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healthcare water

Alex J Elliot, Helen E Hughes, John Astbury, Grainne Nixon, Kate Brierley, Roberto Vivancos, Thomas Inns, Valerie Decraene, Katherine Platt, Iain Lake, Sarah J O'Brien, Gillian E Smith
During August 2015, a boil water notice (BWN) was issued across parts of North West England following the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the public water supply. Using prospective syndromic surveillance, we detected statistically significant increases in the presentation of cases of gastroenteritis and diarrhoea to general practitioner services and related calls to the national health telephone advice service in those areas affected by the BWN. In the affected areas, average in-hours general practitioner consultations for gastroenteritis increased by 24...
October 13, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Koon-Pong Wong, Marvin Bergsneider, Thomas C Glenn, Vladimir Kepe, Jorge R Barrio, David A Hovda, Paul M Vespa, Sung-Cheng Huang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity, placing a significant financial burden on the healthcare system worldwide. Non-invasive neuroimaging technologies have been playing a pivotal role in the study of TBI, providing important information for surgical planning and patient management. Advances in understanding the basic mechanisms and pathophysiology of the brain following TBI are hindered by a lack of reliable image analysis methods for accurate quantitative assessment of TBI-induced structural and pathophysiological changes seen on anatomical and functional images obtained from multiple imaging modalities...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
Stephanie DeFlorio-Barker, Timothy J Wade, Mary Turyk, Samuel Dorevitch
The health endpoint of prior studies of water recreation has been the occurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) illness. This dichotomous measure fails to take into account the range of symptom severity among those with GI illness, and those who develop GI symptoms but who do not satisfy the definition of GI illness. Data from two US cohort studies were used to assess use of ordinal and semi-continuous measures of GI symptoms, such as duration of GI symptoms and responses to those symptoms such as medication use, interference with daily activities, and utilization of healthcare service...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Luigi Principe, Paola Tomao, Paolo Visca
Legionellosis is the common name for two infections, Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF), both caused by Legionella bacteria. Although with low incidence, LD is an important cause of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Among community-acquired cases, an increasing number was reported to be linked to the occupational setting, posing the need for better recognition of work activities at risk of legionellosis. In this work, we selected and reviewed relevant literature on cases of occupational legionellosis published between 1978 and 2016 in order to define the: i) etiology; ii) sources of infection, iii) work activities at risk, iv) infection rates, v) predisposing factors, vi) mortality and vii) country distribution...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Research
Sandeep Kumar, Gaurav Bhanjana, Arvind Kumar, Kapila Taneja, Neeraj Dilbaghi, Ki-Hyun Kim
The use of nanocarriers to enhance drug delivery efficacy has been increasing in the healthcare field due to their tunable surface properties. In this study, ceftriaxone-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (CL-SLNPs) were synthesized using a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) type double emulsification method. The formulation was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
September 30, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
David X Cifu, Olivia K Uchima, Alaina S Davis, Amy E Lower, Jingyu L Jin, Henry L Lew
Head injuries are a particular concern in Hawai'i given the large military population, the presence of many land and water sports such as football and surfing, and the lenient helmet laws for motorcycle and bicycle riders. Physical, psychological, and cognitive symptoms from single or repeated concussions can affect an individual's reentry to society and activity. Current literature indicates that repeated head injuries are associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) which is thought to lead to dementia...
September 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
Jessy Lauer, Stéphane Vigier, Frédéric Delage, Alain Meudec, Jean-Michel Pollet, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Annie Rouard
OBJECTIVE: Aquatic shoulder exercises are widely implemented into rehabilitation programs to provide early muscle strengthening and improved joint mobility. However, since the drag - the force exerted by the water on the moving segments - is very hard to measure, an in-depth knowledge of internal joint load is lacking, which ultimately prevents healthcare professionals from understanding all clinical implications. For the first time, shoulder joint moment, work, and power were calculated through a novel, validated numerical approach coupling fluid flow simulations and inverse dynamics...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
L M Horng, L Unicomb, M-U Alam, A K Halder, A K Shoab, P K Ghosh, A Opel, M K Islam, S P Luby
BACKGROUND: Healthcare facility hand hygiene impacts patient care, healthcare worker safety, and infection control, but low-income countries have few data to guide interventions. AIM: To conduct a nationally representative survey of hand hygiene infrastructure and behaviour in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities to establish baseline data to aid policy. METHODS: The 2013 Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey examined water, sanitation, and hand hygiene across households, schools, restaurants and food vendors, traditional birth attendants, and healthcare facilities...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Christopher C Cooper, Robin L P Jump, Teena Chopra
Clostridium difficile is one of the foremost nosocomial pathogens. Preventing infection is particularly challenging. Effective prevention efforts typically require a multifaceted bundled approach. A variety of infection control procedures may be advantageous, including strict hand decontamination with soap and water, contact precautions, and using chlorine-containing decontamination agents. Additionally, risk factor reduction can help reduce the burden of disease. The risk factor modification is principally accomplished though antibiotic stewardship programs...
September 19, 2016: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
K Hauck, S Martin, P C Smith
The WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health set out an impressive collection of policy proposals on the social determinants of health. However, a serious weakness for securing implementation is the difficulty for policymakers in identifying priorities for action. The objective of this study is to determine a small set of the most influential determinants using existing data and an empirical approach. 45 Indicators from the World Bank's World Development Indicators are selected to measure attainment for the determinants proposed by the Commission...
