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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906465/repeated-famotidine-administration-results-in-a-diminished-effect-on-intragastric-ph-in-dogs
#1
M K Tolbert, A Graham, A Odunayo, J Price, J M Steiner, K Newkirk, S Hecht
BACKGROUND: Famotidine is an acid suppressant commonly administered to dogs. Prolonged famotidine use in people results in decreased efficacy, but the effect in dogs is unknown. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of repeated oral administration of famotidine or placebo on intragastric pH and serum gastrin in dogs. We hypothesized that famotidine would have a diminished effect on intragastric pH on day 13 compared to day 1. ANIMALS: Six healthy adult colony Beagles...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902570/preprotachykinin-a-ppta-is-expressed-by-a-distinct-population-of-excitatory-neurons-in-the-mouse-superficial-spinal-dorsal-horn-including-cells-that-respond-to-noxious-and-pruritic-stimuli
#2
Maria Gutierrez-Mecinas, Andrew M Bell, Alina Marin, Rebecca Taylor, Kieran A Boyle, Takahiro Furuta, Masahiko Watanabe, Erika Polgár, Andrew J Todd
The superficial dorsal horn, which is the main target for nociceptive and pruritoceptive primary afferents, contains a high density of excitatory interneurons. Our understanding of their roles in somatosensory processing has been restricted by the difficulty of distinguishing functional populations among these cells. We recently defined three non-overlapping populations among the excitatory neurons, based on the expression of neurotensin, neurokinin B (NKB) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP). Here we identify and characterise another population: neurons that express the tachykinin peptide substance P...
November 25, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892685/gut-a-key-player-in-the-pathogenesis-of-type-2-diabetes
#3
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Giancarlo Balercia, Luigi Barrea, Angelo Cignarelli, Francesco Giorgino, Jens J Holst, Daniela Laudisio, Francesco Orio, Giacomo Tirabassi, Annamaria Colao
The gut regulates glucose and energy homeostasis; thus, the presence of ingested nutrients into the gut activates sensing mechanisms that affect both glucose homeostasis and regulate food intake. Increasing evidence suggest that gut may also play a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes which may be related to both the intestinal microbiological profile and patterns of gut hormones secretion. Intestinal microbiota includes trillions of microorganisms but its composition and function may be adversely affected in type 2 diabetes...
November 28, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891632/randomised-clinical-trial-efficacy-and-safety-of-vonoprazan-vs-lansoprazole-in-patients-with-gastric-or-duodenal-ulcers-results-from-two-phase-3-non-inferiority-randomised-controlled-trials
#4
H Miwa, N Uedo, J Watari, Y Mori, Y Sakurai, Y Takanami, A Nishimura, T Tatsumi, N Sakaki
BACKGROUND: Vonoprazan is a new potassium-competitive acid blocker for treatment of acid-related diseases. AIM: To conduct two randomised-controlled trials, to evaluate the non-inferiority of vonoprazan vs. lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, for treatment of gastric ulcer (GU) or duodenal ulcer (DU). METHODS: Patients aged ≥20 years with ≥1 endoscopically-confirmed GU or DU (≥5 mm white coating) were randomised 1:1 using double-dummy blinding to receive lansoprazole (30 mg) or vonoprazan (20 mg) for 8 (GU study) or 6 (DU study) weeks...
