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acinetobacter baumannii

Raquel Girardello, Marina Visconde, Rodrigo Cayô, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz de Figueiredo, Marcelo Alves da Silva Mori, Nilton Lincopan, Ana Cristina Gales
Polymyxins have become drugs of last resort for treatment of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative infections. However, the mechanisms of resistance to this compound have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms of resistance to this antimicrobial in two A. baumannii clinical isolates, respectively, susceptible (A027) and resistant (A009) to polymyxin B before and after polymyxin B exposure (A027(ind) and A009(ind)). The pmrAB and lpxACD were sequenced and their transcriptional levels were analyzed by qRT-PCR...
October 8, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Justin R Lenhard, Jonathan S Gall, Jurgen B Bulitta, Visanu Thamlikitkul, Cornelia B Landersdorfer, Alan Forrest, Roger L Nation, Jian Li, Brian T Tsuji
The objective of this study was to determine the comparative pharmacodynamics of four different carbapenems in combination with polymyxin B (PMB) against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates using time-kill experiments at two different inocula. Two A. baumannii strains (03-149-1 and N16870) with carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 8 to 64 mg/L were investigated in 48-h time-kill experiments using starting inocula of 10(6) CFU/mL and 10(8) CFU/mL. Concentration arrays of ertapenem, doripenem, meropenem and imipenem at 0...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Naseer Iqbal, Mukesh Kumar, Pradeep Sharma, Satya Prakash Yadav, Punit Kaur, Sujata Sharma, Tej P Singh
Dehydroquinase (3-dehydroquinate dehydratase, DHQD, EC catalyzes the conversion of dehydroquinate to dehydroshikimate. DHQD from Acinetobacter baumannii (AbDHQD) was cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity. The binding studies showed that two compounds quinic acid and citrazinic acid bound to AbDHQD at micromolar concentrations. AbDHQD was crystallized using 30% PEG-3350, 50mM tris-HCl and 1.0M MgSO4 at PH 8.0. Crystals of AbDHQD were stabilized with 25% glycerol for data collection at 100K...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
G Odewale, O J Adefioye, J Ojo, F A Adewumi, O A Olowe
Acinetobacter baumannii is a ubiquitous pathogen that has emerged as a major cause of healthcare-associated infections at Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital. Isolates were assayed according to standard protocol. The isolates were subjected to molecular techniques to detect blaOXA, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes in strains of the A. baumannii isolates. The prevalence of A. baumannii was 8.5% and was most prevalent among patients in the age group 51-60 (36%); the male patients (63.6%) were more infected than their female counterparts...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Katherine C Faulkner, Katherine A Hurley, Douglas B Weibel
Antibiotic adjuvant therapy represents an exciting opportunity to enhance the activity of clinical antibiotics by co-dosing with a secondary small molecule. Successful adjuvants decrease the concentration of antibiotics used to defeat bacteria, increase activity (in some cases introducing activity against organisms that are drug resistant), and reduce the frequency at which drug-resistant bacteria emerge. We report that 5-alkyloxytryptamines are a new class of broad-spectrum antibacterial agents with exciting activity as antibiotic adjuvants...
October 5, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Ahmed Abdel Megeed, M Ali Hayssam, Mohamed Z M Salem, Mohamed S El-Shikh, Ibrahim Ahmed Talea, Yahya A Alogaibi
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii infections are a great public health concern and demand continuous surveillance and antibiotic stewardship. Virulence traits and the pathogenicity of Acinetobacter are less studied compared with the molecular epidemiological and antibiotic resistance profile of this organism. In our present study, we investigated the primary characteristics contributing to the virulence of MDR A. baumannii isolates and compared them with avirulent isolates. A total of 32 well-characterized MDR A...
October 19, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Brendan W Corey, Mitchell G Thompson, Lauren E Hittle, Anna C Jacobs, Edward A Asafo-Adjei, William Huggins, Roberta J Melander, Christian Melander, Robert K Ernst, Daniel V Zurawski
Acinetobacter baumannii are gram-negative bacilli that pose a constant threat to susceptible patients because of increased resistance to multiple antibiotics and persistence in the hospital environment. After genome analysis, we discovered that A. baumannii harbor genes that share homology to an enzymatic pathway that elongates long chain fatty acids (LCFA) in fungi. Previously, 1,2,4-Triazolidine-3-thiones (T-3-Ts) were shown to inhibit hyphae production in fungi, and this same LCFA elongation pathway was implicated as the possible target...
October 20, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Kyle A Tipton, Marjan Farokhyfar, Philip N Rather
Colony opacity phase variation in Acinetobacter baumannii strain AB5075 is regulated by a reversible high-frequency switch. Transposon mutagenesis was used to generate mutations that decreased the opaque to translucent switch and a gene encoding a predicted periplasmic membrane fusion component of a resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type efflux system was isolated. This gene was designated arpA and immediately downstream was a gene designated arpB that encodes a predicted membrane transporter of RND-type systems...
