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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155309/prognostic-utility-of-total-68-ga-dotatate-avid-tumor-volume-in-patients-with-neuroendocrine-tumors
#1
Amit Tirosh, Georgios Z Papadakis, Corina Millo, Dima Hammoud, Samira M Sadowski, Peter Herscovitch, Karel Pacak, Stephen J Marx, Lily Yang, Pavel Nockel, Jasmine Shell, Patience Green, Xavier M Keutgen, Dhaval Patel, Naris Nilubol, Electron Kebebew
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Survival times vary among patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs)-even among those with the same site, stage, and grade of primary tumor. This makes it difficult to select treatment for patients with unresectable NETs, because some patients can survive decades without treatment. (68)Gallium-DOTATATE positron emission tomography with computed tomography ((68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT) is a sensitive imaging technique for detection of NETs. We investigated the prognostic accuracy of (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT analysis of tumor volume in patients with NETs...
November 16, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154145/evaluation-of-a-novel-grpr-antagonist-for-prostate-cancer-pet-imaging-64-cu-dotha2-peg-rm26
#2
Nematallah Mansour, Michel Paquette, Samia Ait-Mohand, Véronique Dumulon-Perreault, Brigitte Guérin
INTRODUCTION: Gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRPRs) are significantly over-expressed on a large proportion of prostate cancers making them prime candidates for receptor-mediated nuclear imaging by PET. Recently, we synthesized a novel bifunctional chelator (BFC) bearing hydroxamic acid arms (DOTHA2). Here we investigated the potential of a novel DOTHA2-conjugated, (64)Cu-radiolabeled GRPR peptide antagonist, [D-Phe(6)-Sta(13)-Leu(14)-NH2]bombesin(6-14) (DOTHA2-PEG-RM26) to visualize prostate tumors by PET imaging...
October 23, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145241/the-prognostic-value-of-the-serum-neuron-specific-enolase-and-lactate-dehydrogenase-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-receiving-first-line-platinum-based-chemotherapy
#3
Xiaofan Liu, Weiming Zhang, Wen Yin, Yang Xiao, Changzhi Zhou, Yi Hu, Shuang Geng
The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), pro-gastrin releasing peptide (ProGRP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) with clinical response and survival in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients receiving first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.One hundred thirty-six patients with SCLC were recruited in this study. All the patients received first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Clinical efficacy was assessed according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133874/distinct-roles-of-nmb-and-grp-in-itch-transmission
#4
Li Wan, Hua Jin, Xian-Yu Liu, Joseph Jeffry, Devin M Barry, Kai-Feng Shen, Jia-Hang Peng, Xue-Ting Liu, Jin-Hua Jin, Yu Sun, Ray Kim, Qing-Tao Meng, Ping Mo, Jun Yin, Ailin Tao, Rita Bardoni, Zhou-Feng Chen
A key question in our understanding of itch coding mechanisms is whether itch is relayed by dedicated molecular and neuronal pathways. Previous studies suggested that gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is an itch-specific neurotransmitter. Neuromedin B (NMB) is a mammalian member of the bombesin family of peptides closely related to GRP, but its role in itch is unclear. Here, we show that itch deficits in mice lacking NMB or GRP are non-redundant and Nmb/Grp double KO (DKO) mice displayed additive deficits. Furthermore, both Nmb/Grp and Nmbr/Grpr DKO mice responded normally to a wide array of noxious stimuli...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123014/positron-emission-tomography-using-a-grpr-antagonist-68-ga-rm26-in-healthy-volunteers-and-prostate-cancer-patients
