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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734174/old-and-new-adjuvants
#1
REVIEW
Amy S McKee, Philippa Marrack
Adjuvants have been deliberately added to vaccines since the 1920's when alum was discovered to boost antibody responses, leading to better protection. The first adjuvants were discovered by accident and were used in the safer but less immunogenic subunit vaccines, supposedly by providing an antigen depot to extend antigen presentation. Since that time, much has been discovered about how these adjuvants impact cells at the tissue site to activate innate immune responses, mobilize dendritic cells and drive adaptive immunity...
July 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732279/turbocharging-vaccines-emerging-adjuvants-for-dendritic-cell-based-therapeutic-cancer-vaccines
#2
REVIEW
Mansi Saxena, Nina Bhardwaj
Development of therapeutic cancer vaccines has been hindered by the many pro-tumorigenic mechanisms at play in cancer patients that serve to suppress both antigen presenting cells and T cells. In face of these obstacles, cancer vaccines are most likely to promote anti-tumorigenic immune responses only when formulated with strong adjuvants, and in combination with new immune interventions designed to reverse immune suppression and exhaustion of T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Dendritic cells (DCs) are often termed 'nature's adjuvant' due to their exceptional capacity for initiating both innate and adaptive immune responses...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732192/cost-and-quality-issues-in-establishing-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-program-in-developing-countries
#3
REVIEW
Shahrukh K Hashmi, Alok Srivastava, Walid Rasheed, Salman Adil, Tong Wu, Madan Jagasia, Amr Nassar, William Y K Hwang, Amir Ali Hamidieh, Hildegard T Greinix, Marcelo C Pasquini, Jane F Apperley, Mahmoud Aljurf
The hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) activity has grown significantly over the past two decades in both developing and developed countries. Many challenges arise in establishing new HCT programs in developing countries, due to scarcity of resources and manpower in expertise in HCT. While cost issues can potentially hinder establishment of new HCT programs in certain regions, the focus on quality and value should be included in the general vision of leadership before establishing an HCT program. The main challenge in most developing countries is the lack of trained/qualified personnel, enormous start-up costs for a tertiary care center, and quality maintenance...
July 14, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732076/eincr1-is-an-egf-inducible-lincrna-overexpressed-in-lung-adenocarcinomas
#4
Karol Nowicki-Osuch, Yaoyong Li, Mairi Challinor, David T Gerrard, Neil A Hanley, Andrew D Sharrocks
Long non-coding RNAs are being increasingly recognised as important molecules involved in regulating a diverse array of biological functions. For example, many long non-coding RNAs have been associated with tumourigenesis and in this context their molecular functions often involves impacting on chromatin and transcriptional control processes. One important cellular control system that is often deregulated in cancer cells is the ERK MAP kinase pathway. Here we have investigated whether ERK pathway signaling in response to EGF stimulation, leads to changes in the production of long non-coding RNAs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731540/participation-of-osteoclastogenic-factors-in-immunopathogenesis-of-human-chronic-periapical-lesions
#5
S C L T Santos, L A Couto, J M Fonseca, F C A Xavier, A C L Figueiredo, V S Freitas, R A Freitas, J N Santos, A C G Henriques
BACKGROUND: Chronic periapical lesions (CPLs) are common lesions of the oral cavity and are the result of caries, tooth fracture, iatrogenic causes or factors causing contamination and pulp necrosis. Inflammatory cells participate in the expansion of CPLs by releasing factors that stimulate or inhibit osteolytic activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the participation of RANKL, TNF-α, cathepsin K, IL-33 and OPG in the development of radicular cysts (RCs) and periapical granulomas (PGs)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731516/mir-181d-regulates-human-dendritic-cell-maturation-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#6
Xian Wei Su, Gang Lu, Chi Kwan Leung, Qiang Liu, Yi Li, Kam Sze Tsang, Shi Dou Zhao, Danny Tat Ming Chan, Hsiang Fu Kung, Wai Sang Poon
OBJECTIVES: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are considered as the cellular regulators which post-transcriptionally modulate gene expression in diverse biological processes including cell development and immunity. In this study, we investigated functions of miR-181d in dendritic cells (DCs) maturation, and the underlying mechanisms were also explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here we did the miRNA screening in human DCs in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
July 21, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731483/the-role-of-laminins-in-cartilaginous-tissues-from-development-to-regeneration
#7
Y Sun, T L Wang, W S Toh, M Pei
As a key molecule of the extracellular matrix, laminin provides a delicate microenvironment for cell functions. Recent findings suggest that laminins expressed by cartilage-forming cells (chondrocytes, progenitor cells and stem cells) could promote chondrogenesis. However, few papers outline the effect of laminins on providing a favorable matrix microenvironment for cartilage regeneration. In this review, we delineated the expression of laminins in hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage and cartilage-like tissue (nucleus pulposus) throughout several developmental stages...
