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Florian A Busch, Rowan F Sage
The biochemical model of C3 photosynthesis by Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB) assumes that photosynthetic CO2 assimilation is limited by one of three biochemical processes that are not always easily discerned. This leads to improper assessments of biochemical limitations that limit the accuracy of the model predictions. We use the sensitivity of rates of CO2 assimilation and photosynthetic electron transport to changes in O2 and CO2 concentration in the chloroplast to evaluate photosynthetic limitations...
October 21, 2016: New Phytologist
Silvia Dal Santo, Mauro Commisso, Erica D'Incà, Andrea Anesi, Matteo Stocchero, Sara Zenoni, Stefania Ceoldo, Giovanni B Tornielli, Mario Pezzotti, Flavia Guzzo
Terroir refers to the combination of environmental factors that affect the characteristics of crops such as grapevine (Vitis vinifera) according to particular habitats and management practices. This article shows how certain terroir signatures can be detected in the berry metabolome and transcriptome of the grapevine cultivar Corvina using multivariate statistical analysis. The method first requires an appropriate sampling plan. In this case study, a specific clone of the Corvina cultivar was selected to minimize genetic differences, and samples were collected from seven vineyards representing three different macro-zones during three different growing seasons...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Saravanan Shanmugam, John Prakash Baby, Rahul Chandran, Sajeesh Thankarajan, Parimelazhagan Thangaraj
The present study was aimed to evaluate the nutritional, antioxidant properties and inhibition of the key enzyme such as α-amylase and α-glucosidase from the fruits of Maesa indica. The results revealed that M. indica fruits possess an enormous amount of protein (45.68 mg/g), carbohydrates (25.12 mg/g) and mineral elements. The acetone extract were capable of hunting radicals by providing electrons and break chain reaction, especially in ABTS(·+) (3719.23 µmol TE/g extract), OH(·) (66.50 %) and NO(·) (81...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Cheng-Yong Feng, Wei-Wei Wang, Jian-Fei Ye, Shan-Shan Li, Qian Wu, Dan-Dan Yin, Bing Li, Yan-Jun Xu, Liang-Sheng Wang
Vaccinium glaucoalbum, a perennial evergreen shrub, is naturally distributed in high-altitude areas. In this study, the composition and content of polyphenolic compounds in the fruit and leaf of V. glaucoalbum were characterized. In total, 24 chemical compounds were detected and identified by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS(2). Among all the compounds determined, 15 were anthocyanins and detected in fruit, 5 were flavonols and monitored in leaf, and 4 were chlorogenic acids and found in both fruit and leaf. The total anthocyanin content (TAC) of fruit (682mg/100gFW) was the highest among wild Vaccinium berries in China which have been investigated for now, and the total flavonol content of leaf was 2764mg/100gFW...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Delia Elena Urcan, Simone Giacosa, Fabrizio Torchio, Susana Río Segade, Stefano Raimondi, Marta Bertolino, Vincenzo Gerbi, Nastasia Pop, Luca Rolle
The impact of postharvest dehydration on the volatile composition of Malvasia moscata grapes and fortified wines produced from them was assessed. The ripeness effect of fresh grapes on volatile compounds of dehydrated grapes was evaluated for the first time in this study. Fresh grape berries were densimetrically sorted, and more represented density classes were selected. Dehydration of riper berries (20.5 °Brix) led to volatile profiles richer in terpenes, particularly linalool and geraniol. The effect of dehydration rate on the volatile composition of dehydrated grapes and fortified wines was also evaluated...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Maaria Kortesniemi, Jari Sinkkonen, Baoru Yang, Heikki Kallio
The berries of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) cultivars 'Terhi' and 'Tytti' were studied with respect to their growth location, 60° and 68°N latitude in Finland and 46°N in Canada, using (1)H NMR metabolomics. The berries of 'Terhi' were characterised by stronger signals of quinic acid, while 'Tytti' had higher levels of O-ethyl β-d-glucopyranoside. The metabolic profile of the northernmost berries was distinctly different from those grown in southern Finland or Canada. Berries from northern Finland had relatively higher levels of quinic acid, glucose, l-quebrachitol and ascorbic acid...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Silvia Dal Santo, Alberto Palliotti, Sara Zenoni, Giovanni Battista Tornielli, Marianna Fasoli, Paola Paci, Sergio Tombesi, Tommaso Frioni, Oriana Silvestroni, Andrea Bellincontro, Claudio d'Onofrio, Fabiola Matarese, Matteo Gatti, Stefano Poni, Mario Pezzotti
BACKGROUND: Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is an economically important crop with a wide geographical distribution, reflecting its ability to grow successfully in a range of climates. However, many vineyards are located in regions with seasonal drought, and these are often predicted to be global climate change hotspots. Climate change affects the entire physiology of grapevine, with strong effects on yield, wine quality and typicity, making it difficult to produce berries of optimal enological quality and consistent stability over the forthcoming decades...
