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low density lipo protein

Eric Piver, Audrey Boyer, Julien Gaillard, Anne Bull, Elodie Beaumont, Philippe Roingeard, Jean-Christophe Meunier
OBJECTIVE: HCV particles are associated with very low-density lipoprotein components in chronically infected patients. These hybrid particles, or 'lipo-viro particles' (LVPs), are rich in triglycerides, and contain the viral RNA, the capsid protein, E1E2 envelope glycoproteins and apolipoproteins B and E. However, their specific ultrastructural organisation has yet to be determined. We developed a strategy for the preparation of any viral sample that preserves the native structure of the LVPs, facilitating their precise morphological characterisation...
October 11, 2016: Gut
Frauke Beilstein, Matthieu Lemasson, Véronique Pène, Dominique Rainteau, Sylvie Demignot, Arielle R Rosenberg
OBJECTIVE: HCV is intimately linked with the liver lipid metabolism, devoted to the efflux of triacylglycerols stored in lipid droplets (LDs) in the form of triacylglycerol-rich very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs): (i) the most infectious HCV particles are those of lowest density due to association with triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins and (ii) HCV-infected patients frequently develop hepatic steatosis (increased triacylglycerol storage). The recent identification of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) as an LD phospholipid-remodelling enzyme prompted us to investigate its role in liver lipid metabolism and HCV infectious cycle...
August 31, 2016: Gut
Gabrielle Vieyres, Kathrin Welsch, Gisa Gerold, Juliane Gentzsch, Sina Kahl, Florian W R Vondran, Lars Kaderali, Thomas Pietschmann
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles closely mimic human very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) to evade humoral immunity and to facilitate cell entry. However, the principles that govern HCV association with VLDL components are poorly defined. Using an siRNA screen, we identified ABHD5 (α/β hydrolase domain containing protein 5, also known as CGI-58) as a new host factor promoting both virus assembly and release. ABHD5 associated with lipid droplets and triggered their hydrolysis. Importantly, ABHD5 Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome mutants responsible for a rare lipid storage disorder in humans were mislocalised, and unable to consume lipid droplets or support HCV production...
April 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Joel Oger, Hans Frykman
This review describes the state of the art for the use of laboratory testing in myasthenia gravis. The review brings a detailed description of the different clinical forms of auto-immune myasthenia and of the Lambert Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS). They stress the differences between the different forms of acquired (auto-immune) myasthenia. Then they present a summary of the different antibodies found in the disease. They insist on the advantage of the RIPA assay to measure antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor...
September 20, 2015: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Fozia Fatima, Sadia Fatima, Muhammad Munir Noor, Munir Ahmad Abbasi, Raheel Jahangir Jadoon, Muhammad Sohail, Muhammad Junaid Shah, Sana Ullah Afridi
BACKGROUND: Tobacco is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), other pulmonary diseases, cancer, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The objective of study was to determine the mean Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and serum lipid profile. in apparently healthy male smokers and non-smokers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from 15th December, 2009 to 15th June, 2010. Apparently healthy smokers and non-smokers from population coming to Hospital as attendants of the patients or as employees of the hospital were inducted in the study...
January 2015: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Adele Soltani, Hassan Argani, Fateme Soleimani, Hooman Rahimipour, Alireza Akbarzadeh-Baghban, Tabassom Azizi, Faranak Kazerouni, Fateme Farshchian
OBJECTIVES: Disturbances in metabolism of lipo-proteins and oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein contribute to cardiovascular disease and development of oxidative stress in patients under renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis and renal transplant). This study was designed to compare oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels and lipid profiles in renal transplant recipients and hemo-dialysis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the concentration of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in hemodialysis (n = 38) and renal transplant (n = 59) patients who had no active inflammatory disease, liver disease, or malignancy, and results were compared to a control group (n = 30)...
December 2015: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Joel Oger, Hans Frykman
This review describes the state of the art for the use of laboratory testing in myasthenia gravis. The review brings a detailed description of the different clinical forms of auto-immune myasthenia and of the Lambert Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS). The stress the differences between the different forms of acquired (auto-immune) myasthenia. Then they present a summary of the different antibodies found in the disease. They insist on the advantage of the RIPA assay to measure antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor...
