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Skin source infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237707/buruli-ulcer-a-prototype-for-ecosystem-related-infection-caused-by-mycobacterium-ulcerans
#1
REVIEW
Dezemon Zingue, Amar Bouam, Roger B D Tian, Michel Drancourt
Buruli ulcer is a noncontagious disabling cutaneous and subcutaneous mycobacteriosis reported by 33 countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America. The causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, derives from Mycobacterium marinum by genomic reduction and acquisition of a plasmid-borne, nonribosomal cytotoxin mycolactone, the major virulence factor. M. ulcerans-specific sequences have been readily detected in aquatic environments in food chains involving small mammals. Skin contamination combined with any type of puncture, including insect bites, is the most plausible route of transmission, and skin temperature of <30°C significantly correlates with the topography of lesions...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234365/ethnopharmacological-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacological-properties-of-croton-macrostachyus-hochst-ex-delile-a-comprehensive-review
#2
REVIEW
Alfred Maroyi
Croton macrostachyus is widely used as herbal medicine by the indigenous people of tropical Africa. The potential of C. macrostachyus as herbal medicine, the phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties of its parts used as herbal medicines are reviewed. The extensive literature survey revealed that C. macrostachyus is traditionally used to treat or manage at least 81 human and animal diseases and ailments. The species is used as herbal medicine for diseases and ailments such as abdominal pains, cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, malaria, pneumonia, sexually transmitted infections, skin infections, typhoid, and wounds and as ethnoveterinary medicine...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234194/an-insight-into-antibiotic-resistance-to-bacterial-infection-in-chronic-liver-disease
#3
Mayank Jain, Joy Varghese, Tom Michael, Chandan Kumar Kedarishetty, Balajee G, Subramanian Swaminathan, Jayanthi Venkataraman
Background: End stage liver disease leads to immune dysfunction which predisposes to infection. There has been a rise in antibiotic resistant infections in these patients. There is scanty data f from India or idea regarding the same. Aim of the study: The present study was undertaken to determine the type of infection acquired and the prevalence of antibiotic resistant infections in cirrhotic patients at a tertiary referral center in South India. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, all consecutive cirrhotic patients hospitalized between 2011 and 2013 with a microbiologically-documented infection were enrolled...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190282/experience-dependent-olfactory-behaviors-of-the-parasitic-nematode-heligmosomoides-polygyrus
#4
Felicitas Ruiz, Michelle L Castelletto, Spencer S Gang, Elissa A Hallem
Parasitic nematodes of humans and livestock cause extensive disease and economic loss worldwide. Many parasitic nematodes infect hosts as third-stage larvae, called iL3s. iL3s vary in their infection route: some infect by skin penetration, others by passive ingestion. Skin-penetrating iL3s actively search for hosts using host-emitted olfactory cues, but the extent to which passively ingested iL3s respond to olfactory cues was largely unknown. Here, we examined the olfactory behaviors of the passively ingested murine gastrointestinal parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184906/parvovirus-b19-in-the-context-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-evaluating-cell-donors-and-recipients
#5
Bianca E Gama, Vanessa E Emmel, Michelle Oliveira-Silva, Luciana M Gutiyama, Leonardo Arcuri, Marta Colares, Rita de Cássia Tavares, Luis F Bouzas, Eliana Abdelhay, Rocio Hassan
Background: Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a common human pathogen, member of the family Parvoviridae. Typically, B19V has been found to infect erythroid progenitors and cause hematological disorders, such as anemia and aplastic crisis. However, the persistence of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been demonstrated in tonsils, liver, skin, brain, synovial, and testicular tissues as well as bone marrow, for both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Although the molecular and cellular mechanisms of persistence remain undefined, it raises questions about potential virus transmissibility and its effects in the context of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients...
November 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164118/infections-caused-by-antimicrobial-drug-resistant-saprophytic-gram-negative-bacteria-in-the-environment
#6
Eva Raphael, Lee W Riley
Background: Drug-resistance genes found in human bacterial pathogens are increasingly recognized in saprophytic Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from environmental sources. The clinical implication of such environmental GNBs is unknown. Objectives: We conducted a systematic review to determine how often such saprophytic GNBs cause human infections. Methods: We queried PubMed for articles published in English, Spanish, and French between January 2006 and July 2014 for 20 common environmental saprophytic GNB species, using search terms "infections," "human infections," "hospital infection...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153708/pathophysiology-of-il-33-and-il-17-in-allergic-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Rinkesh Kumar Gupta, Kriti Gupta, Premendra D Dwivedi
Allergic diseases are among common clinical conditions, affecting millions of children and adults throughout the world. Food allergies, skin allergies (atopic dermatitis), and respiratory allergies (allergic rhinitis and asthma) are the common types of allergies. Recently discovered cytokines IL-17 and IL-33 have been found to play an important role in the pathogenicity of various hypersensitive disorders. After exposure to allergens or infection with parasites or viruses, IL-17 and IL-33 producing cells, such as Th17 and specialized epithelial cells respectively, become activated and trigger the pathogenic immune responses in different susceptible conditions...
