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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510260/markers-of-enteral-adaptation-in-pediatric-cases-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#1
Masahiro Chiba, Yutaka Sanada, Akira Toki
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to ascertain if prospective determinations of specific gut hormones and growth factors could predict bowel adaptation in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS). METHODS: We studied parenteral nutrition (PN) independency as the short-term result and discontinuation of enteral nutrition (EN) as the long-term result from a retrospective chart review of 7 patients with SBS, who were managed in the absence of growth retardation. The correlation between increased numbers of enteral feedings or enteral nutrients and fasting levels of serum gastrin, glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), citrulline, and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity was analyzed...
May 16, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508274/the-sleeping-remnant-effect-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-on-plasma-levels-of-gastric-biomarkers-in-morbidly-obese-women-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#2
Federico Marchesi, Francesco Tartamella, Giuseppina De Sario, Clarissa Forlini, Alberta Caleffi, Matteo Riccò, Francesco Di Mario
BACKGROUND: Morpho-functional modifications of the gastric remnant after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) have not been completely defined, due to its inaccessibility for bioptic mapping. The aim of the study is to evaluate such modifications using Gastropanel®, a non-invasive blood test cross-checking four gastric biomarkers, able to provide a snapshot of mucosa conditions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-four women undergoing RYGB were prospectively enrolled. Gastropanel® parameters (pepsinogens, Gastrin-17 and immunoglobulins against Helicobacter pylori), biometrical/clinical data were collected preoperatively and at 6-months follow-up...
May 15, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506620/bombesin-administration-impairs-memory-and-does-not-reverse-memory-deficit-caused-by-sleep-deprivation
#3
L B T Ferreira, S L B Oliveira, J Raya, L A Esumi, D C Hipolide
Sleep deprivation impairs performance in emotional memory tasks, however this effect on memory is not completely understood. Possible mechanisms may involve an alteration in neurotransmission systems, as shown by the fact that many drugs that modulate neural pathways can prevent memory impairment by sleep loss. Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) is a neuropeptide that emerged as a regulatory molecule of emotional memory through the modulation of other neurotransmission systems. Thus, the present study addressed the effect of intraperitoneal (IP) administration of bombesin (BB) (2...
May 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501979/endocrine-cells-producing-peptide-hormones-in-the-intestine-of-nile-tilapia-distribution-and-effects-of-feeding-and-fasting-on-the-cell-density
#4
Raquel Tatiane Pereira, Thaiza Rodrigues de Freitas, Izabela Regina Cardoso de Oliveira, Leandro Santos Costa, Fabricio Andrés Vigliano, Priscila Vieira Rosa
Endocrine cells (ECs) act as a luminal surveillance system responding to either the presence or absence of food in the gut through the secretion of peptide hormones. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of feeding and fasting on the EC peptide-specific distribution along the intestine of Nile tilapia. We assessed the density of ECs producing gastrin (GAS), cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in nine segments of the intestine using immunohistochemistry...
