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Skin source infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543769/perceptions-and-practices-regarding-atopic-dermatitis-a-survey
#1
Katherine R Grey, Kristen P Hook, Ingrid C Polcari, Sheilagh M Maguiness
Parents (N = 392) completed a survey at the Minnesota State Fair in August and September 2015 addressing knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD), basic skin care practices, and the perceived role of infection and food allergies in AD. Of participating parents, 82% identified food allergy or sensitivity in AD pathogenesis, whereas only 42% identified bacterial infection as an important factor in AD severity. Participants most often received education on skin health from their pediatrician (49%), followed by Internet-based sources (23%), rather than a dermatologist or pediatric dermatologist...
May 25, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540144/spondylitis-transmitted-from-infected-aortic-grafts-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Panayiotis D Megaloikonomos, Thekla Antoniadou, Leonidas Dimopoulos, Marcos Liontos, Vasilios Igoumenou, Georgios N Panagopoulos, Efthymia Giannitsioti, Andreas Lazaris, Andreas F Mavrogenis
Graft infection following aortic aneurysms repair is an uncommon but devastating complication; its incidence ranges from <1% to 6% (mean 4%), with an associated perioperative and overall mortality of 12% and 17.5-20%, respectively. The most common causative organisms are Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli; causative bacteria typically arise from the skin or gastrointestinal tract. The pathogenetic mechanisms of aortic graft infections are mainly breaks in sterile technique during its implantation, superinfection during bacteremia from a variety of sources, severe intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal inflammation, inoculation of bacteria during postoperative percutaneous interventions to manage various types of endoleaks, and external injury of the vascular graft...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524774/cytotoxicity-and-anti-leishmania-amazonensis-activity-of-citrus-sinensis-leaf-extracts
#3
Andreza R Garcia, Ana Claudia F Amaral, Mariana M B Azevedo, Suzana Corte-Real, Rosana C Lopes, Celuta S Alviano, Anderson S Pinheiro, Alane B Vermelho, Igor A Rodrigues
CONTEXT: Leishmania amazonensis is the main agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, a disease characterized by lesional polymorphism and the commitment of skin surface. Previous reports demonstrated that the Citrus genus possess antimicrobial activity. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the anti-L. amazonensis activity of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) extracts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Citrus sinensis dried leaves were subjected to maceration with hexane (CH), ethyl acetate (CEA), dichloromethane/ethanol (CD/Et - 1:1) or ethanol/water (CEt/W - 7:3)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523894/primary-cutaneous-mucormycosis-in-an-extremely-preterm-infant-successfully-treated-with-liposomal-amphotericin-b
#4
Christopher D Lowe, Rebecca J Sainato, David R Stagliano, Maribel M Morgan, Brian P Green
Cutaneous mucormycosis is a rare but often fatal invasive fungal infection that occurs most commonly in patients with diabetes, malignancy, and other immunocompromising conditions. We report an extremely preterm (<28 weeks) baby boy who developed polymicrobial sepsis and primary cutaneous mucormycosis within his first 10 days of life. He was successfully treated with medical management alone since he was not a candidate for surgery. Successful treatment of cutaneous mucormycosis without surgical debridement has been reported on only two other occasions...
May 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514703/bacterial-infections-and-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-liver-cirrhosis-prophylaxis-and-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Damian Piotrowski, Anna Boroń-Kaczmarska
Infections are common among patients with liver cirrhosis. They occur more often in cirrhotic patient groups than in the general population and result in higher mortality. One reason for this phenomenon is bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen that occurs as a consequence of intestinal bacterial overgrowth, increased permeability and decreased motility. The most common infections in cirrhotic patients are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and urinary tract infections, followed by pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections...
May 14, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476075/drugs-for-discoid-lupus-erythematosus
#6
REVIEW
Sue Jessop, David A Whitelaw, Matthew J Grainge, Prativa Jayasekera
BACKGROUND: Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is a chronic form of cutaneous lupus, which can cause scarring. Many drugs have been used to treat this disease and some (such as thalidomide, cyclophosphamide and azathioprine) are potentially toxic. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2000, and previously updated in 2009. We wanted to update the review to assess whether any new information was available to treat DLE, as we were still unsure of the effectiveness of available drugs and how to select the most appropriate treatment for an individual with DLE...
