Read by QxMD icon Read

Urinary urea nitrogen in CKD

Ayumi Yoshifuji, Shu Wakino, Junichiro Irie, Ayumi Matsui, Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Hirobumi Tokuyama, Koichi Hayashi, Hiroshi Itoh
BACKGROUND: Oral charcoal adsorbent AST-120 (AST) is reported to ameliorate renal dysfunction by the absorption of toxic substance in the gut. Recent study revealed that, in CKD, gut environment is disturbed including the decrease in tight junctions and Lactobacillus (Lact). In this study, we examined whether AST improves the renal dysfunction through gut environment. METHOD: Six-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were rendered CKD by 5/6th nephrectomy (Nx)...
April 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Jun G Kang, Mi-Yeon Yu, Hajeong Lee, Dong K Kim, Kwon W Joo, Yon S Kim, Seung H Yang
The canine remnant kidney model is fundamental to understanding the relationship between hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to create a 1/16 remnant kidney model and to determine whether blood pressure (BP) control affects the progression of CKD. A group of dogs received BP treatment (group A) and another received BP treatment except for the first 2 weeks (group B). The remnant kidney model was induced using a two-step subtotal nephrectomy method; dogs received antihypertensive therapy...
March 28, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Hyun Lee, Minoru Fujimoto, Tomoharu Ohkawara, Hiromi Honda, Satoshi Serada, Yoshio Terada, Tetsuji Naka
Recent evidence suggests that renal tubular injury plays a key role in deterioration of renal function in both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI). Since commonly used biochemical indicators such as GFR, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine clearance are inappropriate for detecting alteration in renal tubules, biomarkers reflecting renal tubular injury have been extensively explored. Our research group identified leucine rich α-2 glycoprotein (LRG) as a novel serum biomarker for various inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease...
April 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Satoshi Minami, Takayuki Hamano, Hirotsugu Iwatani, Masayuki Mizui, Yoshiki Kimura, Yoshitaka Isaka
BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan (TLV) promotes aquaresis; however, little is known about its effect on solute excretion in chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We retrospectively studied CKD patients with decompensated heart failure (HF) or those with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) receiving TLV. Patients with an increased urine volume of more than twice of daily variance were defined as "responders" in HF. We compared the ability of the urinary osmolality (U-OSM) change and urinary creatinine concentration ([U-Cr]) change to discriminate "responders"...
October 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Ehécatl Miguel Ángel García Trejo, Abraham Said Arellano Buendía, Omegar Sánchez Reyes, Fernando Enrique García Arroyo, Raúl Arguello García, María Lilia Loredo Mendoza, Edilia Tapia, Laura Gabriela Sánchez Lozada, Horacio Osorio Alonso
Recent studies suggest that allicin may play a role in chronic kidney disease (CKD), reducing hypertension and oxidative stress and improving renal dysfunction. In the present study, CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy and the animals were divided into four treatment groups as follows: control (C), CKD, CKD+allicin (40 mg/kg pathway oral) (CKDA), and CKD+Losartan (20 mg/kg) (CKDL). After CKD induction, the rats developed hypertension from week 3 to the end of the study. This was associated with increased creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in serum, increased albuminuria, increased urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), increased nephrin expression, and incrased histological alterations in the cortex...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Li Sun, Quan Yuan, Tianhua Xu, Li Yao, Jiangmin Feng, Jianfei Ma, Lining Wang, Changlong Lu, Danan Wang
Pioglitazone is a type of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist and has been demonstrated to be effective in chronic kidney diseases (CKD) treatment. However, the underlying mechanism involved in the renoprotection of pioglitazone has not been fully revealed. In the present study, the renoprotective mechanism of pioglitazone was investigated in 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) rats and TGF-β1-exposed HK-2 cells. Pioglitazone attenuated renal injury and improved renal function, as examined by 24 h urinary protein, blood urea nitrogen and plasma creatinine in Nx rats...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Pascale Khairallah, Tamara Isakova, John Asplin, Lee Hamm, Mirela Dobre, Mahboob Rahman, Kumar Sharma, Mary Leonard, Edgar Miller, Bernard Jaar, Carolyn Brecklin, Wei Yang, Xue Wang, Harold Feldman, Myles Wolf, Julia J Scialla
BACKGROUND: The kidneys maintain acid-base homeostasis through excretion of acid as either ammonium or as titratable acids that primarily use phosphate as a buffer. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), ammoniagenesis is impaired, promoting metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis stimulates phosphaturic hormones, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) in vitro, possibly to increase urine titratable acid buffers, but this has not been confirmed in humans. We hypothesized that higher acid load and acidosis would associate with altered phosphorus homeostasis, including higher urinary phosphorus excretion and serum PTH and FGF-23...
