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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922860/structural-plasticity-of-synaptopodin-in-the-axon-initial-segment-during-visual-cortex-development
#1
Annabelle Schlüter, Domenico Del Turco, Thomas Deller, Annika Gutzmann, Christian Schultz, Maren Engelhardt
The axon initial segment (AIS) is essential for action potential generation. Recently, the AIS was identified as a site of neuronal plasticity. A subpopulation of AIS in cortical principal neurons contains stacks of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forming the cisternal organelle (CO). The function of this organelle is poorly understood, but roles in local Ca2+-trafficking and AIS plasticity are discussed. To investigate whether the presence and/or the size of COs are linked to the development and maturation of AIS of cortical neurons, we analyzed the relationship between COs and the AIS during visual cortex development under control and visual deprivation conditions...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922832/fast-spiking-parvalbumin-interneurons-are-frequently-myelinated-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-mice-and-humans
#2
J Stedehouder, J J Couey, D Brizee, B Hosseini, J A Slotman, C M F Dirven, G Shpak, A B Houtsmuller, S A Kushner
Myelination, the insulating ensheathment of axons by oligodendrocytes, is thought to both optimize signal propagation and provide metabolic support. Despite the well-established physiological importance of myelination to neuronal function, relatively little is known about the myelination of GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex. Here, we report that a large fraction of myelin in mouse cerebral cortex ensheaths GABAergic interneurons, reaching up to 80% in hippocampal subregions. Moreover, we find that a very high proportion of neocortical and hippocampal parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exhibit axonal myelination...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922831/the-transcription-factors-coup-tfi-and-coup-tfii-have-distinct-roles-in-arealisation-and-gabaergic-interneuron-specification-in-the-early-human-fetal-telencephalon
#3
Ayman Alzu'bi, Susan J Lindsay, Lauren F Harkin, Jack McIntyre, Steven N Lisgo, Gavin J Clowry
In human telencephalon at 8-12 postconceptional weeks, ribonucleic acid quantitative sequencing and immunohistochemistry revealed cortical chicken ovalbumin upstream promotor-transcription factor 1 (COUP-TFI) expression in a high ventro-posterior to low anterior gradient except for raised immunoreactivity in the anterior ventral pallium. Unlike in mouse, COUP-TFI and SP8 were extensively co-expressed in dorsal sensory neocortex and dorsal hippocampus whereas COUPTFI/COUPTFII co-expression defined ventral temporal cortex and ventral hippocampus...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922814/the-consul-and-the-beatnik-the-establishment-youth-culture-and-the-beginnings-of-the-hippy-trail-1966-8
#4
Sharif Gemie, Brian Ireland
This paper analyses the attitudes expressed by consular and embassy officials to a new type of traveller they encountered in the mid-1960s. Their observations are contextualised within wider debates concerning 'youth' in the late 1950s and 1960s. Officials distinguished sharply between 'overlanders' (who could be tolerated or accommodated) and 'beatniks' whose behaviour was characterized as illegal and/or unacceptable. Smoking cannabis was identified as a key marker of beatnik behaviour. Officials' observations are contrasted with four accounts by new travellers from the period...
September 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922803/micropredator-niche-differentiation-between-bulk-soil-and-rhizosphere-of-an-agricultural-soil-depends-on-bacterial-prey
#5
Lu Zhang, Tillmann Lueders
Predation is a fundamental mechanism of all food webs, but its drivers and organismic connectivities, especially at microbial level, are still poorly understood. Specifically, competitive carbon flows in the presence of multiple micropredators, as well as trophic links within and between microbial kingdoms have rarely been resolved. Here, using maize-planted agricultural soil as a model system, we have investigated the predation of amended bacterial prey by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic micropredators. We have queried how soil compartment (rhizosphere vs bulk soil) and nature of prey (Gram-positive vs Gram-negative) influence predation outcomes...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922661/lysophosphatidic-acid-inhibits-insulin-signaling-in-primary-rat-hepatocytes-via-the-lpa3-receptor-subtype-and-is-increased-in-obesity
#6
Susann Fayyaz, Lukasz Japtok, Fabian Schumacher, Dominik Wigger, Tim Julius Schulz, Kathrin Haubold, Erich Gulbins, Heinz Völler, Burkhard Kleuser
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity is a main risk factor for the development of hepatic insulin resistance and it is accompanied by adipocyte hypertrophy and an elevated expression of different adipokines such as autotaxin (ATX). ATX converts lysophosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and acts as the main producer of extracellular LPA. This bioactive lipid regulates a broad range of physiological and pathological responses by activation of LPA receptors (LPA1-6). METHODS: The activation of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) signaling (Akt and GSK-3ß) was analyzed via western blotting in primary rat hepatocytes...