#5
Jingjing Zhang, Gang Niu, Xingrong Fan, Lixin Lang, Guozhu Hou, Libo Chen, Huanwen Wu, Zhaohui Zhu, Fang Li, Xiaoyuan Chen
This study was designed to study the safety, biodistribution, radiation dosimetry of a gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) antagonist positron emission tomography (PET) tracer (68)Ga-RM26, to assess its clinical diagnostic value in prostate cancer patients, and to perform a direct comparison between GRPR antagonist (68)Ga-RM26 and agonist (68)Ga-BBN. Methods: Five healthy volunteers were enrolled to validate the safety of (68)Ga-RM26 and calculate dosimetry. A total of 28 patients with prostate cancer (17 newly diagnosed and 11 post therapy) were recruited with written informed consent...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120926/recent-insights-into-biological-functions-of-mammalian-bombesin-like-peptides-and-their-receptors
#6
Xiangping Qu, Hui Wang, Rujiao Liu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review highlights recent advances in physiological and pharmacological researches in biology of mammalian bombesin-like peptides (BLPs). RECENT FINDINGS: BLPs and their receptors were found to have regulatory roles in many biological processes in central nervous system. Two BLPs, neuromedin B and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and their receptors are required for regulation of basal and induced sighing activity in rodents. This is the first study demonstrating central pathways involved in regulation of sighing activity...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115998/effect-of-gastric-acid-suppressive-therapy-and-biological-variation-of-serum-gastrin-concentrations-in-dogs-with-chronic-enteropathies
#7
Romy M Heilmann, Nora Berghoff, Niels Grützner, Nolie K Parnell, Jan S Suchodolski, Jörg M Steiner
BACKGROUND: Serum gastrin concentration can help diagnose gastrinomas in dogs if >3-10× the upper reference limit (URL), but antisecretory therapy and other conditions can also cause hypergastrinemia. Effects of antisecretory therapy (famotidine or ranitidine, omeprazole) on serum gastrin concentration in dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE) and its biological variation (BV) are unknown. Aim of the study was to evaluate serum gastrin in acid-suppressant-treated or -naïve CE dogs; test the association between serum gastrin and histopathologic findings in acid-suppressant-naïve CE dogs; and evaluate the BV of serum gastrin in dogs not receiving any gastric acid suppressive therapy...
November 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112931/comparison-of-fusion-protein-and-dc-vaccine-in-inhibition-of-mouse-b16f10-melanoma-tumor
#8
Yan Zhang, Xiaoxin Liu, Rui Wang, Shujun Liu, Yiqin Wang, Liangliang Jing, Meko'o Didier Jean Louis, Rongyue Cao
Dendritic cell (DC) vaccine and fusion protein vaccine have been put into clinical use in cancer immunotherapy. This study compared DC vaccine and fusion protein vaccine directly in their capability of inducing specific immune response. We used mouse Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (mGM-CSF) fused with gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) respectively to obtain mGM-CSF/GRP6 (mG6) and mGM-CSF/mGGn (mGGn) fusion proteins. We prepared fusion protein vaccine and DC vaccine including mG6 protein vaccine (6P), mGGn protein vaccine (nP), mG6 DC vaccine (6D) and mGGn DC vaccine (nD), then the two proteins were mixed to prepare combination proteins vaccine (6nP) and DC vaccine (6nD)...
