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Skin microbiota infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149266/association-between-prior-antibiotic-therapy-and-subsequent-risk-of-community-acquired-infections-a-systematic-review
#1
Umer Malik, David Armstrong, Mark Ashworth, Alex Dregan, Veline L'Esperance, Lucy McDonnell, Mariam Molokhia, Patrick White
Background: Antibiotic use can have negative unintended consequences including disruption of the human microbiota, which is thought to protect against pathogen overgrowth. We conducted a systematic review to assess whether there is an association between exposure to antibiotics and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published before 30 June 2017, examining the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066761/rnase-7-participates-in-cutaneous-innate-control-of-corynebacterium-amycolatum
#2
Stephanie Walter, Franziska Rademacher, Nicole Kobinger, Maren Simanski, Regine Gläser, Jürgen Harder
Nondiphtheria corynebacteria are typical members of the skin microbiota. However, in addition to being harmless inhabitants of healthy skin commensal skin-derived corynebacteria such as C. amycolatum occasionally also cause infections. This suggests that human skin must harbor adequate mechanisms to control the growth of corynebacteria on the skin surface. Here we show that keratinocytes are able to detect the presence of C. amycolatum leading to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-dependent induction of the antimicrobial protein RNase 7...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062070/new-opportunities-for-managing-acute-and-chronic-lung-infections
#3
REVIEW
William O C M Cookson, Michael J Cox, Miriam F Moffatt
Lung diseases caused by microbial infections affect hundreds of millions of children and adults throughout the world. In Western populations, the treatment of lung infections is a primary driver of antibiotic resistance. Traditional therapeutic strategies have been based on the premise that the healthy lung is sterile and that infections grow in a pristine environment. As a consequence, rapid advances in our understanding of the composition of the microbiota of the skin and bowel have not yet been matched by studies of the respiratory tree...
October 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024922/isolation-and-whole-genome-analysis-of-endospore-forming-bacteria-from-heroin
#4
Jörn Kalinowski, Björn Ahrens, Arwa Al-Dilaimi, Anika Winkler, Daniel Wibberg, Uwe Schleenbecker, Christian Rückert, Roman Wölfel, Gregor Grass
Infections caused by endospore-forming bacteria have been associated with severe illness and death among persons who inject drugs. Analysis of the bacteria residing in heroin has thus been biased towards species that affect human health. Similarly, exploration of the bacterial diversity of seized street market heroin correlated with the skin microflora of recreational heroin users insofar as different Staphylococus spp. or typical environmental endospore formers including Bacillus cereus and other Bacilli outside the B...
October 4, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020266/propionibacterium-avidum-a-virulent-pathogen-causing-hip-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#5
Yvonne Achermann, Jared Liu, Reinhard Zbinden, Patrick O Zingg, Alexia Anagnostopoulos, Emma Barnard, Reto Sutter, Huiying Li, Andrew McDowell, Annelies S Zinkernagel
Background: Propionibacteria are important members of the human skin microbiota, but are also opportunistic pathogens associated with periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). While the role of Propionibacterium acnes in PJI has been widely described, insight into the capacity of Propionibacterium avidum to cause PJI is limited. Methods: An unusual cluster of four hip PJIs caused by P. avidum in one orthopedic center in 2015 prompted us to retrospectively identify and analyze clinical data related to previous P...
August 2, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959736/comparative-analysis-of-bacterial-community-composition-and-structure-in-clinically-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-central-venous-catheters
#6
Franziska A Stressmann, Elodie Couve-Deacon, Delphine Chainier, Ashwini Chauhan, Aimee Wessel, Sylvaine Durand-Fontanier, Marie-Christine Escande, Irène Kriegel, Bruno Francois, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Christophe Beloin, Jean-Marc Ghigo
Totally implanted venous access ports (TIVAPs) are commonly used catheters for the management of acute or chronic pathologies. Although these devices improve health care, repeated use of this type of device for venous access over long periods of time is also associated with risk of colonization and infection by pathogenic bacteria, often originating from skin. However, although the skin microbiota is composed of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria, the extent and the consequences of TIVAP colonization by nonpathogenic bacteria have rarely been studied...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932812/comparison-of-the-microbiota-of-older-adults-living-in-nursing-homes-and-the-community
#7
Mary-Claire Roghmann, Alison D Lydecker, Lauren Hittle, Robert T DeBoy, Rebecca G Nowak, J Kristie Johnson, Emmanuel F Mongodin
Our objective for this study was to characterize the microbial communities of the anterior nares (nose), posterior pharynx (throat), and skin of the femoral and subclavian areas in older adults from nursing homes and the community. Older adults (≥65 years) without antibiotic use for the past 3 months were recruited from nursing homes (NH; n = 16) and from the community (CB; n = 51). Specimens were taken from nose, throat, and skin sites for culture and bacterial profiling using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912020/intestinal-dysbiosis-featuring-abundance-of-ruminococcus-gnavus-associates-with-allergic-diseases-in-infants