September 1, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922612/analysis-of-levodopa-content-in-commercial-mucuna-pruriens-products-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-fluorescence-detection
#7
Amala Soumyanath, Tanya Denne, Amie Hiller, Shaila Ramachandran, Lynne Shinto
OBJECTIVES: Mucuna pruriens (MP) seeds contain levodopa (up to 2% by weight) and have been used in traditional Indian medicine to treat an illness named "Kampavata," now understood to be Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies have shown MP to be beneficial, and even superior, to levodopa alone in treating PD symptoms. Commercial products containing MP are readily available from online and retail sources to patients and physicians. Products often contain extracts of MP seeds, with significantly higher levodopa content than the seeds...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922593/cysteine-silac-mass-spectrometry-enables-the-identification-and-quantitation-of-scrambled-inter-chain-disulfide-bonds-preservation-of-native-heavy-light-chain-pairing-in-bispecific-iggs-generated-by-controlled-fab-arm-exchange
#8
Ewald T J van den Bremer, Aran F Labrijn, Ramon van den Boogaard, Patrick Priem, Kai Scheffler, Joost P M Melis, Janine Schuurman, Paul Parren, Rob N de Jong
Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) are one of the most versatile and promising pharmaceutical innovations for countering heterogeneous and refractory disease by virtue of their ability to bind two distinct antigens. One critical quality attribute of bsAb formation requiring investigation is the potential randomization of cognate heavy chain (H)/light (L) chain pairing, which could occur to a varying extent dependent on bsAb format and the production platform. To assess the content of such HL chain-swapped reaction products with high sensitivity, we developed cysteine-SILAC, a method that facilitates the detailed characterization of disulfide-bridged peptides by mass-spectrometry...
September 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922583/reluctant-entrepreneurs-musicians-and-entrepreneurship-in-the-new-music-industry
#9
Jo Haynes, Lee Marshall
Changing labour conditions in the creative industries - with celebrations of autonomy and entrepreneurialism intertwined with increasing job insecurity, portfolio careers and short-term, project-based contracts - are often interpreted as heralding changes to employment relations more broadly. The position of musicians' labour in relation to these changes is unclear, however, given that these kinds of conditions have defined musicians' working practices over much longer periods of time (though they may have intensified due to well-documented changes to the music industry brought about by digitization and disintermediation)...
September 18, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922569/strategies-for-analysis-of-isomeric-peptides
#10
Erik T Jansson
This review presents an overview and recent progress of strategies for detecting isomerism in peptides, with focus on d/l epimerization and the various isomers that the presence of an aspartic acid residue may yield in a protein or peptide. While mass spectrometry has become a majorly used method of choice within proteomics, isomerism is inherently difficult to analyze because it is a modification that does not yield any change in mass of the analyte. Here, several techniques used for analysis of peptide isomerism are discussed, including enzymatic assays, liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922492/highly-sensitive-detection-of-protein-biomarkers-with-organic-electrochemical-transistors
#11
Ying Fu, Naixiang Wang, Anneng Yang, Helen Ka-Wai Law, Li Li, Feng Yan
The analysis of protein biomarkers is of great importance in the diagnosis of diseases. Although many convenient and low-cost electrochemical approaches have been extensively investigated, they are not sensitive enough in the detection of protein biomarkers with low concentrations in physiological environments. Here, this study reports a novel organic-electrochemical-transistor-based biosensor that can successfully detect cancer protein biomarkers with ultrahigh sensitivity. The devices are operated by detecting electrochemical activity on gate electrodes, which is dependent on the concentrations of proteins labeled with catalytic nanoprobes...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922433/bismuth-based-quadruple-therapy-following-h-pylori-eradication-failures-a-multicenter-study-in-clinical-practice
#12
Angelo Zullo, Vincenzo De Francesco, Annamaria Bellesia, Roberto Vassallo, Audenzio D'Angelo, Giuseppe Scaccianoce, Rodolfo Sacco, Giampaolo Bresci, Annarita Eramo, Anna Tanzilli, Lorenzo Ridola, Domenico Alvaro, Claudio Londoni, Gianfranco Brambilla, Raffaele Manta, Agostino Di Ciaula, Piero Portincasa
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication in patients who failed one or more therapeutic attempts remains challenging. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of three-in-one capsules bismuth-based quadruple therapy (Pylera®) in these patients managed in clinical practice. METHODS: This was a prospective, open-label, multicenter study enrolling consecutive, adult patients with persistent H. pylori infection following at least one standard therapy...
