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Skin microbiota infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884793/skin-microbiota-in-obese-women-at-risk-for-surgical-site-infection-after-cesarean-delivery
#1
Kara M Rood, Irina A Buhimschi, Joseph A Jurcisek, Taryn L Summerfield, Guomao Zhao, William E Ackerman, Weiwei Wang, R Wolfgang Rumpf, Stephen F Thung, Lauren O Bakaletz, Catalin S Buhimschi
The obesity pandemic in the obstetrical population plus increased frequency of Cesarean delivery (CD) has increased vulnerability to surgical site infection (SSI). Here we characterized the microbiome at the site of skin incision before and after CD. Skin and relevant surgical sites were sampled before and after surgical antisepsis from obese (n = 31) and non-obese (n = 27) pregnant women. We quantified bacterial biomass by qPCR, microbial community composition by 16sRNA sequencing, assigned operational taxonomic units, and stained skin biopsies from incision for bacteria and biofilms...
June 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864675/microbiota-and-type-2-immune-responses
#2
REVIEW
Kathy D McCoy, Aline Ignacio, Markus B Geuking
The trillions of microbes that colonize mucosal surfaces are critical for educating the immune system and microbial-derived signals continually shape and set the tone of immune responses. Although Type 2 immune responses are important for mediating protection from helminth infection they also underlie atopy and allergy. Microbes modulate Type 2 immune responses through effects on Type 2 cytokines, dendritic cells and regulatory T cells. Microbial colonization in the gut, the lung and the skin during an early and critical time period in immune development appears to be of particular importance for tolerance induction and regulation of aberrant Type 2 immune responses...
June 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804274/are-zoonotic-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius-strains-a-growing-threat-for-humans
#3
Wioletta Kmieciak, Eligia Maria Szewczyk
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a species often isolated from animals, as a common element of their microbiota or an agent of infection, and from people associated with an animal habitat, including owners of home pets-dogs and cats. As with many other species, adaptation of these bacteria to the human body can occur, and they become important human pathogens. 59 S. pseudintermedius strains were investigated in this study to determine the factors contributing to human body colonization: inhibition growth of human skin residents isolated from human skin (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium spp...
May 26, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802752/the-microbiota-of-traumatic-open-fracture-wounds-is-associated-with-mechanism-of-injury
#4
Casey Bartow-McKenney, Geoffrey D Hannigan, Joseph Horwinski, Patrick Hesketh, Annamarie D Horan, Samir Mehta, Elizabeth A Grice
Open fractures are characterized by disruption of the skin and soft tissue, which allows for microbial contamination and colonization. Preventing infection-related complications of open fractures and other acute wounds remains an evolving challenge due to an incomplete understanding of how microbial colonization and contamination influence healing and outcomes. Culture-independent molecular methods are now widely used to study human-associated microbial communities without introducing culture biases. Using such approaches, the objectives of this study were to 1) define the long-term temporal microbial community dynamics of open fracture wounds and 2) examine microbial community dynamics with respect to clinical and demographic factors...