October 20, 2016: BMC Genomics
John S Sperry, Martin D Venturas, William R L Anderegg, Maurizio Mencuccini, D Scott Mackay, Yujie Wang, David M Love
Stomatal regulation presumably evolved to optimize CO2 for H2 O exchange in response to changing conditions. If the optimization criterion can be readily measured or calculated, then stomatal responses can be efficiently modeled without recourse to empirical models or underlying mechanism. Previous efforts have been challenged by the lack of a transparent index for the cost of losing water. Yet it is accepted that stomata control water loss to avoid excessive loss of hydraulic conductance from cavitation and soil drying...
October 20, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Charles F Haines, John A Fleishman, Baligh R Yehia, Bryan Lau, Stephen A Berry, Allison L Agwu, Richard D Moore, Kelly A Gebo
BACKGROUND: In the current antiretroviral (ART) era, the evolution of HIV guidelines and emergence of new ART agents might be expected to impact the times to ART initiation and HIV virologic suppression. We sought to determine if times to AI and virologic suppression decreased and if disparities exist by age, race/ethnicity, and HIV risk. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of data from 12 sites of the HIV Research Network, a consortium of US clinics caring for HIV-infected patients...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Stephanie Jones-Berry
Too many people with learning disabilities are still being admitted to hospital as inpatients, according to an NHS nurse leader.
October 12, 2016: Nursing Standard
Stephanie Jones-Berry
Nominations are now open for the 2017 RCNi Nurse Awards, the UK nursing profession's highest accolade for nursing excellence.
October 12, 2016: Nursing Standard
Stephanie Jones-Berry
The NHS would not cope without its growing cohort of nurses from European Union (EU) countries, says the RCN.
October 12, 2016: Nursing Standard
Daniela Lopes Paim Pinto, Lucio Brancadoro, Silvia Dal Santo, Gabriella De Lorenzis, Mario Pezzotti, Blake C Meyers, Mario E Pè, Erica Mica
Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between the genetic composition and the environment is crucial for modern viticulture. We approached this issue by focusing on the small RNA transcriptome in grapevine berries of the two varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese, growing in adjacent vineyards in three different environments. Four different developmental stages were studied and a total of 48 libraries of small RNAs were produced and sequenced. Using a proximity-based pipeline, we determined the general landscape of small RNAs accumulation in grapevine berries...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yiqin Jiang, Elise Pitmon, Jack Berry, Fred W Wolf, Zach McKenzie, Tim J Lebestky
Sleep is an essential behavioral state of rest that is regulated by homeostatic drives to ensure a balance of sleep and activity, as well as independent arousal mechanisms in the central brain. Dopamine has been identified as a critical regulator of both sleep behavior and arousal. Here we present results of a genetic screen that selectively restored the Dopamine Receptor (DopR/DopR1/dumb) to specific neuroanatomical regions of the adult Drosophila brain to assess requirements for DopR in sleep behavior. We have identified subsets of the mushroom body that utilize DopR in daytime sleep regulation...
