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Skin microbiota infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664571/tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-in-tissue-homeostasis-persistent-infection-and-cancer-surveillance
#1
REVIEW
Thomas Gebhardt, Umaimainthan Palendira, David C Tscharke, Sammy Bedoui
A large proportion of memory T cells disseminated throughout the body are non-recirculating cells whose maintenance and function is regulated by tissue-specific environmental cues. These sessile cells are referred to as tissue-resident memory T (TRM ) cells and similar populations of non-recirculating cells also exist among unconventional T cells and innate lymphocyte cells. The pool of TRM cells is highly diverse with respect to anatomical positioning, phenotype, molecular regulation and effector function...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593698/widespread-elevational-occurrence-of-antifungal-bacteria-in-andean-amphibians-decimated-by-disease-a-complex-role-for-skin-symbionts-in-defense-against-chytridiomycosis
#2
Alessandro Catenazzi, Sandra V Flechas, David Burkart, Nathan D Hooven, Joseph Townsend, Vance T Vredenburg
Emerging infectious disease is a growing threat to global health, and recent discoveries reveal that the microbiota dwelling on and within hosts can play an important role in health and disease. To understand the capacity of skin bacteria to protect amphibian hosts from the fungal disease chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), we isolated 192 bacterial morphotypes from the skin of 28 host species of frogs (families Bufonidae, Centrolenidae, Hemiphractidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae, Strabomantidae, and Telmatobiidae) collected from the eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes (540-3,865 m a...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588324/wisconsin-microbiome-study-a-cross-sectional-investigation-of-dietary-fibre-microbiome-composition-and-antibiotic-resistant-organisms-rationale-and-methods
#3
Shoshannah Eggers, Kristen Mc Malecki, Paul Peppard, Julie Mares, Daniel Shirley, Sanjay K Shukla, Keith Poulsen, Ronald Gangnon, Megan Duster, Ashley Kates, Garret Suen, Ajay K Sethi, Nasia Safdar
INTRODUCTION: Prevention of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections, such as those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , vancomycin-resistant enterococci, fluoroquinolone-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and Clostridium difficile is crucial. Evidence suggests that dietary fibre increases gut microbial diversity, which may help prevent colonisation and subsequent infection by MDROs. The aim of the Winning the War on Antibiotic Resistance (WARRIOR) project is to examine associations of dietary fibre consumption with the composition of the gut microbiota and gut colonisation by MDROs...
March 27, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540169/skin-asepsis-protocols-as-a-preventive-measure-of-surgical-site-infections-in-dogs-chlorhexidine-alcohol-versus-povidone-iodine
#4
Luís Belo, Isa Serrano, Eva Cunha, Carla Carneiro, Luis Tavares, L Miguel Carreira, Manuela Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Most of surgical site infections (SSI) are caused by commensal and pathogenic agents from the patient's microbiota, which may include antibiotic resistant strains. Pre-surgical asepsis of the skin is one of the preventive measures performed to reduce SSI incidence and also antibiotic resistance dissemination. However, in veterinary medicine there is no agreement on which biocide is the most effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two pre-surgical skin asepsis protocols in dogs...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471815/glucocorticosteroids-and-ciclosporin-do-not-significantly-impact-canine-cutaneous-microbiota
#5
Giovanni Widmer, Lluís Ferrer, Claude Favrot, Judy Paps, Kevin Huynh, Thierry Olivry
BACKGROUND: As prednisone and ciclosporin can have immunosuppressive effects and have been considered potential predisposing factors for skin infections, we investigated the impact of these drugs on the diversity of the cutaneous microbiota, the abundance of Malassezia and infection with Papillomaviruses. RESULTS: Six atopic, asymptomatic Maltese-beagle dogs were treated with ciclosporin for one month and then with prednisone for another month, with a one-month wash-out between treatments...
February 23, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463380/metronidazole-loaded-polyethyleneimine-and-chitosan-based-liquid-crystalline-system-for-treatment-of-staphylococcal-skin-infections
#6
Francesca Damiani Victorelli, Giovana Maria Fioramonti Calixto, Matheus Aparecido Dos Santos Ramos, Taís Maria Bauab, Marlus Chorilli
Staphylococcus aureus is a common gram-positive bacterium of the human skin microbiota. It is also a dangerous pathogen that can cause serious and even lethal skin infections. The topical administration of metronidazole via nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, such as liquid crystalline systems, can modulate both the drug permeation and activity, decreasing its side effects and increasing the drug potent activity against the gram-positive bacteria. This study aimed at: (1) structurally developing and characterizing a liquid crystalline systems composed of chitosan and polyethyleneimine dispersion as the aqueous phase, oleic acid as the oily phase, and ethoxylated and propoxylated cetyl alcohol as the surfactant (FPC) for metronidazole incorporation (0...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449565/amphibian-chytridiomycosis-outbreak-dynamics-are-linked-with-host-skin-bacterial-community-structure
#7
Kieran A Bates, Frances C Clare, Simon O'Hanlon, Jaime Bosch, Lola Brookes, Kevin Hopkins, Emilia J McLaughlin, Olivia Daniel, Trenton W J Garner, Matthew C Fisher, Xavier A Harrison
Host-associated microbes are vital for combatting infections and maintaining health. In amphibians, certain skin-associated bacteria inhibit the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), yet our understanding of host microbial ecology and its role in disease outbreaks is limited. We sampled skin-associated bacteria and Bd from Pyrenean midwife toad populations exhibiting enzootic or epizootic disease dynamics. We demonstrate that bacterial communities differ between life stages with few shared taxa, indicative of restructuring at metamorphosis...