May 26, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791701/microbial-load-of-trocars-potential-source-of-contamination-and-surgical-site-infection
#5
Vanessa Aparecida Vilas-Boas, Carlos Emílio Levy, Maria Isabel Pedreira de Freitas, Kevin Woo
Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication that is associated with delayed recovery, prolonged length of hospital stay, exorbitant cost, and mortality. The present prospective longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the relationships between the microbial load of trocars used in laparoscopic gynecological surgery, microbiota in surgical sites, and SSI. The final sample consisted of 24 patients, including 68 swab samples and 48 trocars. Microorganisms were recovered in 100.0% of the swabs collected from the umbilicus and vaginal fornix and in 58...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782954/comparison-between-disk-diffusion-and-agar-dilution-methods-to-determine-in-vitro-susceptibility-of-corynebacterium-spp-clinical-isolates-and-update-of-their-susceptibility
#6
Claudia Barberis, Eugenia Sandoval, Carlos Hernán Rodriguez, María Soledad Ramírez, Angela Famiglietti, Marisa Almuzara, Carlos Vay
INTRODUCTION: Although Corynebacterium species are part of the skin and mucous membranes microbiota, human infections caused by Corynebacterium spp. have been reported and the multidrug resistance pattern of the recovered isolates was emphasized. Due to the usefulness of disk diffusion in daily practice, the purpose of this work was to compare disk diffusion against agar dilution to determine disk diffusion breakpoints and to review the antimicrobial susceptibility of the most frequent Corynebacterium spp...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749387/invasive-candidiasis
#7
REVIEW
Peter G Pappas, Michail S Lionakis, Maiken Cavling Arendrup, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Bart Jan Kullberg
Invasive candidiasis is an important health-care-associated fungal infection that can be caused by several Candida spp.; the most common species is Candida albicans, but the prevalence of these organisms varies considerably depending on geographical location. The spectrum of disease of invasive candidiasis ranges from minimally symptomatic candidaemia to fulminant sepsis with an associated mortality exceeding 70%. Candida spp. are common commensal organisms in the skin and gut microbiota, and disruptions in the cutaneous and gastrointestinal barriers (for example, owing to gastrointestinal perforation) promote invasive disease...
May 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723492/microbial-host-interactions-and-impaired-wound-healing-in-mice-and-humans-defining-a-role-for-bd14-and-nod2
#8
Helen Williams, Laura Campbell, Rachel A Crompton, Gurdeep Singh, Brian J McHugh, Donald J Davidson, Andrew J McBain, Sheena M Cruickshank, Matthew J Hardman
Chronic wounds cause significant patient morbidity and mortality. A key factor in their etiology is microbial infection, yet skin host-microbiota interactions during wound repair remain poorly understood. Microbiome profiles of non-infected human chronic wounds are associated with subsequent healing outcome. Furthermore, poor clinical healing outcome was associated with increased local expression of the pattern recognition receptor NOD2. To investigate NOD2 function in the context of cutaneous healing, we treated mice with the NOD2 ligand muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and analyzed wound repair parameters and expression of anti-microbial peptides...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692614/difunctional-bacteriophage-conjugated-with-photosensitizers-for-candida-albicans-targeting-photodynamic-inactivation
#9
Shuai Dong, Hongxi Shi, Xintong Zhang, Xi Chen, Donghui Cao, Chuanbin Mao, Xiang Gao, Li Wang
Background: Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of the human microbiota, causing infections ranging from superficial infections of the skin to life-threatening systemic infections. Due to the increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant C. albicans strains, new approaches to control this pathogen are needed. Photodynamic inactivation is an emerging alternative to treat infections based on the interactions between visible light and photosensitisers, in which pheophorbide a (PPA) is a chlorophyll-based photosensitizer that could induce cell death after light irradiation...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664571/tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-in-tissue-homeostasis-persistent-infection-and-cancer-surveillance
#10
REVIEW
Thomas Gebhardt, Umaimainthan Palendira, David C Tscharke, Sammy Bedoui
A large proportion of memory T cells disseminated throughout the body are non-recirculating cells whose maintenance and function is regulated by tissue-specific environmental cues. These sessile cells are referred to as tissue-resident memory T (TRM ) cells and similar populations of non-recirculating cells also exist among unconventional T cells and innate lymphocyte cells. The pool of TRM cells is highly diverse with respect to anatomical positioning, phenotype, molecular regulation and effector function...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593698/widespread-elevational-occurrence-of-antifungal-bacteria-in-andean-amphibians-decimated-by-disease-a-complex-role-for-skin-symbionts-in-defense-against-chytridiomycosis
