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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730159/antibiotic-prescribing-for-adults-hospitalized-in-the-etiology-of-pneumonia-in-the-community-study
#1
Sara Tomczyk, Seema Jain, Anna M Bramley, Wesley H Self, Evan J Anderson, Chris Trabue, D Mark Courtney, Carlos G Grijalva, Grant W Waterer, Kathryn M Edwards, Richard G Wunderink, Lauri A Hicks
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) 2007 guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) recommend a respiratory fluoroquinolone or beta-lactam plus macrolide as first-line antibiotics for adults hospitalized with CAP. Few studies have assessed guideline-concordant antibiotic use for patients hospitalized with CAP after the 2007 IDSA/ATS guidelines. We examine antibiotics prescribed and associated factors in adults hospitalized with CAP...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730065/exploring-structural-violence-in-the-context-of-disability-and-poverty-in-zimbabwe
#2
Jennifer T Muderedzi, Arne H Eide, Stine H Braathen, Babill Stray-Pedersen
BACKGROUND: While it is widely assumed that disability, poverty and health are closely linked, research falls short of fully understanding the link. One approach to analysing the links between disability and poverty is through the concept of structural violence, referring to social structures that contribute to the impoverishment of individuals or communities. These structures can be political, ecological, legal and economic, among others. OBJECTIVE: To explore structural violence and how it affects families of children with cerebral palsy among the Tonga ethnic group living in poor rural communities of Binga in Zimbabwe...
2017: Afr J Disabil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728760/adhd-and-everyday-life-healthcare-as-a-significant-lifeline
#3
Britt Laugesen, Marlene Briciet Lauritsen, Rikke Jørgensen, Erik Elgaard Sørensen, Mette Grønkjær, Philippa Rasmussen
AIM: The aim of this qualitative study was to explore parental experiences of how healthcare practices and healthcare professionals in hospital clinics in Denmark influence everyday life of parents with a child with ADHD. DESIGN AND METHODS: The methodology was focused ethnography. Participant observation and interviews were used as the primary data collection methods. Fifteen families of children with ADHD were included from somatic and psychiatric hospital clinics...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714493/handwashing-practices-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-paediatric-intensive-care-unit-and-neonatal-nurseries-in-patan-hospital
#4
S Joshi, P Amatya, B Poudel, S A Yadav
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene has been identified as the single most important factor in minimising hospital acquired infections. However, compliance of handwashing guidelines has remained low. The aim of this study was to study the handwashing practices in the Paediatric and Neonatal intensive care units and Neonatal nurseries in Patan Hospital, and secondly to re-evaluate the improvement on compliance of handwashing guidelines after intervention. METHODS: Pre-intervention study was conducted by covertly observing the handwashing practices by the healthcare workers...
January 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714117/a-swellable-microneedle-patch-to-rapidly-extract-skin-interstitial-fluid-for-timely-metabolic-analysis
#5
Hao Chang, Mengjia Zheng, Xiaojun Yu, Aung Than, Razina Z Seeni, Rongjie Kang, Jingqi Tian, Duong Phan Khanh, Linbo Liu, Peng Chen, Chenjie Xu
Skin interstitial fluid (ISF) is an emerging source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis. Microneedle (MN) patch has been identified as an ideal platform to extract ISF from the skin due to its pain-free and easy-to-administrated properties. However, long sampling time is still a serious problem which impedes timely metabolic analysis. In this study, a swellable MN patch that can rapidly extract ISF is developed. The MN patch is made of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) and further crosslinked through UV irradiation...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710484/colored-and-fluorescent-nanofibrous-silk-as-a-physically-transient-chemosensor-and-vitamin-deliverer
#6
Kyungtaek Min, Sookyoung Kim, Chang Gun Kim, Sunghwan Kim
Biodegradable and physically transient optics represent an emerging paradigm in healthcare devices by harnessing optically active system and obviating issues with chronic uses. Light emitting components that can efficiently interact with their environments have advantages of high sensitivity, visibility, and wireless operation. Here, we report a novel combination of silk biopolymer and optically active organic dyes resulting in versatile fluorescent silk nanofibers (FSNs). FSNs generated by the electrospinning method exhibit attractive functions of the doped organic dyes along with programming the system that physically disappear at prescribed time...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710211/occupational-risk-for-legionella-infection-among-dental-healthcare-workers-meta-analysis-in-occupational-epidemiology
#7
Stefano Petti, Matteo Vitali