October 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Biagio Raffaele Di Iorio, Lucia Di Micco, Stefania Marzocco, Emanuele De Simone, Antonietta De Blasio, Maria Luisa Sirico, Luca Nardone
BACKGROUND: Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease; current guidelines recommend treatment with alkali if bicarbonate levels are lower than 22 mMol/L. In fact, recent studies have shown that an early administration of alkali reduces progression of CKD. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of fruit and vegetables to reduce the acid load in CKD. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in 146 patients who received sodium bicarbonate...
January 17, 2017: Nutrients
Catharina Wesseling, Aurora Aragón, Marvin González, Ilana Weiss, Jason Glaser, Christopher J Rivard, Carlos Roncal-Jiménez, Ricardo Correa-Rotter, Richard J Johnson
OBJECTIVES: To study Mesoamerican nephropathy (MeN) and its risk factors in three hot occupations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Chinandega and León municipalities, a MeN hotspot on the Nicaraguan Pacific coast, January-February 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 194 male workers aged 17-39 years: 86 sugarcane cutters, 56 construction workers, 52 small-scale farmers. OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Differences between the three occupational groups in prevalences/levels of socioeconomic, occupational, lifestyle and health risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in biomarkers of kidney function and hydration; (2) differences in prevalences/levels of CKD risk factors between workers with reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRCKD-EPI <80 mL/min/1...
December 8, 2016: BMJ Open
Yingli Jia, Yi Sun, Lin Weng, Yingjie Li, Quanbin Zhang, Hong Zhou, Baoxue Yang
Albuminuria is a causative and aggravating factor for progressive renal damage in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to determine if low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) could protect renal function and tubular cells from albumin overload caused injury. Treatment with 10 mg/g bovine serum albumin caused renal dysfunction, morphological changes, and overexpression of inflammation and fibrosis associated proteins in 129S2/Sv mice. LMWF (100 mg/kg) protected against kidney injury and renal dysfunction with decreased blood creatinine by 34% and urea nitrogen by 25%, increased creatinine clearance by 48%, and decreased significantly urinary albumin concentration...
2016: Scientific Reports
Michinori Hirata, Yoshihito Tashiro, Ken Aizawa, Ryohei Kawasaki, Yasushi Shimonaka, Koichi Endo
The increased deposition of iron in the kidneys that occurs with glomerulopathy hinders the functional and structural recovery of the tubules and promotes progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here, we evaluated whether epoetin beta pegol (continuous erythropoietin receptor activator: CERA), which has a long half-life in blood and strongly suppresses hepcidin-25, exerts renoprotection in a rat model of chronic progressive glomerulonephritis (cGN). cGN rats showed elevated urinary total protein excretion (uTP) and plasma urea nitrogen (UN) from day 14 after the induction of kidney disease (day 0) and finally declined into end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), showing reduced creatinine clearance with glomerulosclerosis, tubular dilation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis...
December 2015: Physiological Reports
Ayumi Yoshifuji, Shu Wakino, Junichiro Irie, Takaya Tajima, Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Takeshi Kanda, Hirobumi Tokuyama, Koichi Hayashi, Hiroshi Itoh
BACKGROUND: The role of gut microbiota in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been fully elucidated. METHODS: Renal failure was induced in 6-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats by 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). We analyzed the gut microbiota population to identify the relevant species potentially involved in inducing renal damage. Human colon Caco-2 cells were used to delineate the mechanism involved in the molecular changes in the gut of Nx rats...
March 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Antonio Pisani, Eleonora Riccio, Vincenzo Bellizzi, Donatella Luciana Caputo, Giusi Mozzillo, Marco Amato, Michele Andreucci, Bruno Cianciaruso, Massimo Sabbatini
BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of dietary restriction of proteins in chronic kidney disease are widely recognized; however, poor compliance to prescribed low-protein diets (LPD) may limit their effectiveness. To help patients to adhere to the dietary prescriptions, interventions as education programmes and dietary counselling are critical, but it is also important to develop simple and attractive approaches to the LPD, especially when dietitians are not available. Therefore, we elaborated a simplified and easy to manage dietary approach consisting of 6 tips (6-tip diet, 6-TD) which could replace the standard, non-individualized LPD in Nephrology Units where dietary counselling is not available; hence, our working hypothesis was to evaluate the effects of such diet vs a standard moderately protein-restricted diet on metabolic parameters and patients' adherence...