April 15, 2015: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Otito F Iwuchukwu, QiPing Feng, Wei-Qi Wei, Lan Jiang, Min Jiang, Hua Xu, Joshua C Denny, Russell A Wilke, Ronald M Krauss, Dan M Roden, C Michael Stein
Aim: Simvastatin is a lactone prodrug that exists in equilibrium with its active hydroxyacid through a process mediated by UGT1A enzymes. The UGT1A locus has been associated with simvastatin response and disposition in humans. Therefore, we fine-mapped the UGT1A locus to identify genetic variations contributing to simvastatin disposition and response variability. Methods: Using de-identified electronic medical records linked to a DNA biobank, we extracted information about dose and low-density lipo-protein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations for patients who received more than two different doses of simvastatin...
November 2014: Pharmacogenomics
Philip A Guadagno, Erin G Summers Bellin, William S Harris, Thomas D Dayspring, Daniel M Hoefner, Dawn L Thiselton, Brant Stanovick, G Russell Warnick, Joseph P McConnell
BACKGROUND: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle (P, or molar) concentration has been shown to be a more sensitive marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk than LDL cholesterol. Although elevated circulating lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] cholesterol and mass have been associated with CV risk, no practicable method exists to measure Lp(a)-P. We have developed a method of determining Lp(a)-P suitable for routine clinical use. METHODS: Lipoprotein immunofixation electrophoresis (Lipo-IFE) involves rigidly controlled electrophoretic separation of serum lipoproteins, probing with polyclonal apolipoprotein B antibodies, then visualization after staining with a nonspecific protein stain (Acid Violet)...
January 15, 2015: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
C Maglio, R M Mancina, B M Motta, M Stef, C Pirazzi, L Palacios, N Askaryar, J Borén, O Wiklund, S Romeo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to combine clinical criteria and next-generation sequencing (pyrosequencing) to establish a diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS: A total of 77 subjects with a Dutch Lipid Clinic Network score of ≥ 3 (possible, probable or definite FH clinical diagnosis) were recruited from the Lipid Clinic at Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. Next-generation sequencing was performed in all subjects using SEQPRO LIPO RS, a kit that detects mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and LDLR adapter protein 1 (LDLRAP1) genes; copy-number variations in the LDLR gene were also examined...
October 2014: Journal of Internal Medicine
Emine Dagistan, Arzu Canan, Betul Kizildag, Abdullah Yuksel Barut
Tendon xanthomas are a component of familial hypercholesterolaemia, which is a hereditary disease and characterised by elevated low-density lipo protein cholesterol plasma levels and premature coronary artery disease. Tendon xanthomas are diagnostic for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HFH) and they mostly occur in Achilles tendon. Sonography and MRI are superior to clinical assessment and are useful in detecting tendon xanthomas. In this report, we present ultrasonographic and MRI findings of multiple tendon xanthomas in a case of HFH...
2013: BMJ Case Reports
André F Faustino, Filomena A Carvalho, Ivo C Martins, Miguel A R B Castanho, Ronaldo Mohana-Borges, Fábio C L Almeida, Andrea T Da Poian, Nuno C Santos
UNLABELLED: Dengue affects millions of people worldwide. No specific treatment is currently available, in part due to an incomplete understanding of the viral components' interactions with host cellular structures. We tested dengue virus (DENV) capsid protein (C) interaction with low- and very low-density lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL, respectively) using atomic force microscopy-based force spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, NMR and computational analysis. Data reveal a specific DENV C interaction with VLDL, but not LDL...
January 2014: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Sheik Abdulazeez Sheriff, Thiruvengadam Devaki
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of lycopene on lipoprotein metabolism during D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-Gal/LPS) induced hepatitis in experimental rats. METHODS: The efficacy of lycopene was validated during D-Gal/LPS induced hepatitis by analyzing the activity of lipid metabolizing enzymes such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL), lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL). Lipo protein analyses were done by the estimation of very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL)...
December 2012: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
M F Bassendine, D A Sheridan, S H Bridge, D J Felmlee, R D G Neely
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with an increase in hepatic steatosis and a decrease in serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and apolipoprotein B (apoB), the main protein constituent of LDL and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). These changes are more marked in HCV genotype 3 infection, and effective treatment results in their reversal. Low lipid levels in HCV infection correlate not only with steatosis and more advanced liver fibrosis but also with non-response to interferon-based therapy...
