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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095538/exogenous-factors-in-skin-barrier-repair
#1
Julia Schwartz, Adam J Friedman
The stratum corneum (SC) is the skin's outermost layer and serves the primary function of acting as a shield to keep foreign matter out and to essential elements, such as moisture and water, in. Maintenance of this skin barrier is crucial to healthy functioning skin. A damaged or diseased skin barrier is vulnerable to infection, irritants, and allergens. The cornerstone of skin barrier regulation and repair is through the use of moisturizers. While healthcare providers and patients may underestimate the importance of moisturizers due to their lack of active ingredients, the benefit of a well-planned moisturizer regimen for skin barrier regulation should not be discounted...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080026/ionic-strength-responsive-sulfonated-polystyrene-opals
#2
Luca Nucara, Vincenzo Piazza, Francesco Greco, Valentina Robbiano, Valentina Cappello, Mauro Gemmi, Franco Cacialli, Virgilio Mattoli
Stimuli-responsive photonic crystals (PCs) represent an intriguing class of smart materials very promising for sensing applications. Here, selective ionic strength responsive polymeric PCs are reported. They are easily fabricated by partial sulfonation of polystyrene opals, without using toxic or expensive monomers and etching steps. The color of the resulting hydrogel-like ordered structures can be continuously shifted over the entire visible range (405-760 nm) by changing the content of ions over an extremely wide range of concentration (from about 70 M to 4 M)...
January 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077517/two-phase-hospital-associated-outbreak-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-investigation-and-mitigation
#3
Arthur W Baker, Sarah S Lewis, Barbara D Alexander, Luke F Chen, Richard J Wallace, Barbara A Brown-Elliott, Pamela J Isaacs, Lisa C Pickett, Chetan B Patel, Peter K Smith, John M Reynolds, Jill Engel, Cameron R Wolfe, Carmelo A Milano, Jacob N Schroder, Robert D Davis, Matthew G Hartwig, Jason E Stout, Nancy Strittholt, Eileen K Maziarz, Jennifer Horan Saullo, Kevin C Hazen, Richard J Walczak, Ravikiran Vasireddy, Sruthi Vasireddy, Celeste M McKnight, Deverick J Anderson, Daniel J Sexton
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) commonly colonize municipal water and cause healthcare-associated outbreaks. We investigated a biphasic outbreak of Mycobacterium abscessus at a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Case patients had recent hospital exposure and laboratory-confirmed colonization or infection with M. abscessus from January 2013 through December 2015. We conducted a multidisciplinary epidemiologic, field, and laboratory investigation. RESULTS: The incidence rate of M...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068263/chemical-burn-to-the-gingiva-after-misuse-of-an-over-the-counter-oral-whitening-mouthwash
#4
John K Brooks
A well-recognized consequence of the use of tooth whitening gels and strips, particularly prescription strength formulations, is gingival irritation and tooth sensitivity. Limited information is available in the literature on the risk of gingival chemical burns associated with over-the-counter (OTC) oral whitening rinses. This case report details the development of gingival chemical burns consequent to misuse of a whitening rinse. The affected patient had rinsed for 30 seconds daily for 3-4 days but had failed to rinse with water after usage, as specified by the manufacturer...
January 2017: General Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050472/use-of-lung-ultrasound-for-diagnosing-acute-heart-failure-in-emergency-department-of-southern-india
#5
Manav Aggarwal, Mrigakshi Gupta, Vikrant Vijan, Anjith Vupputuri, Sanjeev Chintamani, Bishnukiran Rajendran, Rajesh Thachathodiyal, Rajiv Chandrasekaran
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosing heart failure is often a challenge for the healthcare providers due to it's non-specific and usually subtle physical presentations. The outcomes for treatment are strongly related to the stage of the disease. Considering the importance of early and accurate diagnosis, it is important to have an easy, inexpensive, non-invasive, reliable and reproducible method for diagnosis of heart failure. Recent advancement in radiology and cardiology are supporting the emerging technique of lung ultrasound through B-line evaluation for identifying extravascular lung water...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049291/unique-triphenylphosphonium-derivatives-for-enhanced-mitochondrial-uptake-and-photodynamic-therapy
#6
Zhang Hu, Ying Sim, Oi Lian Kon, Wai Har Ng, António Ribeiro, Maria João Ramos, Pedro A Fernandes, Rakesh Ganguly, Bengang Xing, Felipe Garcia, Edwin K L Yeow
In this study, unique methyl functionalized derivatives (T*PP+) of the drug carrier triphenylphosphonium (TPP+) that exhibit significant enhancement in the accumulation of both the cation and its conjugated cargo in cell mitochondria are designed. We show that the presence of methyl group(s) at key positions within the phenyl ring results in an increase in the hydrophobicity and solvent accessible surface area of T*PP+. In particular, when the para- position of the phenyl ring in T*PP+ is functionalized with a methyl group, the cation is most exposed to the surrounding environment; leading to a high drop in water entropy, and an increase in Van der Waals interaction with and partition into a non-polar solvent...