May 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464028/crude-oil-impairs-immune-function-and-increases-susceptibility-to-pathogenic-bacteria-in-southern-flounder
#7
Keith M Bayha, Natalie Ortell, Caitlin N Ryan, Kimberly J Griffitt, Michelle Krasnec, Johnny Sena, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj, Ryan Takeshita, Gregory D Mayer, Faye Schilkey, Robert J Griffitt
Exposure to crude oil or its individual constituents can have detrimental impacts on fish species, including impairment of the immune response. Increased observations of skin lesions in northern Gulf of Mexico fish during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill indicated the possibility of oil-induced immunocompromisation resulting in bacterial or viral infection. This study used a full factorial design of oil exposure and bacterial challenge to examine how oil exposure impairs southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) immune function and increases susceptibility to the bacteria Vibrio anguillarum, a causative agent of vibriosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461284/simple-wound-irrigation-in-the-postoperative-treatment-for-surgically-drained-spontaneous-soft-tissue-abscesses-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-single-blinded-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Annika Rühle, Florian Oehme, Katja Börnert, Lana Fourie, Reto Babst, Björn-Christian Link, Jürg Metzger, Frank Jp Beeres
BACKGROUND: Skin abscesses are a frequent encountered health care problem and lead to a significant source of morbidity. They consequently have an essential impact on the quality of life and work. To date, the type of aftercare for surgically drained abscesses remains under debate. This leads to undesirable practice variations. Many clinical standard protocols include sterile wound dressings twice a day by a home-care service to reduce the chance of a recurrent wound infection. It is unknown, however, whether reinfection rates are comparable to adequate wound irrigation with a nonsterile solution performed by the patient...
May 1, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459224/trichophyton-verrucosum-infection-in-livestock-in-the-chitral-district-of-pakistan
#9
Khalid Hameed, Farhana Riaz Ch, Muhammad Ali Nawaz, Syed Muhammad Saqlan Naqvi, Yvonne Gräser, Christiane Kupsch, Mario Pasquetti, Luca Rossi, Anna Rita Molinar Min, Paolo Tizzani, Elisa Chiavassa, Andrea Peano
INTRODUCTION: Trichophyton verrucosum belongs to the dermatophyte fungi, closely related organisms that cause skin infections in animals and humans. T. verrucosum infection has been reported in livestock and people in different countries from all continents. Human cases have been reported in different areas of Pakistan, but there is little information about the animal source of the fungus. METHODOLOGY: Dermatological specimens collected in the Chitral district of Pakistan for a study on mange in livestock were retrospectively analyzed for the presence of T...
April 30, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455239/minimally-invasive-microbiopsies-a-novel-sampling-method-for-identifying-asymptomatic-potentially-infectious-carriers-of-leishmania-donovani
#10
Oscar David Kirstein, Ibrahim Abbasi, Ben Zion Horwitz, Laura Skrip, Asrat Hailu, Charles Jaffe, Lynlee L Li, Tarl W Prow, Alon Warburg
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially lethal, sand fly-borne disease caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the Leishmania donovani species complex. There are several adequate methods for diagnosing VL, but the majority of infected individuals remain asymptomatic, comprising potential parasite reservoirs for transmission of the disease. The gold standard for assessing host infectiousness to biting vector insects is xenodiagnosis (i.e. scoring infection rates among insectary-reared insects that had fed on humans suspected of being infected)...
April 26, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444521/leprosy-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Josafá Gonçalves Barreto, Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade, Fred Bernardes Filho, Moises Batista da Silva, John Stewart Spencer, Claudio Guedes Salgado
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This manuscript aims to review the cutting-edge developments regarding to the diagnosis, management, and prevention of leprosy in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Leprosy transmission still occurs continuously in some endemic areas in the world. Leprosy in children below 15 years old is a robust indicator of active source of infection in the community where they live. A special focus on children to reduce disabilities and reduce transmission is one of the core areas of interventions of the global leprosy strategy 2016-2020...
June 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438086/feline-leprosy-due-to-candidatus-mycobacterium-tarwinense
#12
Carolyn R O'Brien, Richard Malik, Maria Globan, George Reppas, Christina McCowan, Janet A Fyfe
OBJECTIVES: This paper, the first in a series of three on 'feline leprosy', provides a detailed description of disease referable to Candidatus 'Mycobacterium tarwinense', the most common cause of feline leprosy in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: Cases were sourced retrospectively and prospectively for this observational study, describing clinical, geographical and molecular microbiological data for cats definitively diagnosed with Candidatus 'M tarwinense' infection...
