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healthcare water

Eric Vozzola, Michael Overcash, Evan Griffing
BACKGROUND: Isolation gowns serve a critical role in infection control by protecting healthcare workers, visitors, and patients from the transfer of microorganisms and body fluids. The decision of whether to use a reusable or disposable garment system is a selection process based on factors including sustainability, barrier effectiveness, cost, and comfort. Environmental sustainability is increasingly being used in the decision-making process. Life cycle assessment is the most comprehensive and widely used tool used to evaluate environmental performance...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Matteo Ghittorelli, Leona Lingstedt, Paolo Romele, N Irina Crăciun, Zsolt Miklós Kovács-Vajna, Paul W M Blom, Fabrizio Torricelli
Ions dissolved in aqueous media play a fundamental role in plants, animals, and humans. Therefore, the in situ quantification of the ion concentration in aqueous media is gathering relevant interest in several fields including biomedical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, healthcare products, water and food test and control, agriculture industry and security. The fundamental limitation of the state-of-art transistor-based approaches is the intrinsic trade-off between sensitivity, ion concentration range and operating voltage...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Natalia Sanchez-Aguadero, Jose I Recio-Rodriguez, Maria C Patino-Alonso, Sara Mora-Simon, Rosario Alonso-Dominguez, Benigna Sanchez-Salgado, Manuel A Gomez-Marcos, Luis Garcia-Ortiz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postprandial effects of high and low glycaemic index (GI) breakfasts on cognitive performance in young, healthy adults. METHODS: A crossover clinical trial including 40 young, healthy adults (aged 20-40 years, 50% females) recruited from primary healthcare centres in Salamanca, Spain. Verbal memory, phonological fluency, attention, and executive functions were examined 0, 60, and 120 minutes after consuming a low GI (LGI), high GI (HGI), or water breakfast...
April 12, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Lakshmi Ananthakrishnan, Xinhui Duan, Yin Xi, Matthew A Lewis, Margaret S Pearle, Jodi A Antonelli, Harold Goerne, Elysha M Kolitz, Suhny Abbara, Robert E Lenkinski, Julia R Fielding, John R Leyendecker
PURPOSE: To assess the non-inferiority of dual-layer spectral detector CT (SDCT) compared to dual-source dual-energy CT (dsDECT) in discriminating uric acid (UA) from non-UA stones. METHODS: Fifty-seven extracted urinary calculi were placed in a cylindrical phantom in a water bath and scanned on a SDCT scanner (IQon, Philips Healthcare) and second- and third-generation dsDECT scanners (Somatom Flash and Force, Siemens Healthcare) under matched scan parameters. For SDCT data, conventional images and virtual monoenergetic reconstructions were created...
April 7, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Ida Torre, Rossella Alfano, Tonia Borriello, Osvalda De Giglio, Carmela Iervolino, Maria Teresa Montagna, Marina Silvia Scamardo, Francesca Pennino
BACKGROUND: Legionellosis' treatment failures have been recently reported showing the possibility of resistance development to traditional therapy, especially in healthcare related disease cases. Environmental impact of antibiotic residues, especially in hospital waters, may act on the resistome of Legionella resulting in developing resistance mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: In this study we investigate the antibiotic susceptibility of environmental Legionella pneumophila (Lpn) strains isolated from hospital water systems in Campania, a region located in Southwest Italy...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Research
Chia-Ho Hua, Nadav Shapira, Thomas E Merchant, Paul Klahr, Yoad Yagil
PURPOSE: This study aimed to quantify the accuracy of the determination of electron density (ED), effective atomic number (Zeff ), and iodine concentration, directed for more accurate radiation therapy planning, with a new dual-layer dual-energy computed tomography (DL-DECT) system. The dependence of the accuracy of these values on the scan and reconstruction parameters, as well as on the phantom size, was also examined. METHODS: Measurements were performed on a commercial DECT system with a DL detector (IQon Spectral CT, Philips Healthcare), using phantoms with various tissue-equivalent inserts as well as iodine and calcium inserts of different concentrations...