July 21, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731464/trophoblast-survival-signaling-during-human-placentation-requires-hsp70-activation-of-mmp2-mediated-hbegf-shedding
#8
Chandni V Jain, Philip Jessmon, Charbel T Barrak, Alan D Bolnick, Brian A Kilburn, Michael Hertz, D Randall Armant
Survival of trophoblast cells in the low oxygen environment of human placentation requires metalloproteinase-mediated shedding of HBEGF and downstream signaling. A matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) antibody array and quantitative RT-PCR revealed upregulation of MMP2 post-transcriptionally in human first trimester HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells and placental villous explants exposed to 2% O2. Specific MMP inhibitors established the requirement for MMP2 in HBEGF shedding and upregulation. Because α-amanitin inhibited the upregulation of HBEGF, differentially expressed genes were identified by next-generation sequencing of RNA from trophoblast cells cultured at 2% O2 for 0, 1, 2 and 4 h...
July 21, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731459/malignant-t-cells-activate-endothelial-cells-via-il-17%C3%A2-f
#9
B Lauenborg, I V Litvinov, Y Zhou, A Willerslev-Olsen, C M Bonefeld, C Nastasi, S Fredholm, L M Lindahl, D Sasseville, C Geisler, M M Wasik, T Krejsgaard, L M R Gjerdrum, L Iversen, N Odum, A Woetmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2017: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731456/upregulation-of-tet-activity-with-ascorbic-acid-induces-epigenetic-modulation-of-lymphoma-cells
#10
N Shenoy, T Bhagat, E Nieves, M Stenson, J Lawson, G S Choudhary, T Habermann, G Nowakowski, R Singh, X Wu, A Verma, T E Witzig
The Ten Eleven Translocation (TET) enzymes have been found to be mutated in both diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) and peripheral T-cell (PTCL) lymphomas resulting in DNA hypermethylation. Recent studies in embryonal stem cells showed that ascorbic acid (AA) is a cofactor for TET with a binding site at the catalytic domain, and enhances TET activity. We hypothesized that AA could potentially enhance TET activity in lymphoma cells to cause DNA demethylation, reactivate expression of tumor suppressor genes and enhance chemosensitivity...
July 21, 2017: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731389/protease-hydrolysates-of-filefish-thamnaconus-modestus-byproducts-effectively-inhibit-foodborne-pathogens
#11
Shaimaa Hatab, Mei-Ling Chen, Wenhua Miao, Jiheng Lin, Dandan Wu, Changyu Wang, Pengxiang Yuan, Shanggui Deng
In this study, novel antimicrobial peptides had been derived by enzymatic hydrolysis of filefish (Thamnaconus modestus) byproduct (HFBP). Different proteases, (papain [P], trypsin [T], neutrase [N], pepsin [PE], and the mixture I [PN] and mixture II [PT]) and different hydrolysis time (60, 120, 180, and 240 min), have been used to generate peptides with different lengths and amino acid sequences. The antimicrobial properties of HFBPs were tested, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, using disc diffusion method...
July 21, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731282/altered-signaling-associated-with-chronic-arsenic-exposure-in-human-skin-keratinocytes
#12
Sartaj Ahmad Mir, Santosh Renuse, Gajanan Sathe, Aafaque Ahmad Khan, Arun H Patil, Vishalakshi Nanjappa, Firdous Ahmad Bhat, T S Keshava Prasad, Ashok K Giri, Aditi Chatterjee, Harsha Gowda
Modulation of signaling pathways upon chronic arsenic exposure remains poorly studied. Here we carried out SILAC-based quantitative phosphoproteomics analysis to dissect the signaling induced upon chronic arsenic exposure in human skin keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. We identified 4,171 unique phosphosites derived from 2,000 proteins. We observed differential phosphorylation of 406 phosphosites (2-fold) corresponding to 305 proteins. Several pathways involved in cytoskeleton maintenance and organization were found to be significantly enriched (p<0...
July 21, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731168/osteoclast-regulation-of-osteoblasts-via-rank%C3%A2-rankl-reverse-signal-transduction-in%C3%A2-vitro
#13
Shiqian Zhang, Xiaoyu Wang, Guojun Li, Yang Chong, Jie Zhang, Xinzhen Guo, Baoxin Li, Zhenggang Bi
The treatment of osteoporosis typically inhibits the activity of osteoclasts, which subsequently results in the suppression of bone formation and maintenance, however the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. The receptor activator of nuclear factor κ‑B ligand (RANKL)‑receptor activator of nuclear factor κ‑B (RANK) signaling axis is important in the osteoblast regulation of osteoclasts. RANKL surface‑bound molecules expressed on T cells stimulate a reverse signaling transduction in order to regulate the T cells, therefore the present study hypothesized that RANKL expressed on osteoblasts may transfer reverse signals to regulate osteoblasts...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731149/the-role-of-t-helper-17-cells-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hepatitis-b-virus-related-liver-cirrhosis-review
#14
Suxia Bao, Jianming Zheng, Guangfeng Shi
In chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients, T helper 17 (Th17) cells are significantly elevated. Th17 cells initiate immune‑mediated pathogenesis and have a critical role in the process of HBV‑related liver cirrhosis (HBV‑LC). The mechanisms underlying this process are attributed to Th17‑secreted cytokines, which include interleukin (IL)‑17, IL‑21 and IL‑22; however, a systemic analysis regarding these mechanisms has yet to be conducted. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the role of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of HBV‑LC...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730645/effect-of-metformin-on-germ-cell-specific-apoptosis-oxidative-stress-and-epididymal-sperm-quality-after-testicular-torsion-detorsion-in-rats
#15
M Ghasemnejad-Berenji, M Ghazi-Khansari, I Yazdani, M Nobakht, A Abdollahi, H Ghasemnejad-Berenji, J Mohajer Ansari, S Pashapour, A R Dehpour
The study was designed to evaluate the effects of metformin on apoptosis and epididymal sperm quality in a rat testicular ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury model. A total of 72 male rats were divided into four groups (n = 18 for each group): group 1 (sham-operated group), group 2 (metformin group), group 3 (torsion/detorsion [T/D] + saline) and group 4 (T/D + 300 mg kg(-1) metformin). Testicular torsion was achieved by rotating the right testis 720° in a clockwise direction for 1 hr. Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) level and caspase-3 activity increased and the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased in comparison with sham-operated group 4 hr after detorsion (p < ...
