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Urinary urea nitrogen in CKD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545472/low-molecular-weight-fucoidan-protects-renal-tubular-cells-from-injury-induced-by-albumin-overload
#1
Yingli Jia, Yi Sun, Lin Weng, Yingjie Li, Quanbin Zhang, Hong Zhou, Baoxue Yang
Albuminuria is a causative and aggravating factor for progressive renal damage in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to determine if low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) could protect renal function and tubular cells from albumin overload caused injury. Treatment with 10 mg/g bovine serum albumin caused renal dysfunction, morphological changes, and overexpression of inflammation and fibrosis associated proteins in 129S2/Sv mice. LMWF (100 mg/kg) protected against kidney injury and renal dysfunction with decreased blood creatinine by 34% and urea nitrogen by 25%, increased creatinine clearance by 48%, and decreased significantly urinary albumin concentration...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26634903/epoetin-beta-pegol-alleviates-oxidative-stress-and-exacerbation-of-renal-damage-from-iron-deposition-thereby-delaying-ckd-progression-in-progressive-glomerulonephritis-rats
#2
Michinori Hirata, Yoshihito Tashiro, Ken Aizawa, Ryohei Kawasaki, Yasushi Shimonaka, Koichi Endo
The increased deposition of iron in the kidneys that occurs with glomerulopathy hinders the functional and structural recovery of the tubules and promotes progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here, we evaluated whether epoetin beta pegol (continuous erythropoietin receptor activator: CERA), which has a long half-life in blood and strongly suppresses hepcidin-25, exerts renoprotection in a rat model of chronic progressive glomerulonephritis (cGN). cGN rats showed elevated urinary total protein excretion (uTP) and plasma urea nitrogen (UN) from day 14 after the induction of kidney disease (day 0) and finally declined into end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), showing reduced creatinine clearance with glomerulosclerosis, tubular dilation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis...
December 2015: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26487672/gut-lactobacillus-protects-against-the-progression-of-renal-damage-by-modulating-the-gut-environment-in-rats
#3
Ayumi Yoshifuji, Shu Wakino, Junichiro Irie, Takaya Tajima, Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Takeshi Kanda, Hirobumi Tokuyama, Koichi Hayashi, Hiroshi Itoh
BACKGROUND: The role of gut microbiota in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been fully elucidated. METHODS: Renal failure was induced in 6-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats by 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). We analyzed the gut microbiota population to identify the relevant species potentially involved in inducing renal damage. Human colon Caco-2 cells were used to delineate the mechanism involved in the molecular changes in the gut of Nx rats...
March 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26453483/6-tips-diet-a-simplified-dietary-approach-in-patients-with-chronic-renal-disease-a-clinical-randomized-trial
#4
Antonio Pisani, Eleonora Riccio, Vincenzo Bellizzi, Donatella Luciana Caputo, Giusi Mozzillo, Marco Amato, Michele Andreucci, Bruno Cianciaruso, Massimo Sabbatini
BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of dietary restriction of proteins in chronic kidney disease are widely recognized; however, poor compliance to prescribed low-protein diets (LPD) may limit their effectiveness. To help patients to adhere to the dietary prescriptions, interventions as education programmes and dietary counselling are critical, but it is also important to develop simple and attractive approaches to the LPD, especially when dietitians are not available. Therefore, we elaborated a simplified and easy to manage dietary approach consisting of 6 tips (6-tip diet, 6-TD) which could replace the standard, non-individualized LPD in Nephrology Units where dietary counselling is not available; hence, our working hypothesis was to evaluate the effects of such diet vs a standard moderately protein-restricted diet on metabolic parameters and patients' adherence...
June 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26349434/estimation-of-daily-protein-intake-based-on-spot-urine-urea-nitrogen-concentration-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#5
Hiroko Kanno, Eiichiro Kanda, Asako Sato, Kaori Sakamoto, Yoshihiko Kanno
BACKGROUND: Determination of daily protein intake in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires precision. Inaccuracies in recording dietary intake occur, and estimation from total urea excretion presents hurdles owing to the difficulty of collecting whole urine for 24 h. Spot urine has been used for measuring daily sodium intake and urinary protein excretion. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether urea nitrogen (UN) concentration in spot urine can be used to predict daily protein intake instead of the 24-h urine collection in 193 Japanese CKD patients (Stages G1-G5)...
April 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26304595/effect-of-urine-urea-nitrogen-and-protein-intake-adjusted-by-using-the-estimated-urine-creatinine-excretion-rate-on-the-antiproteinuric-effect-of-angiotensin-ii-type-i-receptor-blockers
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ho Jun Chin, Dong Ki Kim, Jung Hwan Park, Sung Joon Shin, Sang Ho Lee, Bum Soon Choi, Suhnggwon Kim, Chun Soo Lim
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the role of protein intake on proteinuria in chronic kidney disease (CKD), as it is presently not conclusive. METHODS: This is a subanalysis of data from an open-label, case-controlled, randomized clinical trial on education about low-salt diets (NCT01552954). We estimated the urine excretion rate of parameters in a day, adjusted by using the equation for estimating urine creatinine excretion, and analyzed the effect of urine urea nitrogen (UUN), as well as estimating protein intake on the level of albuminuria in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease...