November 11, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135999/-life-like-assessment-of-antimicrobial-surfaces-by-a-new-touch-transfer-assay-displays-strong-superiority-of-a-copper-alloy-compared-to-silver-containing-surfaces
#8
Johannes Karl-Mark Knobloch, Sabrina Tofern, Wladimir Kunz, Sara Schütze, Michael Riecke, Werner Solbach, Thomas Wuske
Transmission of bacteria from inanimate surfaces in healthcare associated environments is an important source of hospital acquired infections. A number of commercially available medical devices promise to fulfill antibacterial activity to reduce environmental contamination. In this study we developed a touch transfer assay modeling fingerprint transmission to investigate the antibacterial activity of surfaces, with confirmed antibacterial activity by a modified ISO 22196 (JIS Z 2801) assay to test such surfaces under more realistic conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101193/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-sequence-type-st-5-isolates-from-health-care-and-agricultural-sources-adhere-equivalently-to-human-keratinocytes
#9
Samantha J Hau, Steven Kellner, Kirsten C Eberle, Ursula Waack, Susan L Brockmeier, Jisun S Haan, Peter R Davies, Timothy Frana, Tracy L Nicholson
Staphylococcus aureus is part of the nasal microbiome of many humans and has become a significant public health burden due to infections with antibiotic resistant strains, including methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Several lineages of S. aureus including MRSA are found in livestock species and can be acquired by humans through contact with animals. These livestock associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) isolates raise public health concerns because of the potential for livestock to act as reservoirs for MRSA outside of the hospital setting...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094463/severe-dermatophytosis-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-a-french-retrospective-series-and-literature-review
#10
Claire Rouzaud, Olivier Chosidow, Anabelle Brocard, Sylvie Fraitag, Anne Scemla, Dany Anglicheau, Jean-David Bouaziz, Nicolas Dupin, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Roderick Hay, Olivier Lortholary, Fanny Lanternier
OBJECTIVE: Severe dermatophytosis is described in immunocompromised patients with defective cellular immunity. We report here a large series and a literature review of severe dermatophytosis in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. METHOD: The data main source was a national French retrospective study of severe dermatophytosis in SOT recipients between 2010 and 2016. Inclusion criteria were the presence of dermatophytes in skin culture and one severity criteria: dermal invasion by dermatophytes (invasive dermatophytosis) or involvement of at least two body sites or >10% of body surface area (extensive dermatophytosis) RESULTS: Twelve patients were included (8 men, median age of 56 years [range: 33-71])...
November 2, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070083/human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-acquired-through-a-traditional-healer-s-ritual-a-case-report
#11
Pedro Pallangyo, Paulina Nicholaus, Henry Mayala, Andrew Kabeho, Anna Nkinda, Mohamed Janabi
BACKGROUND: Globally, over 36 million people were infected with human immunodeficiency virus by the end of 2015. The Sub-Saharan African region home to less than one-fifth of the global population disproportionately harbors over two-thirds of the total infections and related deaths. Residents of Sub-Saharan Africa continue to face limited access to allopathic medicine and it is estimated that over 80% of primary health care needs in the region are met through traditional healing practices...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067025/il-4r%C3%AE-signaling-in-keratinocytes-and-early-il-4-production-are-dispensable-for-generating-a-curative-t-helper-1-response-in-leishmania-major-infected-c57bl-6-mice
#12
Marc Descatoire, Benjamin P Hurrell, Melissa Govender, Katiuska Passelli, Berenice Martinez-Salazar, Ramona Hurdayal, Frank Brombacher, Reto Guler, Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier
Experimental infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania major has been extensively used to understand the mechanisms involved in T helper cell differentiation. Following infection, C57BL/6 mice develop a small self-healing cutaneous lesion and they are able to control parasite burden, a process linked to the development of T helper (Th) 1 cells. The local presence of IL-12 has been reported to be critical in driving Th1 cell differentiation. In addition, the early secretion of IL-4 was reported to potentially contribute to Th1 cell differentiation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057716/safety-assessment-on-microbial-and-heavy-metal-concentration-in-clarias-gariepinus-african-catfish-cultured-in-treated-wastewater-pond-in-kumasi-ghana
#13
Yeboah-Agyepong Mark, Amoah Philip, Agbo W Nelson, Ashley Muspratt, Samuel Aikins
This study assesses the microbial and heavy metal distribution in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) cultured in waste stabilization pond, and their subsequent suitability for human consumption. Treated wastewater-fed pond (WFP) was used in the culture of the fish with a non-wastewater fed pond (NWFP), fed with ground and rain water as control. Pond water, sediments and fish tissue (gill, liver, gut and skin) samples from both sources were analyzed for pathogens and heavy metal levels. Escherichia coli populations in the sediments and water from the WFP exceeded the maximum permissible limit by 2-3 log units as expected...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056704/infection-by-microsporum-canis-in-paediatric-patients-a-veterinary-perspective
#14
Mario Pasquetti, Anna Rita Molinar Min, Stefania Scacchetti, Andrea Dogliero, Andrea Peano
Microsporum canis is a dermatophyte fungus of which cats and dogs are recognized as the natural hosts. M. canis is also easily transmitted to humans, causing lesions to the glabrous skin (tinea corporis) and to the head (tinea capitis). The present study describes some cases of infection with M. canis in children from a veterinary perspective, highlighting some important features of this clinical entity (e.g., the necessity to identify the animal source of infection with appropriate diagnostic tests; the fact that infected cats may present with no or atypical dermatological signs; and the importance of the environment as a fungal reserve)...