OBJECTIVE: The occupational risk for Legionella infection among dental healthcare workers (DHCWs) is conjectured because of the risk of routine inhalation of potentially contaminated aerosols produced by the dental instruments. Nevertheless, occupational epidemiology studies are contrasting. This meta-analysis assessed the level of scientific evidence regarding the relative occupational risk for Legionella infection among DHCWs. METHODS: Literature search was performed without time and language restrictions, using broad data banks (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, GOOGLE Scholar) and generic keywords ('legionella' AND 'dent*')...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708800/the-effects-of-white-noise-on-agitated-behaviors-mental-status-and-activities-of-daily-living-in-older-adults-with-dementia
#8
Li-Wei Lin, Shu-Chuan Weng, Hua-Shan Wu, Lu-Jen Tsai, Ya-Ling Lin, Shu-Hui Yeh
BACKGROUND: The aging of society is a global trend, and care of older adults with dementia is an urgent challenge. As dementia progresses, patients exhibit negative emotions, memory disorders, sleep disorders, and agitated behavior. Agitated behavior is one of the most difficult problems for family caregivers and healthcare providers to handle when caring for older adults with dementia. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of white noise in improving agitated behavior, mental status, and activities of daily living in older adults with dementia...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702005/insights-into-a-novel-blakpc-2-encoding-incp-6-plasmid-reveal-carbapenem-resistance-circulation-in-several-enterobacteriaceae-species-from-wastewater-and-a-hospital-source-in-spain
#9
Yancheng Yao, Fernando Lazaro-Perona, Linda Falgenhauer, Aránzazu Valverde, Can Imirzalioglu, Lucas Dominguez, Rafael Cantón, Jesús Mingorance, Trinad Chakraborty
Untreated wastewater, particularly from hospitals and other healthcare facilities, is considered to be a reservoir for multidrug-resistant bacteria. However, its role in the spread of antibiotic resistances in the human population remains poorly investigated. We used whole genome sequencing to analyze 25 KPC-2-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from sewage water collected during a 3-year period and three clinical Citrobacter freundii isolates from a tertiary hospital in the same collection area in Spain...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696090/wearable-and-washable-conductors-for-active-textiles
#10
Paul Le Floch, Xi Yao, Qihan Liu, Zhengjin Wang, Guodong Nian, Yu Sun, Li Jia, Zhigang Suo
The emergence of stretchable electronics and its potential integration with textiles have highlighted a challenge: textiles are wearable and washable, but electronic devices are not. Many stretchable conductors have been developed to enable wearable active textiles, but little has been done to make them washable. Here we demonstrate a new class of stretchable conductors that can endure wearing and washing conditions commonly associated with textiles. Such a conductor consists of a hydrogel, a dissolved hygroscopic salt, and a butyl rubber coating...
July 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694251/advances-in-the-causes-and-management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults
#11
REVIEW
Richard G Wunderink, Grant Waterer
Community acquired pneumonia remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Usually, the causal organism is not identified and treatment remains empiric. Recent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies have challenged the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia, and epidemiologic studies are changing our perspective of what causes community acquired pneumonia, especially the role of viral pathogens and the frequent finding of multiple pathogens. The past decade has seen increasing overuse of empiric coverage of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic resistant Gram negative pathogens owing to inappropriate application of guidelines for healthcare associated pneumonia...
July 10, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674145/the-strataa-study-protocol-a-programme-to-assess-the-burden-of-enteric-fever-in-bangladesh-malawi-and-nepal-using-prospective-population-census-passive-surveillance-serological-studies-and-healthcare-utilisation-surveys
#12
Thomas C Darton, James E Meiring, Susan Tonks, Md Arifuzzaman Khan, Farhana Khanam, Mila Shakya, Deus Thindwa, Stephen Baker, Buddha Basnyat, John D Clemens, Gordon Dougan, Christiane Dolecek, Sarah J Dunstan, Melita A Gordon, Robert S Heyderman, Kathryn E Holt, Virginia E Pitzer, Firdausi Qadri, K Zaman, Andrew J Pollard
INTRODUCTION: Invasive infections caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Paratyphi A are estimated to account for 12-27 million febrile illness episodes worldwide annually. Determining the true burden of typhoidal Salmonellae infections is hindered by lack of population-based studies and adequate laboratory diagnostics.The Strategic Typhoid alliance across Africa and Asia study takes a systematic approach to measuring the age-stratified burden of clinical and subclinical disease caused by typhoidal Salmonellae infections at three high-incidence urban sites in Africa and Asia...