November 27, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884350/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-augments-the-feeding-responses-evoked-by-gastrin-releasing-peptides
#5
Martha C Washington, Thaer R Mhalhal, Tanisha Johnson-Rouse, Jose Berger, John Heath, Randy Seeley, Ayman I Sayegh
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most effective method for the treatment of obesity, and metabolic disease RYGB may reduce body weight by altering the feeding responses evoked by the short-term satiety peptides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we measured meal size (MS, chow), intermeal interval (IMI) length, and satiety ratio (SR, IMI/MS; food consumed per a unit of time) by the small and the large forms of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) in rats, GRP-10 and GRP-29 (0, 0...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875017/gum-chewing-combined-with-oral-intake-of-a-semi-liquid-diet-in-the-postoperative-care-of-patients-after-gynecologic-laparoscopic-surgery
#6
Yuping Pan, Li Chen, Xiaorong Zhong, Suwen Feng
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of gum chewing combined with a semi-liquid diet on patients after gynecologic laparoscopic surgery. BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that chewing gum before traditional postoperative care promotes the postoperative recovery of bowel motility and function after open and laparoscopic surgery. However, gum chewing combined with a semi-liquid diet has not been reported in postoperative care of patients following gynecologic laparoscopic surgery...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872404/unique-cellular-lineage-composition-of-the-first-gland-of-the-mouse-gastric-corpus
#7
Andrew O'Neil, Christine P Petersen, Eunyoung Choi, Amy C Engevik, James R Goldenring
The glandular stomach has two major zones: the acid secreting corpus and the gastrin cell-containing antrum. Nevertheless, a single gland lies at the transition between the forestomach and corpus in the mouse stomach. We have sought to define the lineages that make up this gland unit at the squamocolumnar junction. The first gland in mice showed a notable absence of characteristic corpus lineages, including parietal cells and chief cells. In contrast, the gland showed strong staining of Griffonia simplicifolia-II (GSII)-lectin-positive mucous cells at the bases of glands, which were also positive for CD44 variant 9 and Clusterin...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865999/approaches-to-improve-metabolic-stability-of-a-statine-based-grp-receptor-antagonist
#8
Ilinca Popp, Luigi Del Pozzo, Beatrice Waser, Jean Claude Reubi, Philipp T Meyer, Helmut R Maecke, Eleni Gourni
: The bombesin receptor family, in particular the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr), is an attractive target in the field of nuclear oncology due to the high density of these receptors on the cell surface of several human tumors. The successful clinical implementation of (64)Cu-CB-TE2A-AR06, (68)Ga-RM2 and (68)Ga-NODAGA-MJ9, prompted us to continue the development of GRPr-antagonists. The aim of the present study was to assess if N-terminal modulations of the statine-based GRPr-antagonist influence the binding affinity, the pharmacokinetic performance and the in vivo metabolic stability...
November 4, 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865823/gut-hormones-and-gut-microbiota-implications-for-kidney-function-and-hypertension
#9
REVIEW
Baris Afsar, Nosratola D Vaziri, Gamze Aslan, Kayhan Tarim, Mehmet Kanbay
Increased blood pressure (BP) and chronic kidney disease are two leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Increased sodium intake is one of the most important risk factors for development of hypertension. Recent data have shown that gut influences kidney function and BP by variety of mechanisms. Various hormones and peptides secreted from gut such as gastrin, glucocorticoids, Glucagon-like peptide-1 impact on kidney function and BP especially influencing sodium absorption from gut. These findings stimulate scientist to find new therapeutic options such as tenapanor for treatment of hypertension by blocking sodium absorption from gut...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864307/pancreatic-beta-cells-express-the-fetal-islet-hormone-gastrin-in-rodent-and-human-diabetes
#10
Tehila Dahan, Oren Ziv, Elad Horwitz, Hai Zemmour, Judith Lavi, Avital Swisa, Gil Leibowitz, Frances M Ashcroft, Peter In't Veld, Benjamin Glaser, Yuval Dor
Beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes (T2D) was recently proposed to involve dedifferentiation of beta-cells and ectopic expression of other islet hormones, including somatostatin and glucagon. Here we show that gastrin, a stomach hormone typically expressed in the pancreas only during embryogenesis, is expressed in islets of diabetic rodents and humans with T2D. While in mice gastrin is expressed insulin+ cells, in humans with T2D gastrin expression occurs in both insulin+ and somatostatin+ cells. Genetic lineage tracing in mice indicates that gastrin expression is turned on in a subset of differentiated beta-cells following exposure to severe hyperglycemia...