#8
Huey-Huey Chua, Hung-Chieh Chou, Ya-Ling Tung, Bor-Luen Chiang, Chien-Chia Liao, Hong-Hsing Liu, Yen-Hsuan Ni
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been associated with development of allergies in infants. However, it is not clear what microbes might contribute to this process. We investigated what microbe(s) might be involved in analyses of infant twins and mice. METHODS: We studied fecal specimens prospectively in a twin cohort (n=30) and age-matched singletons (n=14) born at National Taiwan University Children's Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, from April 2011 to March 2013...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875068/skin-bacterial-microbiome-of-a-generalist-puerto-rican-frog-varies-along-elevation-and-land-use-gradients
#9
Myra C Hughey, Janelle A Pena, Roberto Reyes, Daniel Medina, Lisa K Belden, Patricia A Burrowes
Host-associated microbial communities are ubiquitous among animals, and serve important functions. For example, the bacterial skin microbiome of amphibians can play a role in preventing or reducing infection by the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Evidence suggests that environmental bacteria likely serve as a source pool for at least some of the members of the amphibian skin bacterial community, underscoring the potential for local environmental changes to disrupt microbial community source pools that could be critical to the health of host organisms...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865506/-anaerobic-bacteria-with-clinical-relevance-morphologic-and-taxonomic-classification-distribution-among-human-microbiota-and-microbiologic-diagnosis
#10
João Alves, Susana Peres, Elsa Gonçalves, Kamal Mansinho
The wide burden of anaerobic bacteria colonizing human body comprises about 90% of its total biomass. The biotic relationship between humans and its microbiota sets reciprocal benefits, albeit with pathogenic potencial for the human being in particular dysbiosis situations. Infections adjacent to or originating from the skin or mucous membranes of the intestinal, genitourinary and upper respiratory tracts are often polymicrobial in nature, whereby should anaerobes be invariably included in the etiological differential diagnosis of these conditions...
May 31, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790988/non-antibiotic-isotretinoin-treatment-differentially-controls-propionibacterium-acnes-on-skin-of-acne-patients
#11
Angela E Ryan-Kewley, David R Williams, Neill Hepburn, Ronald A Dixon
Emergence and potential transfer of antibiotic resistance in skin microorganisms is of current concern in medicine especially in dermatology contexts where long term treatment with antibiotics is common. Remarkably, non-antibiotic therapy in the form of isotretinoin - a non-antimicrobial retinoid is effective at reducing or eradicating the anaerobe Propionibacterium acnes which is causally involved in the complex pathogenesis of Acne vulgaris. This study measured the extent of colonization of P. acnes in patients with primary cystic or severe acne from three defined skin sites in 'non-lesion' areas before, during and after treatment with isotretinoin...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711782/the-human-microbiome
#12
REVIEW
Hubert E Blum
Until recently, human microbiology was based on the identification of single microbes, such as bacteria, fungi and viruses, frequently isolated from patients with acute or chronic infections. Novel culture-independent molecular biochemical analyses (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) allow today to detect and classify the diverse microorganisms in a given ecosystem (microbiota), such as the gastrointestinal tract, the skin, the airway system, the urogenital tract and others, and to assess all genomes in these ecosystems (microbiome) as well as their gene products...
September 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678309/fenticonazole-an-effective-topical-treatment-for-superficial-mycoses-as-the-first-step-of-antifungal-stewardship-program
#13
F Tumietto, L Giacomelli
The resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial drugs is a major issue for public health, with important consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality and resource use. The phenomenon is so serious that in some areas of the world resistant strains to all available drugs have been selected. Many conditions may result in the development of resistance: they include the indiscriminate or inappropriate (e.g., for viral infection or colonization) use of antibiotics, the excessive duration of the prescribed treatment regimens, as well as inadequate dosing or administration routes...
June 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669672/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-induces-a-transmissible-dysbiotic-skin-microbiota-that-promotes-skin-inflammation
#14
Ciara Gimblet, Jacquelyn S Meisel, Michael A Loesche, Stephen D Cole, Joseph Horwinski, Fernanda O Novais, Ana M Misic, Charles W Bradley, Daniel P Beiting, Shelley C Rankin, Lucas P Carvalho, Edgar M Carvalho, Phillip Scott, Elizabeth A Grice
Skin microbiota can impact allergic and autoimmune responses, wound healing, and anti-microbial defense. We investigated the role of skin microbiota in cutaneous leishmaniasis and found that human patients infected with Leishmania braziliensis develop dysbiotic skin microbiota, characterized by increases in the abundance of Staphylococcus and/or Streptococcus. Mice infected with L. major exhibit similar changes depending upon disease severity. Importantly, this dysbiosis is not limited to the lesion site, but is transmissible to normal skin distant from the infection site and to skin from co-housed naive mice...