April 6, 2018: Medical Physics
Hector Attu, Jones K Adjei
BACKGROUND: Although malaria is endemic across Ghana, the risk is generally elevated for residents living in and around stagnant water bodies such as dams and irrigated farming projects. What knowledge do these at-risk populations have about the aetiology and symptoms of malaria? What are their coping strategies? And what interventions are needed to help improve the health outcomes of people living in high-risk malaria communities? METHODS: This study addressed these research questions with primary data, comprising both qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys, collected in Asutsuare-a rural irrigated farming community located in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana...
April 4, 2018: Malaria Journal
Dell D Saulnier, Claudia Hanson, Por Ir, Helle Mölsted Alvesson, Johan von Schreeb
There is limited knowledge on the effect of seasonal flooding on health over time. We quantified the short- and long-term effects of floods on selected health indicators at public healthcare facilities in 11 districts in Cambodia, a flood-prone setting. Counts of inpatient discharge diagnoses and outpatient consultations for diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, skin infections, injuries, noncommunicable diseases and vector-borne diseases were retrieved from public healthcare facilities for each month between January 2008 and December 2013...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Geeta Sood, Dhananjay Vaidya, Lisa Dam, Lisa M Grubb, Jonathan Zenilman, Kelly Krout, Zeina Khouri-Stevens, Richard Bennett, Renee Blanding, Stefan Riedel, Stephen Milner, Leigh Ann Price, Trish M Perl
OBJECTIVE: To describe a polymicrobial fungal outbreak after Hurricane Sandy. DESIGN: An observational concurrent outbreak investigation and retrospective descriptive review. SETTING: A regional burn intensive care unit that serves the greater Baltimore area, admitting 350-450 burn patients annually. PATIENTS: Patients with burn injuries and significant dermatologic diseases such as toxic epidermal necrolysis who were admitted to the burn intensive care unit...
March 30, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Audrey E Kaufman, Alison N Pruzan, Ching Hsu, Sarayu Ramachandran, Adam Jacobi, Zahi A Fayad, Venkatesh Mani
AIM: To examine effects of computed tomography (CT) image acquisition/reconstruction parameters on clot volume quantification in vitro for research method validation purposes. METHODS: This study was performed in conformance with HIPAA and IRB Regulations (March 2015-November 2016). A ten blood clot phantom was designed and scanned on a dual-energy CT scanner (SOMATOM Force, Siemens Healthcare GmBH, Erlangen, Germany) with varying pitch, iterative reconstruction, energy level and slice thickness...
March 28, 2018: World Journal of Radiology
Joseph W Quinn, Kerry Sewell, Dell E Simmons
Background: Healthcare-acquired hypernatremia (serum sodium >145 mEq/dL) is common among critically ill and other hospitalized patients and is usually treated with hypotonic fluid and/or diuretics to correct a "free water deficit." However, many hypernatremic patients are eu- or hypervolemic, and an evolving body of literature emphasizes the importance of rapidly returning critically ill patients to a neutral fluid balance after resuscitation. Objective: We searched for any randomized- or observational-controlled studies evaluating the impact of active interventions intended to correct hypernatremia to eunatremia on any outcome in volume-resuscitated patients with shock and/or sepsis...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
Donghui Wang, Bei Fan, Yan Wang, Lijing Zhang, Fengzhong Wang
Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the conditions for the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of polysaccharides from the flowers of Dendrobium devonianum . The optimal conditions for the maximum yields of DDFPs are as follows: an extraction temperature of 63.13°C, an extraction time of 53.10 min, and a water-to-raw material ratio of 22.11 mL/g. Furthermore, three fractions (DDFPs30, DDFPs50, and DDFPs70) were prepared from Dendrobium devonianum flowers polysaccharides (DDFPs) by the stepwise ethanol precipitation method...
2018: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Paul Knox Clarke, Leah Campbell
The atomised nature of the humanitarian system has led to frequent and repeated attempts to coordinate humanitarian activity. Since 2005, some of the best resourced, and arguably most successful, coordination mechanisms have been the humanitarian Clusters, groups of UN (United Nations) and non-UN actors that engage in sectoral coordination of humanitarian response (such as the provision of healthcare and water) at the global and country level. Nevertheless, it is not clear exactly what 'coordination' means in the context of a Cluster...