November 18, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863916/structure-activity-relationship-study-towards-non-peptidic-positron-emission-tomography-pet-radiotracer-for-gastrin-releasing-peptide-receptors-development-of-18-f-s-3-1h-indol-3-yl-n-1-5-2-fluoroethoxy-pyridin-2-yl-cyclohexylmethyl-2-methyl-2-3-4-nitrophenyl
#11
Enza Lacivita, Ermelinda Lucente, Chantal Kwizera, Ines F Antunes, Mauro Niso, Paola De Giorgio, Roberto Perrone, Nicola A Colabufo, Philip H Elsinga, Marcello Leopoldo
Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRP-Rs, also known as bombesin 2 receptors) are overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, including prostate cancer, and therefore they represent a promising target for in vivo imaging of tumors using positron emission tomography (PET). Structural modifications of the non-peptidic GRP-R antagonist PD-176252 ((S)-1a) led to the identification of the fluorinated analog (S)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-N-[1-[5-(2-fluoroethoxy)pyridin-2-yl]cyclohexylmethyl]-2-methyl-2-[3-(4-nitrophenyl)ureido]propionamide ((S)-1m) that showed high affinity and antagonistic properties for GRP-R...
October 29, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852542/factors-associated-with-elevated-serum-chromogranin-a-levels-in-patients-with-autoimmune-gastritis
#12
Çağdaş Kalkan, Fatih Karakaya, İrfan Soykan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chromogranin A is an important tool in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. Autoimmune gastritis is an autoimmune disorder marked by hypergastrinemia, which stimulates enterochromaffin-like cell proliferation. Chromogranin A is also elevated in autoimmune gastritis patients with a different level of increase in each patient. The goal of this study is to explore constituents that influence serum chromogranin A levels in autoimmune gastritis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and eighty-eight autoimmune gastritis patients and 20 patients with type I gastric carcinoid tumors were analyzed retrospectively and compared to 110 functional dyspepsia patients in terms of factors that might affect serum chromogranin A levels...
November 2016: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827443/tm1-ir680-peptide-for-assessment-of-surgical-margin-and-lymph-node-metastasis-in-murine-orthotopic-model-of-oral-cancer
#13
Annie A Suganya S, K J Kochurani, Madhumathy G Nair, Jiss Maria Louis, Santhosh Sankaran, R Rajagopal, K Santhosh Kumar, Parvin Abraham, Balagopal P G, Paul Sebastian, Thara Somananthan, Tessy Thomas Maliekal
Treatment outcome after surgical removal in oral carcinoma is poor due to inadequate methodologies available for marking surgical margins. Even though some methodologies for intraoperative margin assessment are under clinical and preclinical trials for other solid tumours, a promising modality for oral cancer surgery is not developed. Fluorescent-based optical imaging using Near Infrared (NIR) dyes tagged to tumour specific target will be an optimal tool for this purpose. One such target, Gastrin Releasing Peptide Receptor (GRPR) was selected for the study, and its binding peptide, TM1-IR680, was tested for its efficacy for surgical margin prediction in murine orthotopic model of oral cancer, derived from primary samples...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825431/pet-tracers-beyond-fdg-in-prostate-cancer
#14
REVIEW
David M Schuster, Cristina Nanni, Stefano Fanti
Conventional anatomical imaging with CT and MRI has limitations in the evaluation of prostate cancer. PET is a powerful imaging technique, which can be directed toward molecular targets as diverse as glucose metabolism, density of prostate-specific membrane antigen receptors, and skeletal osteoblastic activity. Although 2-deoxy-2-(18)F-FDG-PET is the mainstay of molecular imaging, FDG has limitations in typically indolent prostate cancer. Yet, there are many useful and emerging PET tracers beyond FDG, which provide added value...
November 2016: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825384/inhibiting-the-proton-pump-mechanisms-benefits-harms-and-questions
#15
Jeffrey K Aronson
Inhibition of the H(+)/K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (the proton pump) is the final common mechanistic pathway in reducing gastric acid secretion pharmacologically. Proton pump inhibitors are widely used in upper gastrointestinal diseases, including gastric and duodenal ulcers, eradication of Helicobacter pylori in combination with antibiotics, gastroesophageal reflux disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, eosinophilic esophagitis, and prevention of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced peptic ulceration...