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662573/early-life-diet-affects-host-microbiota-and-later-life-defenses-against-parasites-in-frogs
#15
Sarah A Knutie, Lauren A Shea, Marinna Kupselaitis, Christina L Wilkinson, Kevin D Kohl, Jason R Rohr
Food resources can affect the health of organisms by altering their symbiotic microbiota and affecting energy reserves for host defenses against parasites. Different diets can vary in their macronutrient content and therefore they might favor certain bacterial communities of the host and affect the development and maintenance of the immune system, such as the inflammatory or antibody responses. Thus, testing the effect of diet, especially for animals with wide diet breadths, on host-associated microbiota and defenses against parasites might be important in determining infection and disease risk...
October 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647345/cutaneous-nod2-expression-regulates-the%C3%A2-skin-microbiome-and-wound-healing-in%C3%A2-a-murine-model
#16
Helen Williams, Rachel A Crompton, Helen A Thomason, Laura Campbell, Gurdeep Singh, Andrew J McBain, Sheena M Cruickshank, Matthew J Hardman
The skin microbiome exists in dynamic equilibrium with the host, but when the skin is compromised, bacteria can colonize the wound and impair wound healing. Thus, the interplay between normal skin microbial interactions versus pathogenic microbial interactions in wound repair is important. Bacteria are recognized by innate host pattern recognition receptors, and we previously showed an important role for the pattern recognition receptor NOD2 in skin wound repair. NOD2 is implicated in changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in Crohn's disease, but its role on skin microbiota is unknown...
November 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633955/the-microbiome-and-transfusion-in-cancer-patients
#17
REVIEW
Hadi Goubran, Jerard Seghatchian, Julia Radosevic, Gaafar Ragab, Thierry Burnouf
Our microbiota is determined by many variables including ABO blood groups. The microbiota is not only confined to the gut and skin but is also recoverable from blood of healthy donors. The microbiota shape our immune system through cross reactivity with antigens, the expression of direct molecular patterns, the release of cytokines, the effects on nutrients and micronutrients and even through an interplay with epigenetics. It is likely, therefore, that a donor's microbiota could alter the antigenicity of blood and its components and potentially contribute to transfusion-related immune modulation [TRIM]...
June 3, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616476/proteobacteria-from-the-human-skin-microbiota-species-level-diversity-and-hypotheses
#18
C Cosseau, S Romano-Bertrand, H Duplan, O Lucas, I Ingrassia, C Pigasse, C Roques, E Jumas-Bilak
The human skin microbiota is quantitatively dominated by Gram-positive bacteria, detected by both culture and metagenomics. However, metagenomics revealed a huge variety of Gram-negative taxa generally considered from environmental origin. For species affiliation of bacteria in skin microbiota, clones of 16S rRNA gene and colonies growing on diverse culture media were analyzed. Species-level identification was achieved for 81% of both clones and colonies. Fifty species distributed in 26 genera were identified by culture, mostly belonging to Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, while 45 species-level operational taxonomic units distributed in 30 genera were detected by sequencing, with a high diversity of Proteobacteria...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449237/the-environmental-and-host-associated-bacterial-microbiota-of-arctic-seawater-farmed-atlantic-salmon-with-ulcerative-disorders
#19
C Karlsen, K F Ottem, Øyvind Jakobsen Brevik, M Davey, H Sørum, H C Winther-Larsen
The Norwegian aquaculture of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is hampered by ulcerative disorders associated with bacterial infections. Chronic ulceration may provide microenvironments that disturb the normal microbial biodiversity of external surfaces. Studying the composition of microbial communities in skin ulcers will enhance our understanding of ulcer aetiology. To achieve this, we tested marine farmed Atlantic salmon and sampled the base and edge of ulcers at the end of winter (April) and end of summer (September), in addition to skin mucus of healthy individuals...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439299/substance-p-enhances-lactic-acid-and-tyramine-production-in-enterococcus-faecalis-v583-and-promotes-its-cytotoxic-effect-on-intestinal-caco-2-tc7-cells
#20
Kelly Biaggini, Valérie Borrel, Sabine Szunerits, Rabah Boukherroub, Awa N'Diaye, Arthur Zébré, Maryse Bonnin-Jusserand, Guillaume Duflos, Marc Feuilloley, Djamel Drider, Pierre Déchelotte, Nathalie Connil
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis, generally considered as a saprophytic bowel commensal, has recently emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen causing severe urinary tract infections, surgical wound infections, bacteremia, and bacterial endocarditis. This bacterium is capable of forming biofilms on various surfaces and its high level of antibiotic resistance contributes to its pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on E. faecalis, of Substance P (SP), an antimicrobial peptide that is produced in the gut and skin...
2017: Gut Pathogens
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