September 19, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034202/wound-healing-potentials-of-thevetia-peruviana-antioxidants-and-inflammatory-markers-criteria
#15
Nazneen Rahman, Haseebur Rahman, Mir Haris, Riaz Mahmood
Thevetia peruviana is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of external wounds, infected area, ring worms, tumours etc. in traditional system of medicine. The aim of the study was to evaluate the wound healing potentials of T. peruviana leaves hexane (LH) and fruit rind (FW) water extracts and to prove the folkloric claims. The antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials could be important strategies in defining potent wound healing drug. Based on these approaches the current study was designed using incision, excision and dead space wound models with the biochemical, antioxidant enzymes and inflammatory marker analysis...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024922/isolation-and-whole-genome-analysis-of-endospore-forming-bacteria-from-heroin
#16
Jörn Kalinowski, Björn Ahrens, Arwa Al-Dilaimi, Anika Winkler, Daniel Wibberg, Uwe Schleenbecker, Christian Rückert, Roman Wölfel, Gregor Grass
Infections caused by endospore-forming bacteria have been associated with severe illness and death among persons who inject drugs. Analysis of the bacteria residing in heroin has thus been biased towards species that affect human health. Similarly, exploration of the bacterial diversity of seized street market heroin correlated with the skin microflora of recreational heroin users insofar as different Staphylococus spp. or typical environmental endospore formers including Bacillus cereus and other Bacilli outside the B...
October 4, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021723/bacterial-infections-in-burn-wound-patients-at-a-tertiary-teaching-hospital-in-accra-ghana
#17
O A Forson, E Ayanka, M Olu-Taiwo, P J Pappoe-Ashong, P J Ayeh-Kumi
Intact human skin surface is essential for protection against infection, preservation of body fluid homeostasis and thermoregulation. Burn injury compromises the skin barrier and enables bacterial infection, hence delaying burn wound healing. This study aimed to determine the microbial profile of burn wounds, and resistance patterns of microbes with respect to the source of the injured patient's wound. Fifty wound swab samples were collected from fifty burn patients at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra (KBTH)...
June 30, 2017: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994104/epidemiology-of-keratinocyte-carcinomas-after-organ-transplantation
#18
REVIEW
M M Madeleine, N S Patel, E I Plasmeijer, E A Engels, J N Bouwes Bavinck, A E Toland, A C Green
Keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) is the most common type of cancer among white populations, but it is even more common among solid organ transplant recipients (OTRs). The most frequent histological type of KC among OTRs is cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), followed by basal cell carcinoma, although the reverse is seen in the general population. Metastatic cSCCs are more frequent, and mortality is increased compared with immunocompetent populations. There is strong evidence that the risk of KC among OTRs rises with increasing time after transplantation and older age at transplantation, and that KC is enhanced in those with sun-damaged skin...
October 10, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994020/vitamin-d-and-the-skin-an-update-for-dermatologists
#19
REVIEW
Elio Kechichian, Khaled Ezzedine
Vitamin D plays a key role in skeletal and cardiovascular disorders, cancers, central nervous system diseases, reproductive diseases, infections, and autoimmune and dermatological disorders. The two main sources of vitamin D are sun exposure and oral intake, including vitamin D supplementation and dietary intake. Multiple factors are linked to vitamin D status, such as Fitzpatrick skin type, sex, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. Patients with photosensitive disorders tend to avoid sun exposure, and this practice, along with photoprotection, can put this category of patients at risk for vitamin D deficiency...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991909/prevalence-intensity-and-risk-factors-of-tungiasis-in-kilifi-county-kenya-i-results-from-a-community-based-study
#20
Susanne Wiese, Lynne Elson, Felix Reichert, Barbara Mambo, Hermann Feldmeier
BACKGROUND: Tungiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by female sand fleas (Tunga penetrans) embedded in the skin. The disease is associated with important morbidity. Tungiasis is endemic along the Coast of Kenya with a prevalence ranging from 11% to 50% in school-age children. Hitherto, studies on epidemiological characteristics of tungiasis in Africa are scanty. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study 1,086 individuals from 233 households in eight villages located in Kakuyuni and Malanga Sub-locations, Kilifi County, on the Kenyan Coast, were investigated...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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