June 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Hiroko Kanno, Eiichiro Kanda, Asako Sato, Kaori Sakamoto, Yoshihiko Kanno
BACKGROUND: Determination of daily protein intake in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires precision. Inaccuracies in recording dietary intake occur, and estimation from total urea excretion presents hurdles owing to the difficulty of collecting whole urine for 24 h. Spot urine has been used for measuring daily sodium intake and urinary protein excretion. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether urea nitrogen (UN) concentration in spot urine can be used to predict daily protein intake instead of the 24-h urine collection in 193 Japanese CKD patients (Stages G1-G5)...
April 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Ho Jun Chin, Dong Ki Kim, Jung Hwan Park, Sung Joon Shin, Sang Ho Lee, Bum Soon Choi, Suhnggwon Kim, Chun Soo Lim
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the role of protein intake on proteinuria in chronic kidney disease (CKD), as it is presently not conclusive. METHODS: This is a subanalysis of data from an open-label, case-controlled, randomized clinical trial on education about low-salt diets (NCT01552954). We estimated the urine excretion rate of parameters in a day, adjusted by using the equation for estimating urine creatinine excretion, and analyzed the effect of urine urea nitrogen (UUN), as well as estimating protein intake on the level of albuminuria in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease...
November 2015: Nutrition
Ming-hui Zhang, Ming-ming Pan, Hai-feng Ni, Jun-feng Chen, Mn Xu, Yu-xiang Gong, Ping-sheng Chen, Bi-cheng Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) powder on renal oxidative stress and mitochondria functions in 5/6 nephrectomized rats, and to primarily explore its possible mechanisms. METHODS: Totally 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the sham-operation group, the model group, and the treatment group by random digit table, 10 in each group. A chronic kidney disease (CKD) rat model was prepared by one step 5/6 nephrectomy. Rats in the treatment group were intragastrically administered with CS powder solution at the daily dose of 2 g/kg, once per day...
April 2015: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
Zeng Si Wang, Fei Xiong, Xiao Hang Xie, Dan Chen, Jian Hua Pan, Li Cheng
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease throughout the world; however, the reversibility of diabetic nephropathy remains controversial. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DN. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is derived from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bge, a widely used traditional herbal medicine in China, and has diverse pharmacological activities including the attenuation of podocyte injury and amelioration of proteinuria in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome...
March 31, 2015: BMC Nephrology
Xue-zhong Gong, Ling-fang Zhou, Qian Wang, Xiao-chun Tang, Yu-run Qian, Yue-rong Wang, Lan Lu, Jia-jun Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Chuanhuang No.1 Recipe (CHR) on renal function and micro-inflammation in phase 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. METHODS: Totally 60 phase 3 CKD patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group (treated by CHR) and the control group (treated by Losartan Potassium), 30 in each group. All patients received basic treatment. Patients in the treatment group took CHR decoction, 400 mL each time, one dose per day, while those in the control group took Losartan Potassium, 50-100 mg per day...
February 2015: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
Dong-Tao Wang, Ren-Hua Huang, Xin Cheng, Zhi-Hua Zhang, Ya-Jun Yang, Xin Lin
PURPOSE: In traditional Chinese medicine, Tanshinone IIA is used to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, its biological activity and mechanism of action in renal fibrosis and inflammation are not fully identified. The current study was conducted to determine the effects of Tanshinone IIA treatment on CKD by assessing potential modulation of the TGF-β/Smad and NF-κB signaling pathway. METHODS: CKD was produced in rats by 5/6 nephrectomy. They were then divided into the following groups: control (sham operation); CKD (5/6 nephrectomy); 5/6 nephrectomy+Tanshinone IIA (10mg/kg in average, once a day for 16 weeks)...
May 2015: International Immunopharmacology
Remy Bürki, Nilufar Mohebbi, Carla Bettoni, Xueqi Wang, Andreas L Serra, Carsten A Wagner
BACKGROUND: Advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with the development of renal metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis per se may represent a trigger for progression of CKD. Renal acidosis of CKD is characterized by low urinary ammonium excretion with preserved urinary acidification indicating a defect in renal ammoniagenesis, ammonia excretion or both. The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, have not been addressed to date. METHODS: We examined the Han:SPRD rat model and used a combination of metabolic studies, mRNA and protein analysis of renal molecules involved in acid-base handling...
May 2015: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"