January 3, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048440/su-g-iep2-12-the-effect-of-iterative-reconstruction-and-ct-tube-voltage-on-hounsfield-unit-values-of-iodinated-contrast
#7
K Ogden, K Greene-Donnelly, D Vallabhaneni, E Scalzetti
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of changing iterative reconstruction strength and tube voltage on Hounsfield Unit (HU) values of varying concentrations of Iodinated contrast medium in a phantom. METHOD: Iodinated contrast (Omnipaque 300, GE Healthcare, Princeton NJ) was diluted with distilled water to concentrations of 0.6, 0.9, 1.8, 3.6, 7.2, and 10.8 mg/mL of Iodine. The solutions were scanned in a patient equivalent water phantom on two MDCT scanners: VCT 64 slice (GE Medical Systems, Waukesha, WI) and an Aquilion One 320 slice scanner (Toshiba America Medical Systems, Tustin CA)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048404/we-h-201-03-enthusiasm-and-generosity-of-spirit-necessitate-a-volunteering-structure-to-make-them-more-meaningful
#8
Y Pipman
: The desperate need for radiotherapy in low and mid-income countries (LMICs) has been well documented. Roughly 60 % of the worldwide incidence of cancer occurs in these resource-limited settings and the international community alongside governmental and non-profit agencies have begun publishing reports and seeking help from qualified volunteers. However, the focus of several reports has been on how dire the situation is and the magnitude of the problem, leaving most to feel overwhelmed and unsure as to how to help and why to get involved...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048113/su-f-i-44-using-the-air-signal-to-characterize-image-noise-in-ct
#9
T Szczykutowicz, A Malkus
PURPOSE: With increasing emphasis on CT image quality and low dose, quality activities analyzing noise levels in images will need to be increasingly automated. This work describes a new automated method for characterizing noise in CT. To obviate the need to segment out anatomical structure, this work introduces the use of noise statistics of air to understand the noise in the scanned object. METHODS: Scans of a uniform water phantom were acquired at four dose levels...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047912/tu-h-207a-08-estimating-radiation-dose-from-low-dose-lung-cancer-screening-ct-exams-using-tube-current-modulation
#10
A Hardy, M Bostani, K McMillan, M Zankl, C Cagnon, M McNitt-Gray
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work is to estimate effective and lung doses from a low-dose lung cancer screening CT protocol using Tube Current Modulation (TCM) across patient models of different sizes. METHODS: Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to estimate effective and lung doses from a low-dose lung cancer screening protocol for a 64-slice CT (Sensation 64, Siemens Healthcare) that used TCM. Scanning parameters were from the AAPM protocols. Ten GSF voxelized patient models were used and had all radiosensitive organs identified to facilitate estimating both organ and effective doses...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047760/we-h-201-04-models-for-developing-medical-physics-educators-and-education-programs-in-the-developing-countries-and-the-potential-role-of-us-universities-and-individual-medical-physicists
#11
P Sprawls
: The desperate need for radiotherapy in low and mid-income countries (LMICs) has been well documented. Roughly 60 % of the worldwide incidence of cancer occurs in these resource-limited settings and the international community alongside governmental and non-profit agencies have begun publishing reports and seeking help from qualified volunteers. However, the focus of several reports has been on how dire the situation is and the magnitude of the problem, leaving most to feel overwhelmed and unsure as to how to help and why to get involved...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047693/we-fg-207b-11-objective-image-characterization-of-spectral-ct-with-a-dual-layer-detector
#12
O Ozguner, S Halliburton, A Dhanantwari, G Wen, S Utrup, D Jordan
PURPOSE: To obtain objective reference data for the spectral performance on a dual-layer detector CT platform (IQon, Philips) and compare virtual monoenergetic to conventional CT images. METHODS: Scanning was performed using the hospital's clinical adult body protocol: helical acquisition at 120kVp, with CTDIvol=15mGy. Multiple modules (591, 515, 528) of a CATPHAN 600 phantom and a 20 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom were scanned. No modifications to the standard protocol were necessary to enable spectral imaging...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047671/su-g-iep2-09-iodine-imaging-at-spectral-ct-with-a-dual-layer-detector
#13
O Ozguner, A Dhanantwari, S Halliburton, G Wen, S Utrup, D Jordan
PURPOSE: To evaluate the attenuation response of iodine and the accuracy of iodine quantification on a detector-based spectral CT scanner. METHODS: A Gammex 461A phantom was scanned using a dual-layer detector (IQon, Philips) at 120 kVp using helical acquisition with a CDTIvol of 15 mGy to approximate the hospital's clinical body protocol. No modifications to the standard protocol were necessary to enable spectral imaging. Iodine inserts at 6 concentrations (2, 5, 7...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047637/we-h-201-00-opportunities-for-physicists-to-support-low-and-mid-income-countries
#14
Julianne Pollard