February 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446002/genomic-characterization-of-the-first-oral-avian-papillomavirus-in-a-colony-of-breeding-canaries-serinus-canaria
#8
Daniel A Truchado, Michaël A J Moens, Sergio Callejas, Javier Pérez-Tris, Laura Benítez
Papillomaviruses are non-enveloped, DNA viruses that infect skin and mucosa of a wide variety of vertebrates, causing neoplasias or simply persisting asymptomatically. Avian papillomaviruses, with six fully sequenced genomes, are the second most studied group after mammalian papillomaviruses. In this study, we describe the first oral avian papillomavirus, detected in the tongue of a dead Yorkshire canary (Serinus canaria) and in oral swabs of the same bird and other two live canaries from an aviary in Madrid, Spain...
February 14, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315980/probiotics-or-pro-healers-the-role-of-beneficial-bacteria-in-tissue-repair
#9
Jovanka Lukic, Vivien Chen, Ivana Strahinic, Jelena Begovic, Hadar Lev-Tov, Stephen C Davis, Marjana Tomic-Canic, Irena Pastar
Probiotics are beneficial microorganisms, known to exert numerous positive effects on human health, primarily in the battle against pathogens. Probiotics have been associated with improved healing of intestinal ulcers, and healing of infected cutaneous wounds. This article reviews the latest findings on probiotics related to their pro-healing properties on gut epithelium and skin. Proven mechanisms by which probiotic bacteria exert their beneficial effects include direct killing of pathogens, competitive displacement of pathogenic bacteria, reinforcement of epithelial barrier, induction of fibroblasts, and epithelial cells' migration and function...
November 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310979/malassezia-species-in-students-from-universities-of-sabzevar-northeastern-iran
#10
H Moallaei, M J Namazi, J P Bouchara, S Pourhammed
BACKGROUND: Malassezia species, usually part of normal human skin microbiota, may also cause cutaneous infections, mainly pityriasis versicolor (PV) which may rapidly spread in crowded communities, particularly in students' dormitories and sport leisure centers. OBJECTIVE: Few studies have been conducted on PV in students in the Middle East. The present study was designed to determine prevalence of Malassezia species and related diseases in students from city of Sabzevar, Northeast Iran...
January 5, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290574/gut-microbes-egested-during-bites-of-infected-sand-flies-augment-severity-of-leishmaniasis-via-inflammasome-derived-il-1%C3%AE
#11
Ranadhir Dey, Amritanshu B Joshi, Fabiano Oliveira, Lais Pereira, Anderson B Guimarães-Costa, Tiago D Serafim, Waldionê de Castro, Iliano V Coutinho-Abreu, Parna Bhattacharya, Shannon Townsend, Hamide Aslan, Alec Perkins, Subir Karmakar, Nevien Ismail, Morgan Karetnick, Claudio Meneses, Robert Duncan, Hira L Nakhasi, Jesus G Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi
Leishmania donovani parasites are the cause of visceral leishmaniasis and are transmitted by bites from phlebotomine sand flies. A prominent feature of vector-transmitted Leishmania is the persistence of neutrophils at bite sites, where they protect captured parasites, leading to enhanced disease. Here, we demonstrate that gut microbes from the sand fly are egested into host skin alongside Leishmania parasites. The egested microbes trigger the inflammasome, leading to a rapid production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which sustains neutrophil infiltration...
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149266/association-between-prior-antibiotic-therapy-and-subsequent-risk-of-community-acquired-infections-a-systematic-review
#12
Umer Malik, David Armstrong, Mark Ashworth, Alex Dregan, Veline L'Esperance, Lucy McDonnell, Mariam Molokhia, Patrick White
Background: Antibiotic use can have negative unintended consequences including disruption of the human microbiota, which is thought to protect against pathogen overgrowth. We conducted a systematic review to assess whether there is an association between exposure to antibiotics and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published before 30 June 2017, examining the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066761/rnase-7-participates-in-cutaneous-innate-control-of-corynebacterium-amycolatum
#13
Stephanie Walter, Franziska Rademacher, Nicole Kobinger, Maren Simanski, Regine Gläser, Jürgen Harder
Nondiphtheria corynebacteria are typical members of the skin microbiota. However, in addition to being harmless inhabitants of healthy skin commensal skin-derived corynebacteria such as C. amycolatum occasionally also cause infections. This suggests that human skin must harbor adequate mechanisms to control the growth of corynebacteria on the skin surface. Here we show that keratinocytes are able to detect the presence of C. amycolatum leading to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-dependent induction of the antimicrobial protein RNase 7...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062070/new-opportunities-for-managing-acute-and-chronic-lung-infections
#14
REVIEW
William O C M Cookson, Michael J Cox, Miriam F Moffatt
Lung diseases caused by microbial infections affect hundreds of millions of children and adults throughout the world. In Western populations, the treatment of lung infections is a primary driver of antibiotic resistance. Traditional therapeutic strategies have been based on the premise that the healthy lung is sterile and that infections grow in a pristine environment. As a consequence, rapid advances in our understanding of the composition of the microbiota of the skin and bowel have not yet been matched by studies of the respiratory tree...