January 2013: Seminars in Immunopathology
Fatemeh Moheimani, Christine H J Kim, Aldwin Suryo Rahmanto, David M van Reyk, Michael J Davies
OBJECTIVE: People with diabetes have an elevated risk of atherosclerosis. The accumulation of lipid within macrophage cells in the artery wall is believed to arise via the uptake and subsequent processing of modified low-density lipoproteins (LDL) via the endo-lysosomal system. In this study the effects of prolonged exposure to elevated glucose upon macrophage lysosomal function was examined to determine whether this contributes to modulated protein catabolism. METHODS: Human monocytes were isolated from white-cell concentrates and differentiated, in vitro, into monocyte-derived macrophages over 11 days in medium containing 5-30 mmol/L glucose...
July 2012: Atherosclerosis
D Rajeswari, Indira A Jeyraaj
The study was carried out to assess the lipid profile levels in diabetic infertile women as diabetes is often associated with infertility. 90 patients in the age limit 20- 40 years. One half diabetic and the other half non-diabetic presenting with a complaint of infertility were evaluated at the G. Kuppusamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. There was a significant increase in the triglycerides and VLDL(Very Low Density Lipid) cholesterol levels in diabetic infertile women when compared to non diabetic infertile women and hence this shows that assessment of Lipo protein levels is of much diagnostic importance and also one among the main criteria for establishing female infertility and diabetes is one of the main contributing factor which may cause fatal disorders like Cardio vascular diseases and Coronary artery diseases due to the vicious cycle caused by the combined vascular abnormalities associated with diabetes...
October 2009: Ancient Science of Life
L J Lloyd, S C Langley-Evans, S McMullen
BACKGROUND: While many studies have demonstrated positive associations between childhood obesity and adult metabolic risk, important questions remain as to the nature of the relationship. In particular, it is unclear whether the associations reflect the tracking of body mass index (BMI) from childhood to adulthood or an independent level of risk. This systematic review aimed to investigate the relationship between childhood obesity and a range of metabolic risk factors during adult life...
January 2012: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Ulrike Resch, Michaela Semlitsch, Astrid Hammer, Heidrun Susani-Etzerodt, Henning Walczak, Wolfgang Sattler, Ernst Malle
Myeloperoxidase is abundantly present in inflammatory diseases where activation of monocytes/macrophages and T-cell-mediated immune response occurs. The potent oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl), generated by the myeloperoxidase-H(2)O(2)-chloride system of activated phagocytes, converts low-density lipoprotein (LDL) into a proinflammatory lipoprotein particle. Here, we investigated the apoptotic effect of HOCl-LDL, an in vivo occurring LDL modification, on human T-cell lymphoblast-like Jurkat cells. Experiments revealed that HOCl-LDL, depending on the oxidant:lipoprotein molar ratio, induces apoptosis via activation of caspase-3, PARP cleavage and accumulation of reactive oxygen species...
July 15, 2011: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
J A Higgins, J M Graham, I G Davies
The major classes of plasma lipoprotein, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), are characterized on the basis of differences in density and charge ( Table 1 ). Centrifugation is the 'gold-standard' for the analysis of plasma lipo-protein classes and beta quantitation, and other analytical procedures (1-4). Lipoprotein classes are separated by flotation of plasma or serum in a series of centrifugation steps in which the density of the plasma is increased sequentially by addition of potassium bromide...
2001: Methods in Molecular Medicine
Eve-Isabelle Pécheur, Olivier Diaz, Jennifer Molle, Vinca Icard, Pierre Bonnafous, Olivier Lambert, Patrice André
The density of hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles circulating in the blood of chronically infected patients and of cell-culture produced HCV is heterogeneous. Specific infectivity and fusion of low density particles are higher than those of high density particles. We recently characterized hybrid particles produced by Caco-2 colon or Huh-7.5 liver cells transduced with HCV E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins. Caco-2-derived particles, called empty lipo-viral particles (eLVP), are composed of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins positive for apolipoproteins B (i...
August 13, 2010: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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