July 21, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730224/histopathological-and-immunohistochemical-profile-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#16
Ştefan Cristian Dinescu, Mircea Cătălin ForŢofoiu, Ana Maria Bumbea, Paulina Lucia Ciurea, Cristina Jana Busuioc, Anca Emanuela Muşetescu
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by hypofunction of the salivary and lachrymal glands. Main clinical features of SS are sicca symptoms, due to the altered glandular function. Also, in advanced stages, bilateral swelling of the parotid glands can be noted, indicative of severe glandular involvement. Phenotypic expression of various mononuclear cells present in the affected tissue offers additional insight into cellular proliferation, survival, migration, antibody secretion and also the potential of forming tertiary lymphoid tissue, i...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730140/current-advances-in-checkpoint-inhibitors-lessons-from-non-central-nervous-system-cancers-and-potential-for-glioblastoma
#17
REVIEW
Natasha Lakin, Robert Rulach, Stefan Nowicki, Kathreena M Kurian
The adaptive immune system depends on the sequence of antigen presentation, activation, and then inhibition to mount a proportionate response to a threat. Tumors evade the immune response partly by suppressing T-cell activity using immune checkpoints. The use of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies counteract this suppression, thereby enhancing the antitumor activity of the immune system. This approach has proven efficacy in melanoma, renal cancer, and lung cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729866/cytokine-induced-killer-cells-as-pharmacological-tools-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#18
REVIEW
Xingchun Gao, Yajing Mi, Na Guo, Hao Xu, Lixian Xu, Xingchun Gou, Weilin Jin
Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are a heterogeneous population of effector CD3(+)CD56(+) natural killer T cells, which can be easily expanded in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CIK cells work as pharmacological tools for cancer immunotherapy as they exhibit MHC-unrestricted, safe, and effective antitumor activity. Much effort has been made to improve CIK cells cytotoxicity and treatments of CIK cells combined with other antitumor therapies are applied. This review summarizes some strategies, including the combination of CIK with additional cytokines, dendritic cells, check point inhibitors, antibodies, chemotherapeutic agents, nanomedicines, and engineering CIK cells with a chimeric antigen receptor...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729715/inflammatory-monocytes-regulate-th1-oriented-immunity-to-cpg-adjuvanted-protein-vaccines-through-production-of-il-12
#19
S De Koker, L Van Hoecke, A De Beuckelaer, K Roose, K Deswarte, M A Willart, P Bogaert, T Naessens, B G De Geest, X Saelens, B N Lambrecht, J Grooten
Due to their capacity to skew T cell responses towards Th1 oriented immunity, oligonucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG) have emerged as interesting adjuvants for vaccination. Whereas the signalling pathways in response to CpG mediated TLR9 activation have been extensively documented at the level of the individual cell, little is however known on the precise identity of the innate immune cells that govern T cell priming and polarisation to CpG adjuvanted protein antigens in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that optimal induction of Th1 oriented immunity to CpG adjuvanted protein vaccines requires the coordinated actions of conventional DCs and of monocytes...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729700/sphingomimetic-multiple-sclerosis-drug-fty720-activates-vesicular-synaptobrevin-and-augments-neuroendocrine-secretion
#20
Frederic D Darios, Jernej Jorgacevski, Ajda Flašker, Robert Zorec, Virginia García-Martinez, José Villanueva, Luis M Gutiérrez, Charlotte Leese, Manjot Bal, Elena Nosyreva, Ege T Kavalali, Bazbek Davletov
Neurotransmission and secretion of hormones involve a sequence of protein/lipid interactions with lipid turnover impacting on vesicle trafficking and ultimately fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane. We previously demonstrated that sphingosine, a sphingolipid metabolite, promotes formation of the SNARE complex required for membrane fusion and also increases the rate of exocytosis in isolated nerve terminals, neuromuscular junctions, neuroendocrine cells and in hippocampal neurons. Recently a fungi-derived sphingosine homologue, FTY720, has been approved for treatment of multiple sclerosis...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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