May 13, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500250/characterization-of-nmb-grp-and-their-receptors-brs3-nmbr-and-grpr-in-chickens
#5
Chunheng Mo, Long Huang, Lin Cui, Can Lv, Dongliang Lin, Liang Song, Guoqiang Zhu, Juan Li, Yajun Wang
The two structurally and functionally related peptides, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and neuromedin B (NMB) play critical roles in many physiological/pathological processes in mammals. However, the information regarding the expression and functionality of avian NMB, GRP, and their receptors is limited. Here, we characterized cNMB, cGRP and their receptors (cNMBR, cGRPR, cBRS3) in chickens. Our results showed that: 1) cNMBR and cGRPR expressed in CHO cells could be potently activated by cNMB and cGRP respectively, as monitored by cell-based luciferase reporter assays, indicating that cNMBR and cGRPR are cNMB- and cGRP-specific receptors; Strikingly, BRS3 of chickens (/spotted gars), which is orthologous to mouse bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS3), could be potently activated by GRP and NMB, demonstrating that both peptides are the endogenous ligands for chicken(/spotted gar) BRS3; 2) Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that cGRPR is widely expressed in chicken tissues with abundant expression in the ovary, pancreas, proventriculus, spinal cord and brain, whereas cNMB, cNMBR and cBRS3 are mainly expressed in the brain and testes; 3) Interestingly, qPCR, Western blot, and immuno-staining revealed that cGRP is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and mainly localized to LH-cells, suggesting that cGRP is likely a novel pituitary hormone in chickens...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498440/gastrin-induces-multidrug-resistance-via-the-degradation-of-p27kip1-in-the-gastric-carcinoma-cell-line-sgc7901
#6
Kun Zhuang, Lingxia Zhang, Xin Zhang, Hailing Tang, Jun Zhang, Yuan Yan, Kun Han, Hanqing Guo
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the major reasons for the failure of chemotherapy-based gastric carcinoma (GC) treatments, hence, biologically based therapies are urgently needed. Gastrin (GAS), a key gastrointestinal (GI) hormone, was found to be involved in tumor formation, progression, and metastasis. In this study, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining analysis revealed a high level of expression of GAS in drug-insensitive GC tissues (P<0.01) and similar results were revealed in GC cell lines SGC7901 and its multidrug-resistant variants SGC7901/VCR and SGC7901/ADR...
May 4, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489853/novel-genes-involved-in-severe-early-onset-obesity-revealed-by-rare-copy-number-and-sequence-variants
#7
Clara Serra-Juhé, Gabriel Á Martos-Moreno, Francesc Bou de Pieri, Raquel Flores, Juan R González, Benjamín Rodríguez-Santiago, Jesús Argente, Luis A Pérez-Jurado
Obesity is a multifactorial disorder with high heritability (50-75%), which is probably higher in early-onset and severe cases. Although rare monogenic forms and several genes and regions of susceptibility, including copy number variants (CNVs), have been described, the genetic causes underlying the disease still remain largely unknown. We searched for rare CNVs (>100kb in size, altering genes and present in <1/2000 population controls) in 157 Spanish children with non-syndromic early-onset obesity (EOO: body mass index >3 standard deviations above the mean at <3 years of age) using SNP array molecular karyotypes...
May 10, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485418/in-vitro-in-vivo-peeling-of-multilayered-aminocarboxylate-gold-nanoparticles-evidenced-by-a-kinetically-stable-99m-tc-label
#8
Francisco Silva, Lurdes Gano, Maria Paula Cabral Campello, Rosa Marques, Isabel Prudêncio, Ajit Zambre, Anandhi Upendran, António Paulo, Raghuraman Kannan
A thiolated bombesin peptide was conjugated to Au-DTDTPA nanoconstructs to obtain BBN-Au-DTDTPA targeted to the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPr). Different analytical techniques showed that this conjugate shares similar physico-chemical properties with Au-DTDTPA; HPLC and XPS analyses corroborated the attachment of the bioactive peptide to the AuNPs surface. Competitive binding assays in PC3 cancer cells showed that these BBN-containing AuNPs have high affinity for GRPr. BBN-Au-DTDTPA was successfully radiolabeled with (99m)Tc and showed high in vitro stability towards different biological media and substrates, except for glutathione (GSH)...
May 9, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483790/effect-of-hormone-secretory-syndromes-on-neuroendocrine-tumor-prognosis
#9
Wouter T Zandee, Kimberly Kamp, R C S van Adrichem, R A Feelders, Wouter W de Herder
The treatment of hormone hypersecretory syndromes caused by neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can be a major challenge. NETs originating from the small intestine often secrete serotonin causing flushing, diarrhea and valve fibrosis, leading to dehydration or heart failure in severe cases. NETs from the pancreas can secrete a wider variety of hormones, like insulin, glucagon and gastrin leading to distinct clinical syndromes. Historically mortality in patients with functioning NETs was high due to the complications caused by the hypersecretion of hormones...
