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Skin microbiota infections

Eugenia Bertona, Adriana N De Paulis, Miguel A Gutiérrez, Victoria Santa María, Carlos A Vay, Silvia C Predari
Dermabacter hominis species is constituted by Gram-positive facultative anaerobic coryneform rods being part of the resident microbiota human skin, and exceptionally associated to infections in immunocompromised or severely debilitated patients. An immunocompetent young adult woman with a neck sebaceous cyst infected by D. hominis as unique etiologic agent is presented. Phenotypic identification of the causative agent was achieved through simple tests, based on the originally scheme proposed by Funke and Bernard, and feasible to be performed in a hospital Microbiology Laboratory...
October 20, 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Chang-Hua Chen, Chi-Chao Tu, Han-Yueh Kuo, Rong-Fong Zeng, Cheng-Sheng Yu, Henry Horng-Shing Lu, Ming-Li Liou
Terminal disinfection and daily cleaning have been performed in hospitals in Taiwan for many years to reduce the risks of healthcare-associated infections. However, the effectiveness of these cleaning approaches and dynamic changes of surface microbiota upon cleaning remain unclear. Here, we report the surface changes of bacterial communities with terminal disinfection and daily cleaning in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) and only terminal disinfection in a respiratory care center (RCC) using 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) metagenomics...
October 22, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jatinder Singh, Ryan C Johnson, Carey D Schlett, Emad M Elassal, Katrina B Crawford, Deepika Mor, Jeffrey B Lanier, Natasha N Law, William A Walters, Nimfa Teneza-Mora, Jason W Bennett, Eric R Hall, Eugene V Millar, Michael W Ellis, D Scott Merrell
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are common in the general population, with increased prevalence among military trainees. Previous research has revealed numerous nasal microbial signatures that correlate with SSTI development and Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Thus, we hypothesized that the ecology of the inguinal, oropharynx, and perianal regions may also be altered in response to SSTI and/or S. aureus colonization. We collected body site samples from 46 military trainees with purulent abscess (SSTI group) as well as from 66 asymptomatic controls (non-SSTI group)...
September 2016: MSphere
B Dréno, E Araviiskaia, E Berardesca, G Gontijo, M Sanchez Viera, L F Xiang, R Martin, T Bieber
The skin is a complex barrier organ made of a symbiotic relationship between microbial communities and host tissue via complex signals provided by the innate and the adaptive immune systems. It is constantly exposed to various endogenous and exogenous factors which impact this balanced system potentially leading to inflammatory skin conditions comprising infections, allergies or autoimmune diseases. Unlike the gut and stool microbiome which has been studied and described for many years, investigations on the skin or scalp microbiome only started recently...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Obed Hernández-Gómez, Steven J A Kimble, Jeffrey T Briggler, Rod N Williams
Pathogens currently threaten the existence of many amphibian species. In efforts to combat global declines, researchers have characterized the amphibian cutaneous microbiome as a resource for disease management. Characterization of microbial communities has become useful in studying the links between organismal health and the host microbiome. Hellbender salamanders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) provide an ideal system to explore the cutaneous microbiome as this species requires extensive conservation management across its range...
September 27, 2016: Microbial Ecology
C A Burnham, Patrick G Hogan, Meghan A Wallace, Elena Deych, William Shannon, David K Warren, Stephanie A Fritz
Topical antimicrobials are often employed for decolonization and infection prevention and may alter the endogenous microbiota of the skin. The objective of this study was to compare the microbial community, richness, and diversity in community-dwelling subjects and intensive care unit (ICU) patients before and after the use of topical decolonization protocols. We enrolled 15 adults at risk for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Community subjects (n=8) underwent a 5-day decolonization protocol (twice daily intranasal mupirocin and daily dilute bleach water baths) and ICU patients (n=7) received daily chlorhexidine baths...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Manuel Ferrer, Celia Méndez-García, David Rojo, Coral Barbas, Andrés Moya
Our microbiome should be understood as one of the most complex components of the human body. The use of β-lactam antibiotics is one of the microbiome covariates that influence its composition. The extent to which our microbiota changes after an antibiotic intervention depends not only on the chemical nature of the antibiotic or cocktail of antibiotics used to treat specific infections, but also on the type of administration, duration and dose, as well as the level of resistance that each microbiota develops...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Elisabetta Buommino, Francesca Paola Nocera, Annamaria Parisi, Antonietta Rizzo, Giovanna Donnarumma, Karina Mallardo, Filomena Fiorito, Adone Baroni, Luisa De Martino
Malassezia pachydermatis is a yeast belonging to the microbiota of the skin and mucous membranes of dog and cat, but it can also act as pathogen, causing dermatitis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability of M. pachydermatis strains isolated from symptomatic dogs and cats and determine a correlation between genotype and phenotype. For this purpose eleven strains of M. pachydermatis were molecularly classified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) based on ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions, specific for fungal rRNA genes...
September 2016: New Microbiologica
Matthew M Ramsey, Marcelo O Freire, Rebecca A Gabrilska, Kendra P Rumbaugh, Katherine P Lemon
Staphylococcus aureus-human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mercedes E Gonzalez, Julie V Schaffer, Seth J Orlow, Zhan Gao, Huilin Li, Alexander V Alekseyenko, Martin J Blaser
BACKGROUND: Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are prone to skin infections, with microbes such as Staphylococcus aureus suspected of contributing to pathogenesis. Bleach baths might improve AD by reducing skin microbial burden. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the microbiota of lesional and nonlesional skin in young children with AD and control subjects and compare changes after treatment with a topical corticosteroid (TCS) alone or TCS + dilute bleach bath...