November 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104741/lymph-node-imaging-in-initial-staging-of-prostate-cancer-an-overview-and-update
#9
REVIEW
Jessica G Zarzour, Sam Galgano, Jonathan McConathy, John V Thomas, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
Accurate nodal staging at the time of diagnosis of prostate cancer is crucial in determining a treatment plan for the patient. Pelvic lymph node dissection is the most reliable method, but is less than perfect and has increased morbidity. Cross sectional imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are non-invasive tools that rely on morphologic characteristics such as shape and size of the lymph nodes. However, lymph nodes harboring metastatic disease may be normal sized and non-metastatic lymph nodes may be enlarged due to reactive hyperplasia...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100457/nanobubbles-as-ultrasound-contrast-agent-for-facilitating-small-cell-lung-cancer-imaging
#10
Jin-Ping Wang, Xiao-Lin Zhou, Ji-Ping Yan, Rong-Qin Zheng, Wei Wang
Background: This study is to investigate whether liposome-loaded nanobubbles (NBs) have the potentials to carry anti-pro-gastrin releasing peptide (proGRP) antibody and enhance ultrasound imaging of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Methods: NBs were loaded with an antibody against SCLC (H446 cell line). A nude mouse model of SCLC tumor was established by a subcutaneous injection of tumor cell suspension in the dorsal skin. Images for contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) of xenograft tumors in the model were obtained through an intravenous injection of blank and targeting NBs...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097932/high-contrast-pet-imaging-of-grpr-expression-in-prostate-cancer-using-cobalt-labeled-bombesin-antagonist-rm26
#11
Bogdan Mitran, Helge Thisgaard, Ulrika Rosenström, Johan Hygum Dam, Mats Larhed, Vladimir Tolmachev, Anna Orlova
High gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression is associated with numerous cancers including prostate and breast cancer. The aim of the current study was to develop a (55)Co-labeled PET agent based on GRPR antagonist RM26 for visualization of GRPR-expressing tumors. Labeling with (57)Co and (55)Co, stability, binding specificity, and in vitro and in vivo characteristics of (57)Co-NOTA-PEG2-RM26 were studied. NOTA-PEG2-RM26 was successfully radiolabeled with (57)Co and (55)Co with high yields and demonstrated high stability...
2017: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073245/abomasal-dysfunction-and-cellular-and-mucin-changes-during-infection-of-sheep-with-larval-or-adult-teladorsagia-circumcincta
#12
Ian Scott, Saleh Umair, Matthew S Savoian, Heather V Simpson
This is the first integrated study of the effects on gastric secretion, inflammation and fundic mucins after infection with L3 T. circumcincta and in the very early period following transplantation of adult worms. At 3 months-of-age, 20 Coopworth lambs were infected intraruminally with 35,000 L3; infected animals were killed on Days 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 post-infection and 6 controls on either Day 0 or 30 post-infection. Another 15 Romney cross lambs received 10,000 adult worms at 4-5 months-of-age though surgically-implanted abomasal cannulae and were killed after 6, 12, 24 and 72 hours; uninfected controls were also killed at 72 hours...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065966/gastrin-releasing-peptide-promotes-the-migration-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-through-upregulation-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-and-9
#13
Hyun-Joo Park, Mi-Kyoung Kim, Yeon Kim, Sun Sik Bae, Hyung Joon Kim, Soo-Kyung Bae, Moon-Kyoung Bae
Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) has been reported to be implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders. The migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are key components of vascular inflammation that leads to the development of atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular effect of GRP on VSMC proliferation and migration. We report that GRP significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration of rat VSMCs. GRP increased mRNA and protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2/9) in VSMCs...
October 25, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061367/gastrointestinal-distribution-of-chicken-gastrin-cholecystokinin-family-transcript-expression-and-response-to-short-term-nutritive-state
#14
Angus M A Reid, Ian C Dunn
The related peptide hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin are conserved throughout vertebrate clades and implicated in energy homeostasis. CCK is generally accepted as a satiety hormone in poultry, but the role of gastrin remains poorly studied. Functional dissection of these ligands is required to characterise the molecular control of growth & satiety in the domestic chicken, for which there is an increasingly pressing mandate. There are limited descriptions of physiological distributions for the two genes in birds, and these are mostly reliant on immunohistochemistry which can prove problematic due to the shared structure of the targets...
January 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061216/-utility-of-multiple-increased-lung-cancer-tumor-markers-in-treatment-of-patients-with-advanced-lung-adenocarcinoma
#15
Yan Peng, Yan Wang, Xuezhi Hao, Junling Li, Yutao Liu, Hongyu Wang
BACKGROUND: Among frequently-used tumor markers in lung cancer, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA21-1) and squamous carcinoma antigen (SCC), neuron specific enolase (NSE) and pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP) are respectively expressed highly in lung adenocarcinoma, lung squamous carcinoma and small cell lung cancer. By comparing patients with multiple increased tumor markers (group A) and patients with increase of CEA and/or CA125 (group B), this study aims to investigate the utility of multiple increased tumor markers in therapeutic evaluation and prediction of disease relapsing in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma...