November 2015: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26043568/-effect-of-cordyceps-sinensis-powder-on-renal-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondria-functions-in-5-6-nephrectomized-rats
#7
Ming-hui Zhang, Ming-ming Pan, Hai-feng Ni, Jun-feng Chen, Mn Xu, Yu-xiang Gong, Ping-sheng Chen, Bi-cheng Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) powder on renal oxidative stress and mitochondria functions in 5/6 nephrectomized rats, and to primarily explore its possible mechanisms. METHODS: Totally 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the sham-operation group, the model group, and the treatment group by random digit table, 10 in each group. A chronic kidney disease (CKD) rat model was prepared by one step 5/6 nephrectomy. Rats in the treatment group were intragastrically administered with CS powder solution at the daily dose of 2 g/kg, once per day...
April 2015: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25886386/astragaloside-iv-attenuates-proteinuria-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-nephropathy-via-the-inhibition-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Zeng Si Wang, Fei Xiong, Xiao Hang Xie, Dan Chen, Jian Hua Pan, Li Cheng
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease throughout the world; however, the reversibility of diabetic nephropathy remains controversial. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DN. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is derived from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bge, a widely used traditional herbal medicine in China, and has diverse pharmacological activities including the attenuation of podocyte injury and amelioration of proteinuria in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome...
March 31, 2015: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25881455/-effect-of-chuanhuang-no-1-recipe-on-renal-function-and-micro-inflammation-in-phase-3-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Xue-zhong Gong, Ling-fang Zhou, Qian Wang, Xiao-chun Tang, Yu-run Qian, Yue-rong Wang, Lan Lu, Jia-jun Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Chuanhuang No.1 Recipe (CHR) on renal function and micro-inflammation in phase 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. METHODS: Totally 60 phase 3 CKD patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group (treated by CHR) and the control group (treated by Losartan Potassium), 30 in each group. All patients received basic treatment. Patients in the treatment group took CHR decoction, 400 mL each time, one dose per day, while those in the control group took Losartan Potassium, 50-100 mg per day...
February 2015: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25744602/tanshinone-iia-attenuates-renal-fibrosis-and-inflammation-via-altering-expression-of-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-5-6-nephrectomized-rats
#10
Dong-Tao Wang, Ren-Hua Huang, Xin Cheng, Zhi-Hua Zhang, Ya-Jun Yang, Xin Lin
PURPOSE: In traditional Chinese medicine, Tanshinone IIA is used to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, its biological activity and mechanism of action in renal fibrosis and inflammation are not fully identified. The current study was conducted to determine the effects of Tanshinone IIA treatment on CKD by assessing potential modulation of the TGF-β/Smad and NF-κB signaling pathway. METHODS: CKD was produced in rats by 5/6 nephrectomy. They were then divided into the following groups: control (sham operation); CKD (5/6 nephrectomy); 5/6 nephrectomy+Tanshinone IIA (10mg/kg in average, once a day for 16 weeks)...
May 2015: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25523450/impaired-expression-of-key-molecules-of-ammoniagenesis-underlies-renal-acidosis-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Remy Bürki, Nilufar Mohebbi, Carla Bettoni, Xueqi Wang, Andreas L Serra, Carsten A Wagner
BACKGROUND: Advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with the development of renal metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis per se may represent a trigger for progression of CKD. Renal acidosis of CKD is characterized by low urinary ammonium excretion with preserved urinary acidification indicating a defect in renal ammoniagenesis, ammonia excretion or both. The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, have not been addressed to date. METHODS: We examined the Han:SPRD rat model and used a combination of metabolic studies, mRNA and protein analysis of renal molecules involved in acid-base handling...
May 2015: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25381342/urinary-creatinine-excretion-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-and-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-ckd-the-cric-study
#12
MULTICENTER STUDY
F Perry Wilson, Dawei Xie, Amanda H Anderson, Mary B Leonard, Peter P Reese, Patrice Delafontaine, Edward Horwitz, Radhakrishna Kallem, Sankar Navaneethan, Akinlolu Ojo, Anna C Porter, James H Sondheimer, H Lee Sweeney, Raymond R Townsend, Harold I Feldman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies in chronic disease states have demonstrated an association between lower urinary creatinine excretion (UCr) and increased mortality, a finding presumed to reflect the effect of low muscle mass on clinical outcomes. Little is known about the relationship between UCr and other measures of body composition in terms of the ability to predict outcomes of interest. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Using data from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC), the relationship between UCr, fat free mass (FFM) as estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and (in a subpopulation) whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessment of appendicular lean mass were characterized...
December 5, 2014: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25200314/bmp7-reduces-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-diabetic-tubulopathy
#13
Rui Xi Li, Wai Han Yiu, Hao Jia Wu, Dickson W L Wong, Loretta Y Y Chan, Miao Lin, Joseph C K Leung, Kar Neng Lai, Sydney C W Tang
Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) has been reported to confer renoprotective effects in acute and chronic kidney disease models, but its potential role in Type 2 diabetic nephropathy remains unknown. In cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs), exposure to advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) induced overexpression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), involving activation of p44/42 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling...
