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Skin microbiota infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407479/living-in-peace-host-microbiota-mutualism-in-the-skin
#1
Daniel J Campbell, Meghan A Koch
Commensal microbes colonize the skin where they promote immune development and prevent infection without inducing damaging inflammatory responses. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Scharschmidt et al. (2017) show that during hair follicle development, commensals induce regulatory T cell migration to the skin to ensure cutaneous homeostasis.
April 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380682/the-association-of-the-skin-microbiota-with-health-immunity-and-disease
#2
Markus Egert, Rainer Simmering, Christian U Riedel
The human skin is densely colonized by a highly diverse microbiota comprising all three domains of life. Long believed to represent mainly a source of infection, the human skin microbiota is nowadays well accepted as an important driver of human (skin) health and well-being. This microbiota is influenced by many host and environmental factors and interacts closely with the skin immune system. Although cause and effect are usually difficult to discriminate, changes in the skin microbiota clearly play a role in the pathobiology of many types of skin disease and cosmetic disorders...
April 5, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379372/the-microbiological-landscape-of-anaerobic-infections-in-hidradenitis-suppurativa-a-prospective-metagenomic-study
#3
Hélène Guet-Revillet, Jean-Philippe Jais, Marie-Noelle Ungeheuer, Hélène Coignard-Biehler, Sabine Duchatelet, Maïa Delage, Thi Lam, Alain Hovnanian, Olivier Lortholary, Xavier Nassif, Aude Nassif, Olivier Join-Lambert
Background.: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a frequent and severe disease of the skin, characterized by recurrent or chronic skinfolds suppurative lesions with a high impact on quality of life. Although considered inflammatory, antimicrobial treatments can improve or lead to clinical remission of HS, suggesting triggering microbial factors. Indeed, mixed anaerobic microbiota are associated with a majority of HS lesions. The aim of this study was to characterize the landscape of anaerobic infections in HS using high throughput sequencing...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314902/potential-factors-enabling-human-body-colonization-by-animal-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subsp-equisimilis-strains
#4
Marcin Ciszewski, Eligia M Szewczyk
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is a pyogenic, Lancefield C or G streptococcal pathogen. Until recently, it has been considered as an exclusive animal pathogen. Nowadays, it is responsible for both animal infections in wild animals, pets, and livestock and human infections often clinically similar to the ones caused by group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes). The risk of zoonotic infection is the most significant in people having regular contact with animals, such as veterinarians, cattlemen, and farmers...
May 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266549/parasitism-perturbs-the-mucosal-microbiome-of-atlantic-salmon
#5
M S Llewellyn, S Leadbeater, C Garcia, F-E Sylvain, M Custodio, K P Ang, F Powell, G R Carvalho, S Creer, J Elliot, N Derome
Interactions between parasite, host and host-associated microbiota are increasingly understood as important determinants of disease progression and morbidity. Salmon lice, including the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis and related species, are perhaps the most important problem facing Atlantic Salmon aquaculture after feed sustainability. Salmon lice parasitize the surface of the fish, feeding off mucus, scales and underlying tissue. Secondary bacterial infections are a major source of associated morbidity...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264056/salmonid-alphavirus-infection-causes-skin-dysbiosis-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-post-smolts
#6
Kristin M Reid, Sonal Patel, Aaron J Robinson, Lijing Bu, Jiraporn Jarungsriapisit, Lindsey J Moore, Irene Salinas
Interactions among host, microbiota and viral pathogens are complex and poorly understood. The goal of the present study is to assess the changes in the skin microbial community of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in response to experimental infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV). The salmon skin microbial community was determined using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing in five different experimental groups: control, 7 days after infection with low-dose SAV, 14 days after infection with low-dose SAV, 7 days after infection with high-dose SAV, and 14 days after infection with high-dose SAV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187042/can-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-silently-travel-from-the-gut-to-the-wound-and-cause-postoperative-infection-modeling-the-trojan-horse-hypothesis
#7
Monika A Krezalek, Sanjiv Hyoju, Alexander Zaborin, Emeka Okafor, Laxmi Chandrasekar, Vitas Bindokas, Kristina Guyton, Christopher P Montgomery, Robert S Daum, Olga Zaborina, Susan Boyle-Vavra, John C Alverdy
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intestinal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be the source of surgical site infections (SSIs). BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that gut-derived MRSA may cause SSIs via mechanisms in which circulating immune cells scavenge MRSA from the gut, home to surgical wounds, and cause infection (Trojan Horse Hypothesis). METHODS: MRSA gut colonization was achieved by disrupting the microbiota with antibiotics, imposing a period of starvation and introducing MRSA via gavage...