September 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Shira R Abeles, Marcus B Jones, Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez, Melissa Ly, Niels Klitgord, Shibu Yooseph, Karen E Nelson, David T Pride
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are a mainstay of treatment for bacterial infections worldwide, yet the effects of typical antibiotic prescriptions on human indigenous microbiota have not been thoroughly evaluated. We examined the effects of the two most commonly prescribed antibiotics (amoxicillin and azithromycin) in the USA to discern whether short-term antibiotic courses may have prolonged effects on human microbiota. RESULTS: We sampled the feces, saliva, and skin specimens from a cohort of unrelated, cohabitating individuals over 6 months...
2016: Microbiome
Yumiko Hashida, Kimiko Nakajima, Hideki Nakajima, Takeo Shiga, Moe Tanaka, Masanao Murakami, Shigenobu Matsuzaki, Seiji Naganuma, Naoki Kuroda, Yasutaka Seki, Harutaka Katano, Shigetoshi Sano, Masanori Daibata
BACKGROUND: Although Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has the potential to cause Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), it is also found in the normal skin of healthy individuals. However, the mechanism for transformation of MCPyV to an oncogenic form is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the levels of MCPyV infection in the normal skin patients with MCC compared with those in a control cohort. STUDY DESIGN: We studied a total of six Japanese patients with cutaneous MCC...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Andrew Yeh, Matthew Brian Rogers, Brian Firek, Matthew D Neal, Brian S Zuckerbraun, Matthew J Morowitz
The microbiota of critically ill patients likely undergoes dramatic changes but has not been rigorously studied with a culture-independent high-throughput approach. The aim of this study was to characterize spatial and temporal variation in the microbiota of critically ill patients. Trauma and acute surgery patients admitted to the ICU were sampled at five body sites (stool, tongue, skin, trachea, urine) every 3 to 4 days. A mean of 10.8 samples were collected from 32 patients with a mean sampling period of 8...
July 21, 2016: Shock
K L Hon, Y C K Tsang, N H Pong, T F Leung, M Ip
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (SA) colonization/infection is important in the pathophysiology of childhood atopic dermatitis (AD), but the role of Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) is unknown. AIM: To evaluate if SE co-infects with SA and is associated with more severe disease. METHODS: Associations between bacteriological culture results of skin swabs (taken from the most severely affected area and at the antecubital fossa) and SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) score, skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and quality of life (QoL) were evaluated...
August 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Jian Chen, Qiang Fang
Staphylococcus simulans is a normal part of the microbiota in humans and animals and is rarely associated with human invasive infections. We present here the genome sequence of S. simulans CJ16, which caused the first case of surgical site infection. Adhesion proteins, including fibronectin-binding protein (FnbA), elastin-binding protein (EbpS), and cell wall-anchored protein (SasA, SasF, and SasH), were detected in the genome, which might promote the survival of S. simulans on human skin and pathogenesis of infections...
2016: Genome Announcements
Rebecca L Brown, Thomas B Clarke
The skin and mucosal epithelia of humans and other mammals are permanently colonized by large microbial communities (the microbiota). Due to this life-long association with the microbiota, these microbes have an extensive influence over the physiology of their host organism. It is now becoming apparent that nearly all tissues and organ systems, whether in direct contact with the microbiota or in deeper host sites, are under microbial influence. The immune system is perhaps the most profoundly affected, with the microbiota programming both its innate and adaptive arms...
June 17, 2016: Immunology
Elisabetta Buommino, Francesca Paola Nocera, Annamaria Parisi, Antonietta Rizzo, Giovanna Donnarumma, Karina Mallardo, Filomena Fiorito, Adone Baroni, Luisa De Martino
Malassezia pachydermatis is a yeast belonging to the microbiota of the skin and mucous membranes of dog and cat, but it can also act as pathogen, causing dermatitis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability of M. pachydermatis strains isolated from symptomatic dogs and cats and determine a correlation between genotype and phenotype. For this purpose eleven strains of M. pachydermatis were molecularly classified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) based on ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions, specific for fungal rRNA genes...
June 10, 2016: New Microbiologica
Amir Bashan, Travis E Gibson, Jonathan Friedman, Vincent J Carey, Scott T Weiss, Elizabeth L Hohmann, Yang-Yu Liu
Human-associated microbial communities have a crucial role in determining our health and well-being, and this has led to the continuing development of microbiome-based therapies such as faecal microbiota transplantation. These microbial communities are very complex, dynamic and highly personalized ecosystems, exhibiting a high degree of inter-individual variability in both species assemblages and abundance profiles. It is not known whether the underlying ecological dynamics of these communities, which can be parameterized by growth rates, and intra- and inter-species interactions in population dynamics models, are largely host-independent (that is, universal) or host-specific...
June 9, 2016: Nature
S Romano-Bertrand, A Bourdier, F Aujoulat, A-L Michon, A Masnou, S Parer, H Marchandin, E Jumas-Bilak
Roseomonas spp. are increasingly involved in human infectious diseases. The environmental source for infection is generally admitted in published cases owing to the origin of most Roseomonas species and to their affiliation to the family Acetobacteraceae in Rhodospirillales, which mainly groups environmental bacteria. For a better delineation of Roseomonas habitat and infectious reservoir, we related phenotype, phylotype (16S rRNA gene), genomotype (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and origin of 33 strains isolated from humans, hospital environment and natural environment...
August 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Yasmine Belkaid, Samira Tamoutounour
The skin is a complex and dynamic ecosystem that is inhabited by many microorganisms. Recent evidence highlights the profound reliance of the skin immune system on its resident microbiota for both host defence and tissue repair. This tissue is also a primary target for infections, which are in some cases caused by normal constituents of the microbiota. In the context of infections and genetic predispositions that are associated with barrier or regulatory network defects, microorganism-induced inflammatory cycles can contribute to the initiation and/or amplification of skin disorders...
May 27, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
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