October 19, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Ia Kusradze, Natia Karumidze, Sophio Rigvava, Teona Dvalidze, Malkhaz Katsitadze, Irakli Amiranashvili, Marina Goderdzishvili
Acinetobacter baumannii is a gram-negative, non-motile bacterium that, due to its multidrug resistance, has become a major nosocomial pathogen. The increasing number of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains has renewed interest in phage therapy. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of phage administration in Acinetobacter baumannii wound infections in an animal model to demonstrate phage therapy as non-toxic, safe and alternative antibacterial remedy. Using classical methods for the study of bacteriophage properties, we characterized phage vB-GEC_Ab-M-G7 as a dsDNA myovirus with a 90 kb genome size...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Stephen C Davis, Franco Pisanni, Ramon B Montero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Military Medicine
John Osei Sekyere
A review of the literature was undertaken to delineate the current level and mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems, colistin, and tigecycline in South Africa. Thirty-two English publications and 32 National Institute of Communicable Diseases communiqués identified between early January 2000 and 20 May, 2016 showed substantial reports of NDM (n = 860), OXA-48 (n = 584), VIM (n = 131), and IMP (n = 45) carbapenemases within this period, mainly in Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1138), Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 332), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 201), and Serratia marcescens (n = 108)...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Didrik Hjertaker Grevskott, Cecilie Smith Svanevik, Astrid Louise Wester, Bjørn Tore Lunestad
Continuous European Union programmes with specified methods for enumeration of Escherichia coli in bivalves for human consumption are currently running. The objective of this research was to examine the species accuracy of the five times three tube Most Probable Number (MPN) EU reference method used for detection of E. coli in marine bivalves. Among 549 samples of bivalves harvested from Norwegian localities during 2014 and 2015, a total number of 200 bacterial isolates were prepared from randomly selected culture-positive bivalves...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
L V Kroth, F F Barreiro, D Saitovitch, M A Traesel, D O L d'Avila, C E Poli-de-Figueiredo
BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant recipients are susceptible to antibiotic-resistant infections and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) has recently been recognized as a serious complication in solid organ recipients. High mortality rates have been described. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 807 transplantations and detected 10 patients who died 24 hours after the diagnosis of septicemia, all with CRAB-positive blood cultures. Recipients were followed up for at least 1 year and were stratified into the following groups: Group 1, patients alive; Group 2, patients that died due to other causes except Acinetobacter infection; and Group 3, patients who died within 24 hours of CRAB diagnosis...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Lisa M Li, Titus Wong, Emily Rose, Graham Wickham, Elizabeth Bryce
BACKGROUND: A tabletop-type ultraviolet C (UVC) light-emitting disinfecting device was evaluated for microbiologic effectiveness, safety, usability, and end-user satisfaction. METHODS: Three different inoculums of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex strains suspended in both saline and trypticase soy broth were applied onto stainless steel carriers and electronic device surfaces in triplicate and cultured for growth after UVC disinfection...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Nadia Amanzougaghene, Kosta Y Mumcuoglu, Florence Fenollar, Shir Alfi, Gonca Yesilyurt, Didier Raoult, Oleg Mediannikov
The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is subdivided into several significantly divergent mitochondrial haplogroups, each with particular geographical distributions. Historically, they are among the oldest human parasites, representing an excellent marker for tracking older events in human evolutionary history. In this study, ancient DNA analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), combined with conventional PCR, was applied to the remains of twenty-four ancient head lice and their eggs from the Roman period which were recovered from Israel...
2016: PloS One
A Guzek, Krzysztof Korzeniewski, D Tomaszewski, Z Rybicki, E Zwolińska
The article presents the results of 11-year study (2005-2015) of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for pneumonia in 2033 mechanically ventilated patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit. Of 8796 biological samples, consisting mainly of bronchial aspirate (97.9 %), 2056 bacterial strains were isolated and subjected to identification. VITEK 2 was used to determine drug susceptibility (classified according to the EUCAST criteria). ESBL, MBL and KPC-producing strains were identified by means of phenotypic methods using appropriate discs...
October 14, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Dann Turner, Matthew E Wand, J Mark Sutton, Daniela Centron, Andrew M Kropinski, Darren M Reynolds
A novel temperate phage, vB_AbaS_TRS1, was isolated from cultures of Acinetobacter baumannii strain A118 that had been exposed to mitomycin C. Phage TRS1 belongs to the Siphoviridae family of bacteriophages and encapsulates a 40,749-bp genome encoding 70 coding sequences and a single tRNA.
October 13, 2016: Genome Announcements
Chandradhish Ghosh, Mohini Mohan Konai, Paramita Sarkar, Sandip Samaddar, Jayanta Haldar
In the global effort to thwart antimicrobial resistance, lipopeptides are an important class of antimicrobial agents, especially against Gram-negative infections. In an attempt to circumvent their synthetic complexities, we designed simple membrane-active agents involving only one amino acid and two lipid tails. Herein we show that the use of two short lipid tails instead of a single long one significantly increases selective antibacterial activity. This study yielded several selective antibacterial compounds, and investigations into the properties of this compound class were conducted with the most active compound...
October 12, 2016: ChemMedChem
Rajeev Soman, Neha Gupta, Mitesh Suthar, Jatin Kothari, Alan Almeida, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Central-line-associated blood-stream infection (CLABSI) is a highly consequential nosocomial infection. The most effective management includes the removal of the infected catheter. Retention of the catheter and antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) along with systemic antibiotics may be attempted only if there are unusual extenuating circumstances. CLABSIs due to Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is more common in our setting and the organisms are often highly resistant. Hence, there is a need to explore the use of novel antimicrobials for catheter lock solutions along with antibiofilm agents...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Brent S Weber, Seth W Hennon, Meredith S Wright, Nichollas E Scott, Véronique de Berardinis, Leonard J Foster, Juan A Ayala, Mark D Adams, Mario F Feldman
: The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread secretory apparatus produced by Gram-negative bacteria that has emerged as a potent mediator of antibacterial activity during interbacterial interactions. Most Acinetobacter species produce a genetically conserved T6SS, although the expression and functionality of this system vary among different strains. Some pathogenic Acinetobacter baumannii strains activate this secretion system via the spontaneous loss of a plasmid carrying T6SS repressors...
October 11, 2016: MBio
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