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Cecilia Rossetti, Maren C S Levernæs, Léon Reubsaet, Trine G Halvorsen
Mass spectrometric assays are now of great relevance for trace compound analysis in complex matrices such as serum and plasma samples. Especially in the quantification of low abundant protein-biomarkers, the choice of the sample preparation is crucial. In the present paper immunocapture and Molecular Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) have been applied in the determination of pro-gastrin-releasing peptide, a Small Cell Lung Cancer marker. These affinity-based techniques were compared in terms of matrix effect, limits of detection, repeatability and extraction specificity...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Malini Riddle, Erica Mezias, Duncan Foley, Joseph LeSauter, Rae Silver
The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), locus of the master circadian clock, bears many neuronal types. At the cellular-molecular level, the clock is comprised of feedback loops involving "clock" genes including Period1 and Period2, and their protein products, PERIOD1 and PERIOD2 (PER1/2). In the canonical model of circadian oscillation, the PER1/2 proteins oscillate together. While their rhythmic expression in the SCN as a whole has been described, the possibility of regional differences is unknown...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Y Kaneko, N Onda, Y Watanabe, M Shibutani
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) produced by enterochromaffin (EC) cells is an important enteric mucosal signaling ligand and has been implicated in several gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and functional disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. The present study reports a new, simple and rapid visualization method of 5-HT-producing EC cells utilizing detection of autofluorescence in paraffin-embedded tissue sections after formalin fixation. In human samples, there was a high incidence of autofluorescence+ cells in the 5-HT+ cells in the pyloric, small intestinal and colonic glands, while co-localization was lacking between autofluorescence+ and gastrin+ cells in the pyloric and small intestinal glands...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Jens F Rehfeld
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Kenichi Yamanaka, Hiroyuki Miyatani, Yukio Yoshida, Takehiro Ishii, Shinichi Asabe, Osamu Takada, Mitsuhiro Nokubi, Hirosato Mashima
BACKGROUND: Gastric foveolar hyperplastic polyps (GFHPs) are common findings in clinical practice. GFHPs commonly arise in a background of chronic atrophic gastritis, including autoimmune gastritis (type A gastritis), and have a potential risk of malignant transformation. CASE PRESENTATION: In 2005, a 55-year-old Japanese woman underwent upper endoscopy at another hospital and was found to have a pedunculated polyp (10 mm in diameter) on the greater curvature of the lower gastric body...
October 12, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Yannan Jiang, Yingyan Yu
Mouse models are useful tool for carcinogenic study. They will greatly enrich the understanding of pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms for gastric cancer. However, only few of mice could develop gastric cancer spontaneously. With the development and improvement of gene transfer technology, investigators created a variety of transgenic and knockout/knockin mouse models of gastric cancer, such as INS-GAS mice and gastrin knockout mice. Combined with helicobacter infection and carcinogens treatment, these transgenic/knockout/knockin mice developed precancerous or cancerous lesions, which are proper for gene function study or experimental therapy...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Malcolm Boyce, Katie A Lloyd, D Mark Pritchard
Gastrin controls gastric acid secretion and mucosal cell growth, especially of enterochromaffin-like cells, via gastrin/cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R) binding and downstream signalling. Studies in animal models, healthy subjects and patients with gastric neuroendocrine tumours provide compelling evidence to justify developing a CCK2R antagonist (CCK2RA) for preventing or treating the trophic effects of hypergastrinaemia or conditions expressing CCK2R, and with or without a proton pump inhibitor, for treating gastric acid-related conditions...
October 3, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Malcolm Boyce, Andrew R Moore, Liv Sagatun, Bryony N Parsons, Andrea Varro, Fiona Campbell, Reidar Fossmark, Helge L Waldum, David M Pritchard
AIMS: Netazepide, a gastrin/CCK2 receptor antagonist, once daily for 12 weeks reduced the number of tumours and size of the largest one in 16 patients with autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), achlorhydria, hypergastrinaemia and multiple gastric neuroendocrine tumours (type 1 gastric NETs), and normalised circulating chromogranin A (CgA) produced by enterochromaffin-like cells, the source of the tumours. The aim was to assess whether longer-term netazepide treatment can eradicate type 1 gastric NETs...
October 4, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Ali Ibrahim Ali Al-Ezzy
AIM: To evaluate the Immunomodulatory effects of CagA expression; pepsinogen I, II & gastrin-17 on PMNs and lymphocytes Fas expression in inflammatory and gastric cells; demographic distribution of Fas molecule in gastric tissue and inflammatory cells. METHODS: Gastroduodenal biopsies were taken from 80 patients for histopathology and H. pylori diagnosis. Serum samples were used for evaluation of pepsinogen I (PGI); (PGII); gastrin-17 (G-17). RESULTS: Significant difference (p < 0...