October 19, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Omar S Aljitawi, Soumen Paul, Avishek Ganguly, Tara L Lin, Sid Ganguly, George Vielhauer, Maegan L Capitano, Amy Cantelina, Brea Lipe, Jonathan D Mahnken, Amanda Wise, Abigale Berry, Anurag K Singh, Leyla Shune, Christopher Lominska, Sunil Abhyankar, Dennis Allin, Mary Laughlin, Joseph P McGuirk, Hal E Broxmeyer
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) engraftment is in part limited by graft cell dose, generally one log less than that of bone marrow (BM)/peripheral blood (PB) cell grafts. Strategies toward increasing hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) homing to BM have been assessed in order to improve UCB engraftment. Despite recent progress, a complete understanding of how HSPC homing and engraftment are regulated is still elusive. We provide evidence that blocking erythropoietin (EPO)-EPO receptor (R) signaling promotes homing to BM and early engraftment of UCB CD34(+) cells...
October 19, 2016: Blood
Jian Zhang, Guixin Chou, Zhijun Liu, Mei Liu
AIM: To examine if rubusoside (RUB) can overcome insolubility of betulonic acid (BEA), it can be accurately evaluated for its intrinsic activity against cancer in cell culture and in tumor animal models. MATERIALS & METHODS: By processing RUB and BEA together using a solvent evaporation method, a joint nanoparticulate structure is formed, designated as BEA-NP. RESULTS: BEA-NP was found over three-times more permeable than that solubilized by DMSO in Caco-2 cell monocultures...
October 19, 2016: Nanomedicine
J E Palmier-Claus, K Berry, S Bucci, W Mansell, F Varese
BACKGROUND: The relationship between childhood adversity and bipolar affective disorder remains unclear. AIMS: To understand the size and significance of this effect through a statistical synthesis of reported research. METHOD: Search terms relating to childhood adversity and bipolar disorder were entered into Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Eligible studies included a sample diagnosed with bipolar disorder, a comparison sample and a quantitative measure of childhood adversity...
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
A Kirby, C Berry, R West
Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly antibiotic resistant, and skin colonization may contribute to their spread in hospitals. This study screened 100 hospitalized adults for Enterobacteriaceae skin colonization, and assessed potential risk factors, including antibiotic consumption. Multi-variable analysis found that antibiotic consumption whilst an inpatient [odds ratio (OR) 3.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-8.4] and male sex (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.06-8.4) were risk factors for Enterobacteriaceae skin colonization...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Laura M Gault, Robert A Lenz, Craig W Ritchie, Andreas Meier, Ahmed A Othman, Qi Tang, Scott Berry, Yili Pritchett, Weining Z Robieson
BACKGROUND: Results from a phase 2a study indicated that treatment with the novel α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist ABT-126 25 mg once daily (QD) was associated with a trend for improvement in cognition in subjects with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's dementia (AD). A phase 2b program was designed to evaluate a broader dose range of ABT-126 as monotherapy in subjects with mild-to-moderate AD. The program consisted of a double-blind, placebo and active controlled study of ABT-126 (dose range 25-75 mg) and an open-label extension study (75 mg)...
October 18, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Maria Rachele Ceccarini, Michela Codini, Samuela Cataldi, Samuele Vannini, Andrea Lazzarini, Alessandro Floridi, Massimo Moretti, Milena Villarini, Bernard Fioretti, Tommaso Beccari, Elisabetta Albi
BACKGROUND: Sphingomyelin plays very important roles in cell function under physiological and pathological conditions. Physical and chemical stimuli produce reactive oxygen species that stimulate acid sphingomyelinase to induce apoptosis. Antioxidant plants of the traditional Chinese Pharmacopoeia, such as Lycium Barbarum and Lycium Chinense, have become increasingly popular in Western countries. We investigated the effects of Lycium Chinense on acid sphingomyelinase and sphingomyelin species in relation to gene expression...
October 19, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
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