September 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922391/impedance-biosensor-for-real-time-monitoring-and-prediction-of-thrombotic-individual-profile-in-flowing-blood
#13
Denise De Zanet, Monica Battiston, Elisabetta Lombardi, Ruben Specogna, Francesco Trevisan, Luigi De Marco, Antonio Affanni, Mario Mazzucato
A new biosensor for the real-time analysis of thrombus formation is reported. The fast and accurate monitoring of the individual thrombotic risk represents a challenge in cardiovascular diagnostics and in treatment of hemostatic diseases. Thrombus volume, as representative index of the related thrombotic status, is usually estimated with confocal microscope at the end of each in vitro experiment, without providing a useful behavioral information of the biological sample such as platelets adhesion and aggregation in flowing blood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922285/what-where-and-why-exploring-fluorodeoxyglucose-pet-s-ability-to-localise-and-differentiate-infection-from-cancer
#14
Abby Douglas, Eddie Lau, Karin Thursky, Monica Slavin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the utility of FDG-PET imaging in detecting the cause of fever and infection in patients with cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: FDG-PET has been shown to have high sensitivity and accuracy for causes of neutropenic fever, leading to higher diagnostic certainty in this group. Recent advances in pathogen-specific labelling in PET to identify Aspergillus spp. and Yersinia spp. infections in mice, as well as differentiating between Gram-positive, Gram-negative and mycobacterial infections are promising...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922262/sugar-in-infants-children-and-adolescents-a-position-paper-of-the-european-society-for-paediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-committee-on-nutrition
#15
Nataša Fidler Mis, Christian Braegger, Jiri Bronsky, Cristina Campoy, Magnus Domellöf, Nicholas D Embleton, Iva Hojsak, Jessie Hulst, Flavia Indrio, Alexandre Lapillonne, Walter Mihatsch, Christian Molgaard, Rakesh Vora, Mary Fewtrell
The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply and reduced dietary diversity and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921983/the-first-state-in-the-catalytic-cycle-of-the-water-oxidizing-enzyme-identification-of-a-water-derived-%C3%AE-hydroxo-bridge
#16
Thomas Lohmiller, Vera Krewald, Arezki Sedoud, A William Rutherford, Frank Neese, Wolfgang Lubitz, Dimitrios A Pantazis, Nicholas Cox
Nature's water splitting catalyst, an oxygen-bridged tetra-manganese calcium (Mn4O5Ca) complex, sequentially activates two substrate water molecules generating molecular O2. Its reaction cycle is composed of five intermediate (Si) states, where the index i indicates the number of oxidizing equivalents stored by the cofactor. After formation of the S4 state, the product dioxygen is released and the cofactor returns to its lowest oxidation state, S0. Membrane-inlet mass spectrometry measurements suggest that at least one substrate is bound throughout the catalytic cycle, as the rate of (18)O-labeled water incorporation into the product O2 is slow, on a millisecond to second timescale depending on the S state...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921979/design-syntheses-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-new-fluorine-18-radiolabeled-tau-labeling-molecular-probes
#17
Luka Rejc, Lojze Šmid, Vladimir Kepe, Črtomir Podlipnik, Amalija Golobič, Mara Bresjanac, Jorge R Barrio, Andrej Petrič, Janez Košmrlj
Deposition of aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein is a hallmark of tauopathies like Alzheimer and many other neurodegenerative diseases. A sensitive and selective method of in vivo detection of tau-aggregate presence and distribution could provide the means of an early diagnosis of tau-associated diseases. Furthermore, the use of selective molecular probes that enable histochemical differentiation of protein aggregates post mortem would be advantageous for the insight into the properties of tau protein aggregates...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921965/mycelium-enhanced-bacterial-degradation-of-organic-pollutants-under-bioavailability-restrictions
#18
Rungroch Sungthong, Margalida Tauler, Magdalena Grifoll, Jose-Julio Ortega-Calvo
This work examines the role of mycelia in enhancing the degradation by attached bacteria of organic pollutants that have poor bioavailability. Two oomycetes, Pythium oligandrum and Pythium aphanidermatum, were selected as producers of mycelial networks, while Mycobacterium gilvum VM552 served as a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium. The experiments consisted of bacterial cultures exposed to a non-disturbed non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) layer containing a heavy fuel spiked with 14C-labeled phenanthrene that were incubated in the presence or absence of the mycelia of the oomycetes in both shaking and static conditions...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921934/mirror-trends-of-plasticity-and-stability-indicators-in-primate-prefrontal-cortex
#19
Miguel Á García-Cabezas, Mary Kate P Joyce, Yohan J John, Basilis Zikopoulos, Helen Barbas
Research on plasticity markers in the cerebral cortex has largely focused on their timing of expression and role in shaping circuits during critical and normal periods. By contrast, little attention has been focused on the spatial dimension of plasticity-stability across cortical areas. The rationale for this analysis is based on the systematic variation in cortical structure that parallels functional specialization and raises the possibility of varying levels of plasticity. Here we investigated in adult rhesus monkeys the expression of markers related to synaptic plasticity or stability in prefrontal limbic and eulaminate areas that vary in laminar structure...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921915/weekly-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-albiglutide-as-monotherapy-improves-glycemic-parameters-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#20
Antonio Nino, Inaha Okuda, Timothy H Wilson, Lin Yue, Hiromu Nakajima, Maho Tsuboi, Molly C Carr, Yutaka Seino
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: This phase 3, randomized, double-blind 24-week study with extension to 1 year assessed efficacy and safety of albiglutide compared with placebo in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled by diet and exercise with or without a single oral antidiabetic drug. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients received weekly albiglutide 30 mg (n=160), albiglutide 50 mg (n=150), or placebo switched to albiglutide 30 mg after 24 weeks (n=77)...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
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