February 9, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156021/loss-of-cutaneous-microbial-diversity-during-first-three-weeks-of-life-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#8
A Salava, V Aho, E Lybeck, P Pereira, L Paulin, I Nupponen, A Ranki, P Auvinen, S Andersson, A Lauerma
Neonatal sepsis (NS) is a frequent problem in neonatal intensive care, especially in preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. The objective of the study was to characterize the cutaneous bacterial microbiome in VLBW infants treated in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Non-invasive skin microbiome specimens were taken repeatedly from 12 VLBW infants during treatment in NICU starting on the first day of life. All infants received benzylpenicillin and netilmicin during the first 1-5 postnatal days...
February 3, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057304/drosophila-as-a-model-for-human-diseases-focus-on-innate-immunity-in-barrier-epithelia
#9
P Bergman, S Seyedoleslami Esfahani, Y Engström
Epithelial immunity protects the host from harmful microbial invaders but also controls the beneficial microbiota on epithelial surfaces. When this delicate balance between pathogen and symbiont is disturbed, clinical disease often occurs, such as in inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, or atopic dermatitis, which all can be in part linked to impairment of barrier epithelia. Many innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and effector molecules are evolutionarily conserved between human and Drosophila...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044415/modulation-of-alloimmune-response-by-commensal-gut-microbiota-and-potential-new-avenues-to-influence-the-outcome-of-allogeneic-transplantation-by-modification-of-the-gut-culture
#10
REVIEW
S Kanangat
Host defence response against microbial infections was the foundation for the Science of Immunology. Now, we know the mechanisms of such host defence which include innate immune responses that is generally nonspecific but effective in many cases and lead to more specific responses called adaptive immune response. The gene loci of class I, II and III of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a major role in directing the adaptive immune responses by presenting processed antigens to T and B cells to induce appropriate antigen-specific cellular and or humoral immune responses...
February 2017: International Journal of Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864622/how-obesity-impacts-outcomes-of-infectious-diseases
#11
A Atamna, A Elis, E Gilady, L Gitter-Azulay, J Bishara
Obesity is associated with co-morbidities and increased risk of acquiring infections with worse outcomes. Paradoxically, a few studies indicate that obesity may have a decreased mortality in hospitalized patients with pneumonia. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on short-term all-cause mortality and clinical outcomes among hospitalized adults with pneumonia, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and bacteremia. The study cohort included 1437 consecutive patients who were admitted with infectious disease including pneumonia (717), urinary tract infection (506), bacteremia (69), and skin and soft tissue infections (145), and hospitalized in internal medical departments, during 2013-2015...
March 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836329/-pneumonia-caused-bycorynebacterium-pseudodiphtheriticum
#12
Daniela Furiasse, Ana M Gasparotto, Aída Monterisi, Gabriela Castellano, Marta Rocchi
Microorganisms of the genera Corynebacterium, specie pseudodiphtheriticum are a part of the indigenous microbiota of human skin and oropharinx. Nevertheless in recent decades these bacilli are emerging as opportunistic pathogens causing clinically significant infections in patients with previous compromise. We report the case of a 76 years old female patient, with a history of hypertension, hypothyroidism, type 2 diabetes and chronic renal failure, who presented pneumonia during their stay at the intensive care unit...
October 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811349/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-surgical-site-infections-caused-by-gram-negative-rod-shaped-bacteria-from-the-family-enterobacteriacae-and-gram-positive-cocci-from-the-genus-staphylococcus-in-patients-who-underwent-surgical-procedures-on-selected-surgical
#13
Małgorzata Tomaszewska-Kowalska, Krzysztof Kołomecki, Maria Wieloch-Torzecka
Surgical site infections on surgical wards are the most common cause of postoperative complications. Prevalence of surgical site infections depends on the surgical specialization. Analysis of the causes of surgical site infections allows to conclude that microorganisms from the patient's own microbiota - Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriacae and from the patient's skin microbiota - Gram-positive cocci - Staphylococcus are the most common agents inducing surgical site infections...
October 1, 2016: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773466/-unusually-infected-sebaceous-cyst-by-dermabacter-hominis
#14
Eugenia Bertona, Adriana N De Paulis, Miguel A Gutiérrez, Victoria Santa María, Carlos A Vay, Silvia C Predari
Dermabacter hominis species is constituted by Gram positive facultative anaerobic coryneform rods being part of the resident microbiota human skin, and exceptionally associated to infections in immunocompromised or severely debilitated patients. An immunocompetent young adult woman with a neck sebaceous cyst infected by D. hominis as unique etiologic agent is presented. Phenotypic identification of the causative agent was achieved through simple tests, based on the originally scheme proposed by Funke and Bernard, and feasible to be performed in a hospital Microbiology Laboratory...