#11
Alessandro Catenazzi, Sandra V Flechas, David Burkart, Nathan D Hooven, Joseph Townsend, Vance T Vredenburg
Emerging infectious disease is a growing threat to global health, and recent discoveries reveal that the microbiota dwelling on and within hosts can play an important role in health and disease. To understand the capacity of skin bacteria to protect amphibian hosts from the fungal disease chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), we isolated 192 bacterial morphotypes from the skin of 28 host species of frogs (families Bufonidae, Centrolenidae, Hemiphractidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae, Strabomantidae, and Telmatobiidae) collected from the eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes (540-3,865 m a...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588324/wisconsin-microbiome-study-a-cross-sectional-investigation-of-dietary-fibre-microbiome-composition-and-antibiotic-resistant-organisms-rationale-and-methods
#12
Shoshannah Eggers, Kristen Mc Malecki, Paul Peppard, Julie Mares, Daniel Shirley, Sanjay K Shukla, Keith Poulsen, Ronald Gangnon, Megan Duster, Ashley Kates, Garret Suen, Ajay K Sethi, Nasia Safdar
INTRODUCTION: Prevention of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections, such as those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , vancomycin-resistant enterococci, fluoroquinolone-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and Clostridium difficile is crucial. Evidence suggests that dietary fibre increases gut microbial diversity, which may help prevent colonisation and subsequent infection by MDROs. The aim of the Winning the War on Antibiotic Resistance (WARRIOR) project is to examine associations of dietary fibre consumption with the composition of the gut microbiota and gut colonisation by MDROs...
March 27, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540169/skin-asepsis-protocols-as-a-preventive-measure-of-surgical-site-infections-in-dogs-chlorhexidine-alcohol-versus-povidone-iodine
#13
Luís Belo, Isa Serrano, Eva Cunha, Carla Carneiro, Luis Tavares, L Miguel Carreira, Manuela Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Most of surgical site infections (SSI) are caused by commensal and pathogenic agents from the patient's microbiota, which may include antibiotic resistant strains. Pre-surgical asepsis of the skin is one of the preventive measures performed to reduce SSI incidence and also antibiotic resistance dissemination. However, in veterinary medicine there is no agreement on which biocide is the most effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two pre-surgical skin asepsis protocols in dogs...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471815/glucocorticosteroids-and-ciclosporin-do-not-significantly-impact-canine-cutaneous-microbiota
#14
Giovanni Widmer, Lluís Ferrer, Claude Favrot, Judy Paps, Kevin Huynh, Thierry Olivry
BACKGROUND: As prednisone and ciclosporin can have immunosuppressive effects and have been considered potential predisposing factors for skin infections, we investigated the impact of these drugs on the diversity of the cutaneous microbiota, the abundance of Malassezia and infection with Papillomaviruses. RESULTS: Six atopic, asymptomatic Maltese-beagle dogs were treated with ciclosporin for one month and then with prednisone for another month, with a one-month wash-out between treatments...
February 23, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463380/metronidazole-loaded-polyethyleneimine-and-chitosan-based-liquid-crystalline-system-for-treatment-of-staphylococcal-skin-infections
#15
Francesca Damiani Victorelli, Giovana Maria Fioramonti Calixto, Matheus Aparecido Dos Santos Ramos, Taís Maria Bauab, Marlus Chorilli
Staphylococcus aureus is a common gram-positive bacterium of the human skin microbiota. It is also a dangerous pathogen that can cause serious and even lethal skin infections. The topical administration of metronidazole via nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, such as liquid crystalline systems, can modulate both the drug permeation and activity, decreasing its side effects and increasing the drug potent activity against the gram-positive bacteria. This study aimed at: (1) structurally developing and characterizing a liquid crystalline systems composed of chitosan and polyethyleneimine dispersion as the aqueous phase, oleic acid as the oily phase, and ethoxylated and propoxylated cetyl alcohol as the surfactant (FPC) for metronidazole incorporation (0...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449565/amphibian-chytridiomycosis-outbreak-dynamics-are-linked-with-host-skin-bacterial-community-structure
#16
Kieran A Bates, Frances C Clare, Simon O'Hanlon, Jaime Bosch, Lola Brookes, Kevin Hopkins, Emilia J McLaughlin, Olivia Daniel, Trenton W J Garner, Matthew C Fisher, Xavier A Harrison
Host-associated microbes are vital for combatting infections and maintaining health. In amphibians, certain skin-associated bacteria inhibit the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), yet our understanding of host microbial ecology and its role in disease outbreaks is limited. We sampled skin-associated bacteria and Bd from Pyrenean midwife toad populations exhibiting enzootic or epizootic disease dynamics. We demonstrate that bacterial communities differ between life stages with few shared taxa, indicative of restructuring at metamorphosis...