May 8, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474257/a-cumulative-effect-involving-malfunction-of-the-pth1r-and-atp4a-genes-explains-a-familial-gastric-neuroendocrine-tumor-with-hypothyroidism-and-arthritis
#10
Oriol Calvete, Maite Herraiz, Jose Reyes, Ana Patiño, Javier Benitez
BACKGROUND: Type I gastric neuroendocrine tumors (gNETs) classically arise because of hypergastrinemia and involve destruction of parietal cells, which are responsible for gastric acid secretion through the ATP4A proton pump and for intrinsic factor production. METHODS: By whole exome sequencing, we studied a family with three members with gNETs plus hypothyroidism and rheumatoid arthritis to uncover their genetic origin. RESULTS: A heterozygous missense mutation in the ATP4A gene was identified...
May 4, 2017: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473630/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-inhibition-downregulates-helicobacter-pylori-induced-epithelial-inflammatory-responses-dna-damage-and-gastric-carcinogenesis
#11
Johanna C Sierra, Mohammad Asim, Thomas G Verriere, M Blanca Piazuelo, Giovanni Suarez, Judith Romero-Gallo, Alberto G Delgado, Lydia E Wroblewski, Daniel P Barry, Richard M Peek, Alain P Gobert, Keith T Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide and infection by Helicobacter pylori is the strongest risk factor. We have reported increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation in the H. pylori-induced human carcinogenesis cascade, and association with DNA damage. Our goal was to determine the role of EGFR activation in gastric carcinogenesis. DESIGN: We evaluated gefitinib, a specific EGFR inhibitor, in chemoprevention of H...
May 4, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459508/effect-of-electric-acupoint-stimulation-on-gastrointestinal-hormones-and-motility-among-geriatric-postoperative-patients-with-gastrointestinal-tumors
#12
Lili Hou, Lei Xu, Yan Shi, Fen Gu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of electric acupoint stimulation on gastrointestinal hormones and motility among geriatric postoperative patients with gastrointestinal tumors, and to explore an efficient and noninvasive method for postoperative recovery of bowel functions. METHODS: Forty patients were randomly and evenly assigned into a regular nursing care group (RNC) and an acupoint electric stimulation group (AES). Patients in the RNC group received regular nursing care and patients in the AES group received regular nursing care plus electric stimulation of acupoints...
August 2016: Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chung i Tsa Chih Ying Wen Pan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452904/a-placebo-controlled-crossover-trial-of-gastrin-releasing-peptide-in-childhood-autism
#13
Josemar Marchezan, Michele Becker, Gilberto Schwartsmann, Lygia Ohlweiler, Rafael Roesler, Luiza Brusius Renck, Marcela Matos Monteiro Gonçalves, Josiane Ranzan, Rudimar Dos Santos Riesgo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) compared with placebo in autism spectrum disorder symptoms. METHODOLOGY: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial using GRP 160 pmol/kg for 4 consecutive days in 10 children with autism. Outcomes were measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) scale. RESULTS: All participants were boys, aged between 4 and 9 years...
