MSCs. Since macrophages are essential contributors toward the resolution of inflammation, which has emerged as a finely orchestrated process, the aim of the present study was to carry out a detailed characterization of EVs released by human adipose derived-MSCs to investigate their involvement as modulators of MSC anti-inflammatory effects inducing macrophage polarization...
January 31, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185985/activating-transcription-factor-3-represses-cigarette-smoke-induced-il6-and-il8-expression-via-suppressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#19
Yan-Ping Wu, Chao Cao, Yin-Fang Wu, Miao Li, Tian-Wen Lai, Chen Zhu, Yong Wang, Song-Min Ying, Zhi-Hua Chen, Hua-Hao Shen, Wen Li
Airway and lung inflammation is a fundamental hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) has been reported to negatively regulate many pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. However, little is known about the impact of ATF3 on the inflammatory response of COPD. Since cigarette smoke (CS) is considered to be the most important risk factor in the etiology of COPD, we attempted to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of ATF3 in CS-induced inflammation...
February 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179513/immune-responses-in-hibernating-little-brown-myotis-myotis-lucifugus-with-white-nose-syndrome
#20
T M Lilley, J M Prokkola, J S Johnson, E J Rogers, S Gronsky, A Kurta, D M Reeder, K A Field
White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal disease responsible for decimating many bat populations in North America. Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the psychrophilic fungus responsible for WNS, prospers in the winter habitat of many hibernating bat species. The immune response that Pd elicits in bats is not yet fully understood; antibodies are produced in response to infection by Pd, but they may not be protective and indeed may be harmful. To understand how bats respond to infection during hibernation, we studied the effect of Pd inoculation on the survival and gene expression of captive hibernating Myotis lucifugus with varying pre-hibernation antifungal antibody titres...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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