October 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771740/dynamic-change-of-surface-microbiota-with-different-environmental-cleaning-methods-between-two-wards-in-a-hospital
#15
Chang-Hua Chen, Chi-Chao Tu, Han-Yueh Kuo, Rong-Fong Zeng, Cheng-Sheng Yu, Henry Horng-Shing Lu, Ming-Li Liou
Terminal disinfection and daily cleaning have been performed in hospitals in Taiwan for many years to reduce the risks of healthcare-associated infections. However, the effectiveness of these cleaning approaches and dynamic changes of surface microbiota upon cleaning remain unclear. Here, we report the surface changes of bacterial communities with terminal disinfection and daily cleaning in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) and only terminal disinfection in a respiratory care center (RCC) using 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) metagenomics...
January 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747300/multi-body-site-microbiome-and-culture-profiling-of-military-trainees-suffering-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-at-fort-benning-georgia
#16
Jatinder Singh, Ryan C Johnson, Carey D Schlett, Emad M Elassal, Katrina B Crawford, Deepika Mor, Jeffrey B Lanier, Natasha N Law, William A Walters, Nimfa Teneza-Mora, Jason W Bennett, Eric R Hall, Eugene V Millar, Michael W Ellis, D Scott Merrell
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are common in the general population, with increased prevalence among military trainees. Previous research has revealed numerous nasal microbial signatures that correlate with SSTI development and Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Thus, we hypothesized that the ecology of the inguinal, oropharynx, and perianal regions may also be altered in response to SSTI and/or S. aureus colonization. We collected body site samples from 46 military trainees with purulent abscess (SSTI group) as well as from 66 asymptomatic controls (non-SSTI group)...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735094/microbiome-in-healthy-skin-update-for-dermatologists
#17
REVIEW
B Dréno, E Araviiskaia, E Berardesca, G Gontijo, M Sanchez Viera, L F Xiang, R Martin, T Bieber
The skin is a complex barrier organ made of a symbiotic relationship between microbial communities and host tissue via complex signals provided by the innate and the adaptive immune systems. It is constantly exposed to various endogenous and exogenous factors which impact this balanced system potentially leading to inflammatory skin conditions comprising infections, allergies or autoimmune diseases. Unlike the gut and stool microbiome which has been studied and described for many years, investigations on the skin or scalp microbiome only started recently...
December 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677893/characterization-of-the-cutaneous-bacterial-communities-of-two-giant-salamander-subspecies
#18
Obed Hernández-Gómez, Steven J A Kimble, Jeffrey T Briggler, Rod N Williams
Pathogens currently threaten the existence of many amphibian species. In efforts to combat global declines, researchers have characterized the amphibian cutaneous microbiome as a resource for disease management. Characterization of microbial communities has become useful in studying the links between organismal health and the host microbiome. Hellbender salamanders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) provide an ideal system to explore the cutaneous microbiome as this species requires extensive conservation management across its range...
September 27, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671074/topical-decolonization-does-not-eradicate-the-skin-microbiota-of-community-dwelling-or-hospitalized-adults
#19
C A Burnham, Patrick G Hogan, Meghan A Wallace, Elena Deych, William Shannon, David K Warren, Stephanie A Fritz
Topical antimicrobials are often employed for decolonization and infection prevention and may alter the endogenous microbiota of the skin. The objective of this study was to compare the microbial communities and levels of richness and diversity in community-dwelling subjects and intensive care unit (ICU) patients before and after the use of topical decolonization protocols. We enrolled 15 adults at risk for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Community subjects (n = 8) underwent a 5-day decolonization protocol (twice daily intranasal mupirocin and daily dilute bleach-water baths), and ICU patients (n = 7) received daily chlorhexidine baths...
December 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641814/antibiotic-use-and-microbiome-function
#20
REVIEW
Manuel Ferrer, Celia Méndez-García, David Rojo, Coral Barbas, Andrés Moya
Our microbiome should be understood as one of the most complex components of the human body. The use of β-lactam antibiotics is one of the microbiome covariates that influence its composition. The extent to which our microbiota changes after an antibiotic intervention depends not only on the chemical nature of the antibiotic or cocktail of antibiotics used to treat specific infections, but also on the type of administration, duration and dose, as well as the level of resistance that each microbiota develops...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
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