October 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046055/topographic-distribution-pattern-of-morphologically-different-g-cells-in-the-murine-antral-mucosa
#16
Claudia Frick, Hanna Luisa Martin, Johanna Bruder, Kerstin Lang, Heinz Breer
Gastrin-secreting enteroendocrine cells (G cells) in the antrum play an important role in the regulation of gastric secretion, gastric motility and mucosal cell proliferation. Recently we have uncovered the existence of two subpopulations of G cells with pivotally different morphology and a distinct localization in the antral invaginations; the functional implications of the different G cell types are still elusive. In this study a transgenic mouse line in which EGFP is expressed under the control of a gastrin promoter was used to elucidate the distribution pattern of the two G cell types throughout the different regions of the antrum...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038353/cell-cycle-dependent-expression-of-the-cck2-receptor-by-gastrointestinal-myofibroblasts-putative-role-in-determining-cell-migration
#17
Akos Varga, Jothi Dinesh Kumar, Alec W M Simpson, Steven Dodd, Peter Hegyi, Graham J Dockray, Andrea Varro
The well-known action of the gastric hormone gastrin in stimulating gastric acid secretion is mediated by activation of cholecystokinin-2 receptors (CCK2R). The latter are expressed by a variety of cell types suggesting that gastrin is implicated in multiple functions. During wound healing in the stomach CCK2R may be expressed by myofibroblasts. We have now characterized CCK2R expression in cultured myofibroblasts. Immunocytochemistry showed that a relatively small proportion (1-6%) of myofibroblasts expressed the receptor regardless of the region of the gut from which they were derived, or whether from cancer or control tissue...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986609/comparison-of-effect-of-an-increased-dosage-of-vonoprazan-versus-vonoprazan-plus-lafutidine-on-gastric-acid-inhibition-and-serum-gastrin
#18
Takahiro Suzuki, Takuma Kagami, Takahiro Uotani, Mihoko Yamade, Yasushi Hamaya, Moriya Iwaizumi, Satoshi Osawa, Ken Sugimoto, Hiroaki Miyajima, Takahisa Furuta
BACKGROUND: Vonoprazan, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, elicits potent acid inhibition and hypergastrinemia at a dose of 20 mg. Its recommended maintenance dose for gastro-esophageal reflux disease is 10 mg, which is sometimes insufficient for preventing nocturnal acid breakthrough (NAB). Concomitant use of a histamine 2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) is effective for NAB. However, further acid inhibition by addition of H2RA has concern of hypergastrinemia again. Lafutidine (H2RA) is known to stimulate somatostatin release...
October 6, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984679/influence-of-laboratory-related-and-endoscopy-related-factors-on-the-assessment-of-serum-pepsinogens-and-gastrin-17
#19
Elisabetta Goni, Marino Venerito, Christian Schulz, Jochen Weigt, Cosima Langner, Alexander Link, Peter Malfertheiner
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Serum pepsinogen I (PGI) and pepsinogen II (PGII) are noninvasive parameters in the detection of atrophic gastritis. The diagnostic add-on value of serum gastrin-17 (G-17) remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the stability of these serum parameters over time and to evaluate the influence of clinical factors, such as upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and bowel cleansing, on serum PGI, PGII, and G-17 assessment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was carried out in healthy individuals and patients...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982341/gastrin-a-potential-predictor-of-response-to-incretin-therapy-in-diabetes-type-2-patients
#20
Ines Bilic-Curcic, Maja Cigrovski Berkovic
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Personalized management of diabetes has become an imperative since majority of monotherapy fails within 3 years of its use. Identifying responders from non-responders for a certain type of therapy would reduce a period of unsuccessful treatment and minimize health care costs. Incretin therapies, mainly glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) are relatively new glucose-lowering agents which increase insulin and lower glucagon response as well as slow down glucose absorption by acting on gastric emptying...
October 3, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
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