November 9, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823569/structural-determinants-in-the-binding-of-bb2-receptor-ligands-in-silico-x-ray-and-nmr-studies-in-pd176252-analogues
#16
Antonio Carrieri, Enza Lacivita, Benny Danilo Belviso, Rocco Caliandro, Piero Mastrorilli, Vito Gallo, Mauro Niso, Marcello Leopoldo
The mammalian bombesin receptor family comprises three G protein-coupled receptors: the neuromedin B receptor, the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (BB2), and the bombesin receptor subtype 3. BB2 receptor plays a role in gastrointestinal functions; however, at present the role of this subtype in physiological and pathological conditions is unknown due to the lack of specific binders for all subclasses of bombesin receptors. Here, we present a study focused on the properties of the peptoid bombesin antagonist called PD176252, and other structural analogues with the aim to elucidate causes of their different affinity towards the BB2 receptor...
November 4, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808040/endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-delineation-of-underlying-mechanisms-and-clinical-effects
#17
Ulrich Rohde
Bariatric surgery (e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)) has proven the most effective way of achieving sustainable weight losses and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicate that the effectiveness of RYGB is mediated by an altered gastrointestinal tract anatomy, which in particular favours release of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner or duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) is an endoscopic deployable minimally invasive and fully reversible technique designed to mimic the bypass component of the RYGB...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806647/slow-release-l-cysteine-capsule-prevents-gastric-mucosa-exposure-to-carcinogenic-acetaldehyde-results-of-a-randomised-single-blinded-cross-over-study-of-helicobacter-associated-atrophic-gastritis
#18
Per M Hellström, Panu Hendolin, Pertti Kaihovaara, Leif Kronberg, Axel Meierjohann, Anders Millerhovf, Lea Paloheimo, Heidi Sundelin, Kari Syrjänen, Dominic-Luc Webb, Mikko Salaspuro
INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter-induced atrophic gastritis with a hypochlorhydric milieu is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Microbes colonising acid-free stomach oxidise ethanol to acetaldehyde, a recognised group 1 carcinogen. OBJECTIVE: To assess gastric production of acetaldehyde and its inert condensation product, non-toxic 2-methyl-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (MTCA), after alcohol intake under treatment with slow-release L-cysteine or placebo. METHODS: Seven patients with biopsy-confirmed atrophic gastritis, low serum pepsinogen and high gastrin-17 were studied in a cross-over single-blinded design...
November 3, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804131/identification-of-the-sexually-dimorphic-gastrin-releasing-peptide-system-in-the-lumbosacral-spinal-cord-that-controls-male-reproductive-function-in-the-mouse-and-asian-house-musk-shrew-suncus-murinus
#19
Kei Tamura, Yasuhisa Kobayashi, Asuka Hirooka, Keiko Takanami, Takumi Oti, Takamichi Jogahara, Sen-Ichi Oda, Tatsuya Sakamoto, Hirotaka Sakamoto
Several regions of the brain and spinal cord control male reproductive function. We previously demonstrated that the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system, located in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rats, controls spinal centers to promote penile reflexes during male copulatory behavior. However, little information exists on the male-specific spinal GRP system in animals other than rats. The objective of this study was to examine the functional generality of the spinal GRP system in mammals using the Asian house musk shrew (Suncus murinus; suncus named as the laboratory strain), a specialized placental mammal model...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803738/helicobacter-pylori-and-gastric-acid-an-intimate-and-reciprocal-relationship
#20
REVIEW
Helge L Waldum, Per M Kleveland, Øystein F Sørdal
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the main cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. There are still unanswered questions related to the interaction between Hp and man, like what determines the susceptibility for the initial infection and the mechanisms for the carcinogenic effect. The initial infection seems to require a temporal gastric hypoacidity. For Hp to survive in the gastric mucous layer, some acidity is necessary. Hp itself is probably not directly carcinogenic. Only when inducing oxyntic mucosal inflammation and atrophy with hypoacidity, Hp predisposes for gastric cancer...
November 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
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