July 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671954/breastfeeding-practices-beliefs-and-social-norms-in-low-resource-communities-in-mexico-insights-for-how-to-improve-future-promotion-strategies
#13
Tessa M Swigart, Anabelle Bonvecchio, Florence L Théodore, Sophia Zamudio-Haas, Maria Angeles Villanueva-Borbolla, James F Thrasher
INTRODUCTION: Breastfeeding is recommended exclusively for the first 6 months after birth, with continued breastfeeding for at least 2 years. Yet prevalence of these recommendations is low globally, although it is an effective and cost-effective way to prevent serious infections and chronic illness. Previous studies have reported that social support greatly influences breastfeeding, but there is little evidence on perceived social norms in Mexico and how they affect actual behavior. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate breastfeeding intention, practices, attitudes, and beliefs, particularly normative, among low-resource communities in central and southern Mexico...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670508/a-unified-framework-for-developing-effective-hygiene-procedures-for-hands-environmental-surfaces-and-laundry-in-healthcare-domestic-food-handling-and-other-settings
#14
REVIEW
Sally F Bloomfield, Philip C Carling, Martin Exner
Hygiene procedures for hands, surfaces and fabrics are central to preventing spread of infection in settings including healthcare, food production, catering, agriculture, public settings, and home and everyday life. They are used in situations including hand hygiene, clinical procedures, decontamination of environmental surfaces, respiratory hygiene, food handling, laundry hygiene, toilet hygiene and so on. Although the principles are common to all, approaches currently used in different settings are inconsistent...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668659/morbidity-and-mortality-amongst-indian-hajj-pilgrims-a-3-year-experience-of-indian-hajj-medical-mission-in-mass-gathering-medicine
#15
Inam D Khan, Shahbaz A Khan, Bushra Asima, Syed B Hussaini, M Zakiuddin, F A Faisal
The Hajj, a mass-gathering of over 3.5-million pilgrims, faces challenges to global health-security, housing, food, water, transportation, communication, sanitation, crowd-control and security. The Indian Medical Mission extended health-security to approximately 140,000 pilgrims, through outreach medical teams, primary-care clinics, tent-clinics, secondary-care hospitals and evacuation capabilities. Data on medical attendance, bed-occupancy, investigations, referrals, medication usage and deaths was compared...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665626/incidence-of-campylobacter-intestinal-infections-active-component-u-s-armed-forces-2007-2016
#16
Francis L O'Donnell, Shauna Stahlman, Gi-Taik Oh
During 2007-2016, there were 1,753 diagnosed cases of Campylobacter intestinal infection among active component service members. The overall rate for the period was 14.1 cases per 100,000 person-years (p-yrs), but the annual incidence rates steadily increased from 7.6 cases per 100,000 p-yrs in 2007 to 22.1 cases per 100,000 p-yrs in 2016. Overall rates were higher in females, those aged 45 years or older, members of the Air Force and Army, offi cers, and those in military healthcare occupations. Incidence rates were lowest among service members who were recruit trainees, younger than 20 years of age, non-Hispanic blacks, and Marines...
June 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665293/an-original-piecewise-model-for-computing-energy-expenditure-from-accelerometer-and-heart-rate-signals
#17
Hector Manuel Romero-Ugalde, Mael Garnotel, Maeva Doron, Pierre Jallon, Guillaume Charpentier, Sylvia Franc, Erik Huneker, Chantal Simon, Stephane Bonnet
Activity Energy Expenditure (EE) plays an important role in healthcare, therefore, accurate EE measures are required. Currently available reference EE acquisition methods, such as doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry, are complex, expensive, uncomfortable, and/or difficult to apply on real time. To overcome these drawbacks, the goal of this paper is to propose a model for computing EE in real time (minute-by-minute) from heart rate and accelerometer signals. Approach: The proposed model, which consists of an original branched model, uses heart rate signals for computing EE on moderate to vigorous physical activities and a linear combination of heart rate and counts per minute for computing EE on light to moderate physical activities...
June 30, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664144/acute-toxicity-and-genotoxicity-of-fermented-traditional-medicine-oyaksungi-san
#18
Hwayong Park, Youn-Hwan Hwang, Jin Yeul Ma
BACKGROUND: The traditional medicine oyaksungi-san (OY) has been prescribed in East Asia for hundreds of years for the treatment of stroke, paralysis, and ataxia. OY also has therapeutic effects on arthralgia, myalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis, and recent studies have shown its protective effects against apoptosis of hippocampal cells and its anti-inflammatory effects on the peripheral blood cells of patient with cerebral infarction. Many studies have explored the use of traditional medicine and herb materials in the development of safe, novel, and effective pharmaceuticals with fewer side effects...
June 2017: Integrative medicine research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657479/first-israeli-national-iodine-survey-demonstrates-iodine-deficiency-among-school-aged-children-and-pregnant-women
#19
Yaniv S Ovadia, Jonathan Arbelle, Dov Gefel, H Brik, Tamar Wolf, Varda Nadler, Sandra Hunziker, Michael Zimmermann, Aron Troen
INTRODUCTION: National data on iodine status in Israel is lacking. Reliance on iodine-depleted desalinated water, the absence of a salt iodization program and reports of increased use of thyroid medication in Israel suggested that the population's iodine intake is likely inadequate. AIMS: To determine iodine status of Israeli school age children (SAC) and pregnant women (PW) in a nationally-representative sample obtained by a novel approach of using pre-discard urinalysis samples collected from a centralized national laboratory...
June 28, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652717/elder-self-neglect-research-and-practice
#20
REVIEW
XinQi Dong
Elder self-neglect is a global public health and human rights issue that threatens older people's health and safety. It commonly refers to refusal or failure to provide oneself with care and protection in areas of food, water, clothing, hygiene, medication, living environments, and safety precautions. While prevalent, the status of self-neglecting individuals remains largely unclear, in particular within community-dwelling populations. By reviewing the epidemiology of elder self-neglect (definition, prevalence, risk factors, and consequences) to date, the present paper identifies key research gaps such as methodological inconsistency in case identification and measurement, and study designs that are inadequate to determine risk factors of self-neglect...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
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