May 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446479/severe-chronic-diarrhoea-secondary-to-primary-lymph-node-gastrinoma
#14
Mouhanna Abu Ghanimeh, Khalil Abuamr, Esmat Sadeddin, Osama Yousef
The existence of primary lymph node (LN) gastrinoma is questionable and controversial. In fact, the presence of gastrinoma in such uncommon site raises the possibility of metastasis from another occult primary site. An extensive evaluation and careful follow-up is always warranted. A female aged 48 years presented with chronic abdominal pain and watery diarrhoea. Her serum gastrin and chromogranin were elevated, and an underlying gastrinoma was suspected. Further evaluation with an octreotide scan, an endoscopic ultrasound and a secretin stimulation test confirmed the diagnosis...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445847/to-elute-or-not-to-elute-in-immunocapture-bottom-up-lc-ms
#15
Maren Christin Stillesby Levernæs, Marianne Nordlund Broughton, Léon Reubsaet, Trine Grønhaug Halvorsen
Immunocapture-based bottom-up LC-MS is a promising technique for the quantification of low abundant proteins. Magnetic immunocapture beads provide efficient enrichment from complex samples through the highly specific interaction between the target protein and its antibody. In this article, we have performed the first thorough comparison between digestion of proteins while bound to antibody coated beads versus after elution from the beads. Two previously validated immunocapture based MS methods for the quantification of pro-gastrin releasing peptide (ProGRP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were used as model systems...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436254/the-correlation-between-histological-gastritis-staging-olga-olgim-and-serum-pepsinogen-test-in-assessment-of-gastric-atrophy-intestinal-metaplasia-in-china
#16
Xiaoteng Wang, Bin Lu, Lina Meng, Yihong Fan, Shuo Zhang, Meng Li
BACKGROUND: Serum pepsinogen (PG) test, as an indicator of gastric mucosal atrophy, reflects the functional and morphologic status of gastric mucosal and it is suggested to serve as a useful predictive marker for patients with gastric cancer (GC). The available classifications of gastritis, known as the Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) and Operative Link on Gastritis Intestinal Metaplasia (OLGIM), integrating the severity and topography of atrophy/intestinal metaplasia (IM), have been gradually accepted and used in screening for GC in recent years...
April 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432554/epigallocatechin-gallate-protects-beas-2b-cells-from-lipopolysaccharide-induced-apoptosis-through-upregulation-of-gastrin-releasing-peptide
#17
Peethambaran Divya, Bijesh Puthusseri, Denny Joseph Kollareth Manual, Mohammed Azharuddin Savanur
Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) plays a major role in the development and maintenance of lung epithelial cells by promoting cell division, whereas its suppression causes growth arrest and apoptosis. The present study shows that human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin from gram-negative bacteria, downregulated GRP expression and induced apoptosis via upregulation of p53 and active caspase-3, signifying the importance of GRP in lung epithelial cell survival...
April 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432443/progastrin-a-potential-predictive-marker-of-liver-metastasis-in-colorectal-cancer
#18
David A Westwood, Oneel Patel, Christopher Christophi, Arthur Shulkes, Graham S Baldwin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Staging of colorectal cancer often fails to discriminate outcomes of patients with morphologically similar tumours that exhibit different clinical behaviours. Data from several studies suggest that the gastrin family of growth factors potentiates colorectal cancer tumourigenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether progastrin expression may predict clinical outcome in colorectal cancer. METHODS: Patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma of identical depth of invasion who had not received neoadjuvant therapy were included...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430608/adrenalectomy-abolishes-hypergravity-induced-gastric-acid-hyposecretion
#19
Kiyong Na, Hyun-Soo Kim
Jet fighter pilots experience high gravitational acceleration forces in the cephalocaudal direction (+Gz), causing severe stress. Stress affects different physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the effects of exposure to hypergravity on cardiovascular and cerebral functions have been the subject of numerous studies, crucial information regarding potential pathophysiological alterations following hypergravity exposure in the gastrointestinal tract is lacking. We recently documented a significant decrease in gastric secretory activity in rats after acute exposure to hypergravity...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425145/prevalence-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-in-cats-during-anesthesia-and-effect-of-omeprazole-on-gastric-ph
#20
R S Garcia, P C Belafsky, A Della Maggiore, J M Osborn, B H Pypendop, T Pierce, V J Walker, A Fulton, S L Marks
BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is poorly characterized in anesthetized cats, but can cause aspiration pneumonia, esophagitis, and esophageal stricture formation. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pre-anesthetic orally administered omeprazole increases gastric and esophageal pH and increases serum gastrin concentrations in anesthetized cats, and to determine the prevalence of GER using combined multichannel impedance and pH monitoring. ANIMALS: Twenty-seven healthy cats undergoing elective dental procedures...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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