March 26, 2018: Disasters
Angela Collarino, Lenka M Pereira Arias-Bouda, Renato A Valdés Olmos, Pieternel van der Tol, Petra Dibbets-Schneider, Lioe-Fee de Geus-Oei, Floris Hp van Velden
PURPOSE: Recent developments in iterative image reconstruction enable absolute quantification of SPECT/CT studies by incorporating compensation for collimator-detector response, attenuation and scatter as well as resolution recovery into the reconstruction process (Evolution; Q.Metrix package; GE Healthcare). The aim of this experimental study is to assess its quantitative accuracy for potential clinical 99m Tc-sestamibi (MIBI)-related SPECT/CT application in neoadjuvant chemotherapy response studies in breast cancer...
March 23, 2018: Medical Physics
Gloria Huerta-Ángeles, Kateřina Knotková, Petr Knotek, Ondrej Židek, Martina Brandejsová, Marek Pokorný, Hana Vagnerová, Ipsita Roy, Vladimir Velebný
In this work, a hybrid copolymer consisting of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) grafted to hyaluronic acid (HA) was synthesised and characterised. Once formed, the P(3HB)-g-HA copolymer was soluble in water allowing a green electrospinning process. The diameters of nanofibres can be tailored by simply varying the Mw of polymer. The optimization of the process allowed to produce fibres of average diameter in the range of 100-150 nm and low polydispersity. The hydrophobic modification has not only increased the fibre diameter, but also the obtained layers were homogenous...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Ngatho Samuel Mugo, Kingsley E Agho, Anthony B Zwi, Eliaba Yona Damundu, Michael J Dibley
Background: Under-five children born in a fragile and war-affected setting of South Sudan are faced with a high risk of death as reflecting in high under-five mortality. In South Sudan health inequities and inequitable condition of daily living play a significant role in childhood mortality. This study examines factors associated with under-five mortality in South Sudan. Methods: The study population includes 8125 singleton, live birth, under-five children born in South Sudan within 5 years prior to the 2010 South Sudan Household Survey...
2018: BMJ Global Health
S Hoang, A Georget, J Asselineau, A-G Venier, C Leroyer, A M Rogues, R Thiébaut
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of environment, medical care and individual risks factors for P. aeruginosa colonization and infection. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A French multicentric prospective study involved ten ICUs for a five months period. Every adult patient newly hospitalized in ICUs with no P. aeruginosa carriage up to 48 hours after admission was included and weekly screened before discharge or death. Screening swabs were either rectal, sputum or oropharyngeal samples...
2018: PloS One
Adriana S Lopez, Bethany LaClair, Vicki Buttery, Yufang Zhang, Jennifer Rosen, Elizabeth Taggert, Sara Robinson, Mychal Davis, Catherine Waters, Carrie A Thomas, Carmen Rodriguez, Ebony Thomas, Jessica Tuttle, Tamara Brantley, Dana Perella, Maria Del Rosario, Mona Marin
Background: In 2007, a routine second dose of varicella vaccine was recommended in the United States for children aged 4 to 6 years to better control varicella-zoster virus circulation and outbreaks. Sentinel varicella outbreak surveillance was established to assess feasibility of surveillance and describe outbreaks that are occurring. Methods: Through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epidemiology Laboratory Capacity funding, health departments conducted active surveillance for varicella outbreaks in schools from 2012 to 2015...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Susan Jain, Kate Clezy, Mary-Louise McLaws
BACKGROUND: Routine hand hygiene effectively removes methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) from the ungloved hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) who are caring for patients under contact precautions, when exposure to bodily fluids is not expected. METHODS: HCWs' ungloved hands were cultured after hand hygiene with alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) or soap-and-water wash after routine clinical care of patients known to be colonized or infected with MRSA or VRE...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Zhen Zhen, Zechen Li, Xuanliang Zhao, Yujia Zhong, Li Zhang, Qiao Chen, Tingting Yang, Hongwei Zhu
Portable humidity sensors with ultrafast responses fabricated in wearable devices have promising application prospects in disease diagnostics, health status monitoring, and personal healthcare data collecting. However, prolonged exposures to high-humidity environments usually cause device degradation or failure due to excessive water adsorbed on the sensor surface. In the present work, a graphene film based humidity sensor with a hydrophobic surface and uniformly distributed ring-like wrinkles is designed and fabricated that exhibits excellent performance in breath sensing...
March 8, 2018: Small
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