October 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Arindam Nandi, Itamar Megiddo, Ashvin Ashok, Amit Verma, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Each year, more than 300,000 children in India under the age of five years die from diarrheal diseases. Clean piped water and improved sanitation are known to be effective in reducing the mortality and morbidity burden of diarrhea but are not yet available to close to half of the Indian population. In this paper, we estimate the health benefits (reduced cases of diarrheal incidence and deaths averted) and economic benefits (measured by out-of-pocket treatment expenditure averted and value of insurance gained) of scaling up the coverage of piped water and improved sanitation among Indian households to a near-universal 95% level...
August 31, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Martin Wiesholzer, Alexandra Winter, Manuel Kussmann, Markus Zeitlinger, Petra Pichler, Heinz Burgmann, Gottfried Reznicek, Wolfgang Poeppl
♦ Background: Intraperitoneal administration of antimicrobial agents is recommended for the treatment of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. For home-based antimicrobial therapy it is common to supply patients with PD fluid bags with admixed antibiotic. Thus, the compatibility of meropenem with different PD fluids (PDFs), namely Extraneal, Physioneal 1.36% and Physioneal 2.27% (all Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, IL, USA), was investigated under varying storage conditions. ♦ Methods: Meropenem (Venus Pharma, Werne, Germany) was stored at 6°C and 25°C over 14 days and at 37°C over 24 hours...
September 7, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Sebastian Kirchner, B Joanne Power, Andrew P Waters
Malaria continues to impose a significant disease burden on low- and middle-income countries in the tropics. However, revolutionary progress over the last 3 years in nucleic acid sequencing, reverse genetics, and post-genome analyses has generated step changes in our understanding of malaria parasite (Plasmodium spp.) biology and its interactions with its host and vector. Driven by the availability of vast amounts of genome sequence data from Plasmodium species strains, relevant human populations of different ethnicities, and mosquito vectors, researchers can consider any biological component of the malarial process in isolation or in the interactive setting that is infection...
2016: Genome Medicine
Aaron S Miller, Henry C Lin, Chang-Berm Kang, Lawrence C Loh
Objective. For decades, Haitian migrant workers living in bateyes around La Romana, Dominican Republic, have been the focus of short-term volunteer medical groups from North America. To assist these efforts, this study aimed to characterize various health and social needs that could be addressed by volunteer groups. Design. Needs were assessed using semistructured interviews of community and professional informants, using a questionnaire based on a social determinants of health framework, and responses were qualitatively analysed for common themes...
2016: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Jane S Thornton, Anders Vinther, Fiona Wilson, Constance M Lebrun, Mike Wilkinson, Stephen R Di Ciacca, Karen Orlando, Tomislav Smoljanovic
Although traditionally seen as a sport for elite schools and colleges, rowing is a founding Olympic event and is increasingly enjoyed by people of all ages and abilities. The sport's rapidly changing demographics shows significant growth in masters (age 27 years and above) and para-rowing populations. It has further expanded beyond its traditional flatwater format to include the discipline of open-water or coastal rowing, and an increased focus on indoor rowing. Rowing-specific injury research has similarly increased over the last decade since our last review, revealing areas of improved understanding in pre-participation screening, training load, emerging concepts surrounding back and rib injury, and relative energy deficiency in sport...
August 30, 2016: Sports Medicine
Jada G Hamilton, Sarah E Lillie, Dana L Alden, Laura Scherer, Megan Oser, Christine Rini, Miho Tanaka, John Baleix, Mikki Brewster, Simon Craddock Lee, Mary K Goldstein, Robert M Jacobson, Ronald E Myers, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher, Erika A Waters
Informed and shared decision making are critical aspects of patient-centered care, which has contributed to an emphasis on decision support interventions to promote good medical decision making. However, researchers and healthcare providers have not reached a consensus on what defines a good decision, nor how to evaluate it. This position paper, informed by conference sessions featuring diverse stakeholders held at the 2015 Society of Behavioral Medicine and Society for Medical Decision Making annual meetings, describes key concepts that influence the decision making process itself and that may change what it means to make a good decision: interpersonal factors, structural constraints, affective influences, and values clarification methods...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Michael V Rocco
BACKGROUND: Chronic hemodialysis (HD) in the 1960s encompassed a wide variety of prescriptions from twice weekly to five times per week HD. Over time, HD prescriptions in the West became standardized at three times per week, 2.5-4 h per session, with occasional additional treatments for volume overload. SUMMARY: When clinical trials of dialysis dose failed to show significant benefit of extending time compared with the traditional dialysis prescription, interest in more frequent HD was renewed...
December 2015: Kidney Diseases
Narayan Prasad, Vivekanand Jha
BACKGROUND: Asia is the largest, most populous and most heterogeneous continent in the world. The number of patients with end-stage renal disease is growing rapidly in Asia. SUMMARY: A fully informed report on the status of dialysis therapies including hemodialysis (HD) is limited by the lack of systematic registries. Available data suggest remarkable heterogeneities, with some countries like Taiwan, Japan and Korea exhibiting well-established HD systems, high prevalence and universal access to all patients, while low- and low-middle income countries are unable to provide HD to eligible patients because of high cost and poor healthcare systems...
December 2015: Kidney Diseases
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