September 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Lei Deng, Pengju Xiong, Yunhui Luo, Xiao Bu, Suokai Qian, Wuzhao Zhong
The present study aimed to elucidate key molecular mechanisms in the progression of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). The gene expression profile GSE50021, which consisted of 35 pediatric DIPG samples and 10 normal brain samples, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in the pediatric DIPG samples were identified. Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Reactome pathways of DEGs were enriched and analyzed. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the DEGs was constructed and functional modules of the PPI network were disclosed using ClusterONE...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Ulrich Rohde, Cecilie A Federspiel, Peter Vilmann, Ebbe Langholz, Steffen U Friis, Martin Krakauer, Jens F Rehfeld, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
AIMS: The duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve ((DJBS) or EndoBarrier Gastrointestinal Liner) induces weight loss in obese subjects and may improve glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). To explore the underlying mechanisms, we evaluated postprandial physiology including glucose metabolism, gut hormone secretion, gallbladder emptying, appetite and food intake in patients undergoing DJBS treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten normal glucose tolerant (NGT) obese subjects and nine age, body weight and body mass index-matched metformin-treated T2D patients underwent a liquid mixed meal test and a subsequent ad libitum meal test before implantation with DJBS and one (1w) and 26 weeks (26w) after implantation...
October 3, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Rosalba Mansi, Ryogo Minamimoto, Helmut Mäcke, Andrei H Iagaru
Imaging plays an important role in prostate cancer (PC), including accurate evaluation of the extent of disease, assessment of sites of recurrent disease, and monitoring of response to treatment. Molecular imaging techniques are among the novel developments related to the imaging of PC, and various SPECT and PET radiopharmaceuticals are now available in clinical trials or commercially. Here we describe the preclinical and clinical use of gastrin-releasing peptide receptors as targets for the imaging of PC, with a focus on the development of PET tracers for the imaging of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-positive tumors...
October 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Karine Blais, Jasmine Sethi, Iustin V Tabarean
Bombesin, a pan agonist of the bombesin-like peptide receptor family, elicits potent hypothermia when applied centrally. The signaling mechanisms involved are not known. Here we report that GABAergic preoptic neurons express gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors and are directly excited by GRP or bombesin. This effect was abolished by a GRP receptor antagonist. A partially overlapping group of preoptic GABAergic neurons express bombesin-like receptor 3 (BRS3), however their activation results in a decrease in firing rate...
September 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Yayoi Kamata, Utako Kimura, Hironori Matsuda, Suhandy Tengara, Atsuko Kamo, Yoshie Umehara, Kyoichi Iizumi, Hiroaki Kawasaki, Yasushi Suga, Hideoki Ogawa, Mitsutoshi Tominaga, Kenji Takamori
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease characterized by skin barrier dysfunction, allergic inflammation and intractable pruritus resistant to conventional antipruritic treatments, including H1-antihistamines. Granzymes (Gzms) are a family of serine proteases expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells that have been shown to modulate inflammation. However, the relationship between Gzms and pathology in AD remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the correlation between plasma GzmB levels and severity of pruritus and dermatitis, in AD patients...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
Liv Sagatun, Patricia Mjønes, Constantin S Jianu, Malcolm Boyce, Hege L Waldum, Reidar Fossmark
OBJECTIVE: Netazepide (YF476) is a recently developed, orally active gastrin receptor antagonist that, in short trials in patients with type 1 gastric enterochromaffin-like cell neuroendocrine tumours, has been shown to induce a significant reduction in the number and size of tumours as well as serum chromogranin A (CgA). The aim of this review is to evaluate the long-term effect and safety of netazepide. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five patients previously treated with netazepide in an open-label trial were offered continuous treatment with netazepide 25 mg once daily...
November 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
N K Taunk, H Zhang, S Carlin, W Weber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Anjuman Ara Begum, Peter M Moyle, Istvan Toth
Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) receptor (GRPR), a bombesin family receptor, is overexpressed in many cancers including breast, prostate, pancreatic and lung. The targeting of therapeutics to GRPR can be achieved using the full-length (14 amino acid) GRP analogue Bombesin (BBN) or the truncated BBN(6-14) sequence, both of which bind GRPR with high affinity and specificity. In this study, we have investigated the level of GRPR expression in various cancerous (Caco-2, HeLa, LNCap, MDA-MB-231, and PC-3) and non-cancerous (WPMY-1) cell lines using a western blotting approach...
September 16, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
D Y Xie, Z X Liu, Y Q Li, J Song, W Qiang, W Bi, D X Wang
Objective: To investigate the effect of moluodan on gastric secretion and the underlying mechanism of moluodan in treating atrophic gastritis. Method: According to the random number table, 120 healthy male specific-pathogen-free (SPF) Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, model group, moluodan low-dose group, and moluodan high-dose group, with 30 rats in each group. The control group was administered with normal saline 2 ml/d by gavage, the other three groups were administered with 2% sodium salicylate 1 ml/d, 20 mol/L sodium deoxycholate 1 ml/d, and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) 200 mg/kg for every 10 days...
September 13, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Yan Peng, Yan Wang, Junling Li, Xuezhi Hao, Xingsheng Hu
BACKGROUND: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a rapidly growing tumor with characteristic of neuroendocrine cellular function. Neuron specific enolase (NSE), pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) are valuable in diagnosis and treatment of SCLC. By analyzing the variation of NSE, ProGRP and LDH before and after treatment, the aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of tumor markers in diagnostic staging, therapeutic evaluation and prediction of disease relapsing...
September 20, 2016: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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