February 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024922/isolation-and-whole-genome-analysis-of-endospore-forming-bacteria-from-heroin
#15
Jörn Kalinowski, Björn Ahrens, Arwa Al-Dilaimi, Anika Winkler, Daniel Wibberg, Uwe Schleenbecker, Christian Rückert, Roman Wölfel, Gregor Grass
Infections caused by endospore-forming bacteria have been associated with severe illness and death among persons who inject drugs. Analysis of the bacteria residing in heroin has thus been biased towards species that affect human health. Similarly, exploration of the bacterial diversity of seized street market heroin correlated with the skin microflora of recreational heroin users insofar as different Staphylococus spp. or typical environmental endospore formers including Bacillus cereus and other Bacilli outside the B...
January 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020266/propionibacterium-avidum-a-virulent-pathogen-causing-hip-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#16
Yvonne Achermann, Jared Liu, Reinhard Zbinden, Patrick O Zingg, Alexia Anagnostopoulos, Emma Barnard, Reto Sutter, Huiying Li, Andrew McDowell, Annelies S Zinkernagel
Background: Propionibacteria are important members of the human skin microbiota, but are also opportunistic pathogens associated with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). While the role of Propionibacterium acnes in PJI has been widely described, insight into the capacity of Propionibacterium avidum to cause PJI is limited. Methods: An unusual cluster of 4 hip PJIs caused by P. avidum in one orthopedic center in 2015 prompted us to retrospectively identify and analyze clinical data related to previous P...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959736/comparative-analysis-of-bacterial-community-composition-and-structure-in-clinically-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-central-venous-catheters
#17
Franziska A Stressmann, Elodie Couve-Deacon, Delphine Chainier, Ashwini Chauhan, Aimee Wessel, Sylvaine Durand-Fontanier, Marie-Christine Escande, Irène Kriegel, Bruno Francois, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Christophe Beloin, Jean-Marc Ghigo
Totally implanted venous access ports (TIVAPs) are commonly used catheters for the management of acute or chronic pathologies. Although these devices improve health care, repeated use of this type of device for venous access over long periods of time is also associated with risk of colonization and infection by pathogenic bacteria, often originating from skin. However, although the skin microbiota is composed of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria, the extent and the consequences of TIVAP colonization by nonpathogenic bacteria have rarely been studied...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932812/comparison-of-the-microbiota-of-older-adults-living-in-nursing-homes-and-the-community
#18
Mary-Claire Roghmann, Alison D Lydecker, Lauren Hittle, Robert T DeBoy, Rebecca G Nowak, J Kristie Johnson, Emmanuel F Mongodin
Our objective for this study was to characterize the microbial communities of the anterior nares (nose), posterior pharynx (throat), and skin of the femoral and subclavian areas in older adults from nursing homes and the community. Older adults (≥65 years) without antibiotic use for the past 3 months were recruited from nursing homes (NH; n = 16) and from the community (CB; n = 51). Specimens were taken from nose, throat, and skin sites for culture and bacterial profiling using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912020/intestinal-dysbiosis-featuring-abundance-of-ruminococcus-gnavus-associates-with-allergic-diseases-in-infants
#19
Huey-Huey Chua, Hung-Chieh Chou, Ya-Ling Tung, Bor-Luen Chiang, Chien-Chia Liao, Hong-Hsing Liu, Yen-Hsuan Ni
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been associated with development of allergies in infants. However, it is not clear what microbes might contribute to this process. We investigated what microbe(s) might be involved in analyses of infant twins and mice. METHODS: We studied fecal specimens prospectively in a twin cohort (n = 30) and age-matched singletons (n = 14) born at National Taiwan University Children's Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, from April 2011 to March 2013...
January 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875068/skin-bacterial-microbiome-of-a-generalist-puerto-rican-frog-varies-along-elevation-and-land-use-gradients
#20
Myra C Hughey, Janelle A Pena, Roberto Reyes, Daniel Medina, Lisa K Belden, Patricia A Burrowes
Host-associated microbial communities are ubiquitous among animals, and serve important functions. For example, the bacterial skin microbiome of amphibians can play a role in preventing or reducing infection by the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Evidence suggests that environmental bacteria likely serve as a source pool for at least some of the members of the amphibian skin bacterial community, underscoring the potential for local environmental changes to disrupt microbial community source pools that could be critical to the health of host organisms...
2017: PeerJ
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