February 2015: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25135714/effect-of-uric-acid-lowering-therapy-on-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-a-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Ye-fang Zhang, Fan He, Hong-hui Ding, Wei Dai, Qian Zhang, Hong Luan, Yong-man Lv, Hong-bing Zeng
The efficacy and safety of uric-acid-lowering therapy (UALT) on slowing the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) accompanied by hyperuricemia were assessed. We searched Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase, CNKI, Wanfang and Vip databases up to November 15, 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared the effect of UALT to control therapy in hyperuricemic patients secondary to CKD, and then performed quality evaluation and meta-analysis on the included studies. Seven RCTs involving 451 cases were included...
August 2014: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25052043/renoprotective-effects-of-novel-interleukin-1-receptor-associated-kinase-4-inhibitor-as2444697-through-anti-inflammatory-action-in-5-6-nephrectomized-rats
#15
Mitsuhiro Kondo, Atsuo Tahara, Kazumi Hayashi, Masaki Abe, Hiroshi Inami, Takeshi Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Ito, Yuichi Tomura
Renal inflammation is a final common pathway of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and its progression can be used to effectively gauge the degree of renal dysfunction. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) has been reported to be a pivotal molecule for IL-1 receptor- and Toll-like receptor-induced signaling and activation of proinflammatory mediators. In this study, we hypothesized that if inflammation plays a key role in renal failure, then the anti-inflammatory effect of IRAK-4 inhibitor should be effective in improving CKD...
October 2014: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993749/long-term-effects-of-moderate-protein-diet-on-renal-function-and-low-grade-inflammation-in-older-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
Mauro Giordano, Tiziana Ciarambino, Pietro Castellino, Alessandro Cataliotti, Lorenzo Malatino, Nicola Ferrara, Cecilia Politi, Giuseppe Paolisso
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects of a moderate protein diet (MPD) on renal function, low-grade inflammation, and oxidative stress in older adults with type 2 diabetes, which to date are unclear. METHODS: Seventy-four older adults with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (stage G3b-G4) were enrolled in the study. During the 4-wk baseline period (T0), all patients were asked to follow a normal protein diet regimen, providing 1...
September 2014: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24967224/usefulness-of-change-in-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-as-a-predicting-factor-of-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
Kunimi Maeda, Chieko Hamada, Satoshi Horikoshi, Yasuhiko Tomino
Purpose. To explore factors contributing to chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and change in estimated glomerular filtration rate over time (ΔeGFR) as a risk factor in predialysis patients under multidisciplinary managements. Methods. Among 113 CKD patients, eGFR, serum creatinine, total protein, albumin, urea nitrogen, uric acid, calcium, inorganic phosphate, total cholesterol, urinary creatinine, urinary protein (UP), hemoglobin A1c, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were analyzed. Results. ΔeGFR analysis in the first six months presented a positive slope (remission group) in 43 patients (38%) and a negative slope (no-remission group) in 70 patients (62%)...
2013: ISRN Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24772444/low-protein-diet-inhibits-uric-acid-synthesis-and-attenuates-renal-damage-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#18
Jianmin Ran, Jing Ma, Yan Liu, Rongshao Tan, Houqiang Liu, Gancheng Lao
AIM: Several studies indicated that hyperuricemia may link to the worsening of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Meanwhile, low protein diet (LPD) retards exacerbation of renal damage in chronic kidney disease. We then assessed whether LPD influences uric acid metabolism and benefits the progression of DN in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. METHODS: STZ-induced and control rats were both fed with LPD (5%) and normal protein diet (18%), respectively, for 12 weeks...
2014: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24731487/-tubulointerstitial-nephritis-antigen-expression-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-its-clinical-significance
#19
Yeyi Yang, Li Xiao, Xiangqing Xu, Danyi Yang, Xuejing Zhu, Pingcheng Hu, Lin Sun
OBJECTIVE: To explore tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen (TIN-ag) expression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients' renal tissue and the correlation to clinical phenotype. METHODS: Through digital drawing lots, a total of 77 CKD patients from October 2012 to February 2013 at our department were randomly selected. All of them underwent biopsy. Based upon their pathological findings, they were divided into 2 groups of minimal change disease (MCD) and non-minimal change disease (NMCD)...
January 28, 2014: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24660585/effects-of-yishenjiangzhuo-granules-on-immunity-and-bone-metabolism-in-patients-with-stage-3-4-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jing Zheng, Yingda Lin, Lu Huang, Caifeng Chen, Xuemin Zheng, Xinhong Wu, Ciyun Liu
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of Yishenjiangzhuo granules (YJG) on bone metabolism and to explore the changes in levels of bone Gla protein (BGP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), as well as their relationships with levels of B cells, regulatory T cells (Treg) and interleukin (IL)-17 in patients with stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease (CKD) before and after treatment. METHODS: Fifty-three stage 3-4 CKD patients were divided randomly into two groups: YJG treatment and control...
October 2013: Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chung i Tsa Chih Ying Wen Pan
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