February 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446002/genomic-characterization-of-the-first-oral-avian-papillomavirus-in-a-colony-of-breeding-canaries-serinus-canaria
#17
Daniel A Truchado, Michaël A J Moens, Sergio Callejas, Javier Pérez-Tris, Laura Benítez
Papillomaviruses are non-enveloped, DNA viruses that infect skin and mucosa of a wide variety of vertebrates, causing neoplasias or simply persisting asymptomatically. Avian papillomaviruses, with six fully sequenced genomes, are the second most studied group after mammalian papillomaviruses. In this study, we describe the first oral avian papillomavirus, detected in the tongue of a dead Yorkshire canary (Serinus canaria) and in oral swabs of the same bird and other two live canaries from an aviary in Madrid, Spain...
February 14, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315980/probiotics-or-pro-healers-the-role-of-beneficial-bacteria-in-tissue-repair
#18
Jovanka Lukic, Vivien Chen, Ivana Strahinic, Jelena Begovic, Hadar Lev-Tov, Stephen C Davis, Marjana Tomic-Canic, Irena Pastar
Probiotics are beneficial microorganisms, known to exert numerous positive effects on human health, primarily in the battle against pathogens. Probiotics have been associated with improved healing of intestinal ulcers, and healing of infected cutaneous wounds. This article reviews the latest findings on probiotics related to their pro-healing properties on gut epithelium and skin. Proven mechanisms by which probiotic bacteria exert their beneficial effects include direct killing of pathogens, competitive displacement of pathogenic bacteria, reinforcement of epithelial barrier, induction of fibroblasts, and epithelial cells' migration and function...
November 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310979/malassezia-species-in-students-from-universities-of-sabzevar-northeastern-iran
#19
H Moallaei, M J Namazi, J P Bouchara, S Pourhammed
BACKGROUND: Malassezia species, usually part of normal human skin microbiota, may also cause cutaneous infections, mainly pityriasis versicolor (PV) which may rapidly spread in crowded communities, particularly in students' dormitories and sport leisure centers. OBJECTIVE: Few studies have been conducted on PV in students in the Middle East. The present study was designed to determine prevalence of Malassezia species and related diseases in students from city of Sabzevar, Northeast Iran...
March 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290574/gut-microbes-egested-during-bites-of-infected-sand-flies-augment-severity-of-leishmaniasis-via-inflammasome-derived-il-1%C3%AE
#20
Ranadhir Dey, Amritanshu B Joshi, Fabiano Oliveira, Lais Pereira, Anderson B Guimarães-Costa, Tiago D Serafim, Waldionê de Castro, Iliano V Coutinho-Abreu, Parna Bhattacharya, Shannon Townsend, Hamide Aslan, Alec Perkins, Subir Karmakar, Nevien Ismail, Morgan Karetnick, Claudio Meneses, Robert Duncan, Hira L Nakhasi, Jesus G Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi
Leishmania donovani parasites are the cause of visceral leishmaniasis and are transmitted by bites from phlebotomine sand flies. A prominent feature of vector-transmitted Leishmania is the persistence of neutrophils at bite sites, where they protect captured parasites, leading to enhanced disease. Here, we demonstrate that gut microbes from the sand fly are egested into host skin alongside Leishmania parasites. The egested microbes trigger the inflammasome, leading to a rapid production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which sustains neutrophil infiltration...
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
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