May 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435821/utilization-of-pfge-as-a-powerful-discriminative-tool-for-the-investigation-of-genetic-diversity-among-mrsa-strains
#13
Solmaz Ohadian Moghadam, Mohammad Reza Pourmand, Masoumeh Douraghi, Samira Sabzi, Parisa Ghaffari
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant challenge to the burn patient. The implementation of proper monitoring programs and prompt identification of epidemic MRSA strains are critical to consequently control and eradicate potential outbreaks. This study aimed to define the genetic relatedness of MRSA strains isolated from burn patients by analyzing the large fragments of DNA. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 126 pus/wound swabs from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) were collected from inpatients of Shahid Motahari Burn Center (Tehran, Iran) in 2013...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430767/are-steroids-effective-in-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-and-stevens-johnson-syndrome
#14
Rodrigo Meza, Gabriel Rada, Pablo Varas
Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome are severe adverse skin reactions to medications and infections. Steroids are described as a therapeutic alternative, but their use is still controversial. To answer this question, we searched in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources. We identified four systematic reviews including 11 primary studies answering the question of interest. We extracted data, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach...
April 5, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419015/an-unanticipated-complication-of-atopic-dermatitis
#15
Megan E MacGillivray, Loretta Fiorillo
An infant with a history of atopic dermatitis presented to the emergency department on 5 occasions with flulike symptoms. Eventually, this child presented with signs of infection and increased intracranial pressure: fever, bulging anterior fontanel, and leukocytosis. A computed tomography scan identified a large frontal lobe brain abscess. The abscess was surgically drained; culture was positive for Staphylococcus aureus. The initial source of the infected brain abscess was explored. Ultimately, it was thought to be secondary to impetiginized atopic dermatitis, an unusual but serious consequence of a common skin condition...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388797/dorsal-augmentation-with-homologous-rib
#16
Russell W H Kridel, Angela K Sturm
Dorsal augmentation grafts are used to reconstruct and raise the nasal dorsum in patients with dorsal saddling due to trauma, infection, or previous nasal surgery, as well as in patients with a narrow, congenitally low, and/or wide dorsum. Alloplastic implants and various biomaterials are available for grafting, each with advantages and disadvantages. Although autologous septal cartilage is a preferable and often convenient source of cartilage, it is frequently not sufficient for large volume dorsal augmentation, nor is it available in patients who have had septoplasty, infection, previous rhinoplasty with grafting, or significant trauma...
April 2017: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380682/the-association-of-the-skin-microbiota-with-health-immunity-and-disease
#17
Markus Egert, Rainer Simmering, Christian U Riedel
The human skin is densely colonized by a highly diverse microbiota comprising all three domains of life. Long believed to represent mainly a source of infection, the human skin microbiota is nowadays well accepted as an important driver of human (skin) health and well-being. This microbiota is influenced by many host and environmental factors and interacts closely with the skin immune system. Although cause and effect are usually difficult to discriminate, changes in the skin microbiota clearly play a role in the pathobiology of many types of skin disease and cosmetic disorders...
April 5, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371911/molecular-epidemiology-of-a-malassezia-pachydermatis-neonatal-unit-outbreak
#18
Amin Ilahi, Inès Hadrich, Sabrina Goudjil, Guy Kongolo, Christèle Chazal, André Léké, Ali Ayadi, Taieb Chouaki, Stéphane Ranque
The non-lipid-dependent yeast Malassezia pachydermatis is predominantly zoophilic but occasionally colonizes the human skin. This yeast caused an outbreak in a neonatal iIntensive care unit (NICU). This study aimed to describe the molecular epidemiology of this M. pachydermatis outbreak. All the M. pachydermatis isolates collected at a French University Hospital from January 2012 to April 2013 were included in the study. M. pachydermatis isolates, sampled from various biological samples sites in 25 patients, were identified via MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and typed using intergenic-spacer 1 (IGS1) nucleotide sequence polymorphisms analysis...
March 24, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367030/clinical-characteristics-and-prognostic-factors-of-patients-with-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-infections
#19
Priyam Batra, Purva Mathur, Mahesh C Misra
INTRODUCTION: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia earlier had limited pathogenic potential, but now with growing degree of immunosuppression in general population, it is being recognized as an important nosocomial pathogen. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective 7 years study was carried out to determine the clinical characteristics of all patients with Stenotrophomonas infections, antibiotic resistance pattern, and risk factors associated with hospital mortality. All patients with Stenotrophomonas culture positivity were identified and their medical records were reviewed...
April 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362312/fungal-biodiversity-and-mycotoxigenic-fungi-in-cooling-tower-water-systems-in-istanbul-turkey
#20
Duygu Göksay Kadaifciler, Rasime Demirel
This is the first study to assess fungal diversity and mycotoxigenic fungi in open recirculating cooling-tower (CT) water systems (biofilm and water phase). The production capability of mycotoxin from fungal isolates was also examined. The mean fungal count in 21 different water and biofilm samples was determined as 234 CFU/100 mL and 4 CFU/cm(2). A total of 32 species were identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. The most common isolated fungi belonged to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, of which the most prevalent fungi were Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillium dipodomyicola...
April 2017: Journal of Water and Health
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