: The desperate need for radiotherapy in low and mid-income countries (LMICs) has been well documented. Roughly 60 % of the worldwide incidence of cancer occurs in these resource-limited settings and the international community alongside governmental and non-profit agencies have begun publishing reports and seeking help from qualified volunteers. However, the focus of several reports has been on how dire the situation is and the magnitude of the problem, leaving most to feel overwhelmed and unsure as to how to help and why to get involved...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047476/su-f-i-16-short-breast-mri-with-high-resolution-t2-weighted-and-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-t1-weighted-images
#15
J Ma, J Son, B Arun, J Hazle, K Hwang, K Wang, E Bayram, J Madewell, W Yang, B Dogan
PURPOSE: To develop and demonstrate a short breast (sb) MRI protocol that acquires both T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images in approximately ten minutes. METHODS: The sb-MRI protocol consists of two novel pulse sequences. The first is a flexible fast spin-echo triple-echo Dixon (FTED) sequence for high-resolution fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging, and the second is a 3D fast dual-echo spoiled gradient sequence (FLEX) for volumetric fat-suppressed T1-weighted imaging before and post contrast agent injection...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047449/su-g-206-01-a-fully-automated-ct-tool-to-facilitate-phantom-image-qa-for-quantitative-imaging-in-clinical-trials
#16
M Wahi-Anwar, P Lo, H Kim, M Brown, M McNitt-Gray
PURPOSE: The use of Quantitative Imaging (QI) methods in Clinical Trials requires both verification of adherence to a specified protocol and an assessment of scanner performance under that protocol, which are currently accomplished manually. This work introduces automated phantom identification and image QA measure extraction towards a fully-automated CT phantom QA system to perform these functions and facilitate the use of Quantitative Imaging methods in clinical trials. METHODS: This study used a retrospective cohort of CT phantom scans from existing clinical trial protocols - totaling 84 phantoms, across 3 phantom types using various scanners and protocols...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047384/su-f-j-75-accuracy-and-stability-of-electron-density-measurements-across-patient-size-using-dual-energy-ct
#17
G Michalak, A Halaweish, B Krauss, J Fletcher, C McCollough
PURPOSE: Dual energy (DE) CT can be used to characterize tissue composition. One application of DE CT is to measure electron density (ED, rho) and atomic number (Z) for use in radiation therapy treatment planning. This work evaluated the accuracy and stability of ED estimation as patient size varied for both single-energy (SE) and DE CT. METHODS: An ED phantom (CIRS) and four torso-shaped water tanks (lateral widths 15, 25, 35 and 45 cm) containing 8 tissue-simulating cylinders of known ED were scanned on a dual-source CT system (Siemens Somatom Force) in SE (120 kV) and DE (90/150Sn) modes...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047055/su-g-jep2-06-dosimetric-and-workflow-evaluation-of-first-commercial-synthetic-ct-software-for-clinical-use-in-pelvis
#18
N Tyagi, J Zhang, L Happersett, M Kadbi, J Mechalakos, J Deasy, M Hunt
PURPOSE: evaluate a commercial synthetic CT (syn-CT) software for use in prostate radiotherapy METHODS: Twenty prostate patients underwent CT and MR simulation scans in treatment position on a 3T Philips scanner. The MR protocol consisted of a T2w turbo spin-echo for soft tissue contrast, a 2D balanced-fast field echo (b-FFE) for fiducial identification, a dual-echo 3D FFE B0 map for distortion analysis and a 3D mDIXON FFE sequence to generate syn-CT. Two echoes are acquired during mDIXON scan, allowing water, fat, and in-phase images to be derived using the frequency shift of the fat and water protons...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047043/we-fg-207b-12-quantitative-evaluation-of-a-spectral-ct-scanner-in-a-phantom-study-results-of-spectral-reconstructions
#19
X Duan, G Arbique, J Guild, Y Yagil, J Anderson
PURPOSE: To evaluate the quantitative image quality of spectral reconstructions of phantom data from a spectral CT scanner. METHODS: The spectral CT scanner (IQon Spectral CT, Philips Healthcare) is equipped with a dual-layer detector and generates conventional 80ߝ140 kVp images and variety of spectral reconstructions, e.g., virtual monochromatic (VM) images, virtual non-contrast (VNC) images, iodine maps, and effective atomic number (Z) images. A cylindrical solid water phantom (Gammex 472, 33 cm diameter and 5 cm thick) with iodine (2...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046986/we-h-201-01-the-opportunities-and-benefits-of-helping-lmics-how-helping-them-can-help-you
#20
J Pollard
: The desperate need for radiotherapy in low and mid-income countries (LMICs) has been well documented. Roughly 60 % of the worldwide incidence of cancer occurs in these resource-limited settings and the international community alongside governmental and non-profit agencies have begun publishing reports and seeking help from qualified volunteers. However, the focus of several reports has been on how dire the situation is and the magnitude of the problem, leaving most to feel overwhelmed and unsure as to how to help and why to get involved...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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